Abstract

Plasma resonance absorption of 633-nm photons in silver gratings produced holographically with groove spacing d = 2186 nm and corrugation amplitudes h = 9, 25, and 41 nm were studied in conical (nonplanar) diffraction geometries. Resonance absorption of p- and s-polarized incident photons were measured as a function of the ruling orientation relative to the plane of incidence by using the photoacoustic method. It was found that the relative intensities of resonance absorption for p- and s-polarized light are strongly dependent on the corrugation amplitude and that s-polarized photons are converted more efficiently to surface plasmons than p-polarized photons as the grating grooves become deeper.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. For a review, see, for example, D. Maystre, in Electromagnetic Surface Modes, A. D. Boardman, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982), Chap. 17; H. Raether, in Surface Polaritons, V. M. Agranovich and D. L. Mills, eds. (North-Holland, New York, 1982), Chap. 9.
  2. N. E. Glass, A. A. Maradudin, and V. Celli, “Diffraction of light by a bigrating: surface polariton resonances and electric field enhancements,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 5150–5153 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. E. Glass, M. G. Weber, and D. L. Mills, “Attenuation and dispersion of surface polaritons on gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 29, 6548–6559 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. G. Weber and D. L. Mills, “Symmetry and the reflectivity of diffraction gratings at normal incidence,” Phys. Rev. B 31, 2510–2513 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. S. Agarwal, “Electromagnetic scattering, local field enhancements, and long-range surface plasmons in layered structures with roughness,” Phys. Rev. B 31, 3534–3539 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Wirgin and A. A. Maradudin, “Resonant enhancement of the electric field in the grooves of bare metallic gratings exposed to s-polarized light,” Phys. Rev. B 31, 5573–5576 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Inagaki, M. Motosuga, K. Yamamori, and E. T. Arakawa, “Photoacoustic study of plasmon resonance absorption in a diffraction grating,” Phys. Rev. B 28, 1740–1744 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Rosencwaig, Photoacoustics and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy (Wiley, New York, 1980).
  9. J. M. Elson and C. C. Sung, “Intrinsic and roughness-induced absorption of electromagnetic radiation incidence on optical surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1496–1501 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. I. Pockrand and H. Raether, “Surface plasmon oscillations in silver films with wavy surface profiles: a quantitative experimental study,” Opt. Commun. 18, 395–399 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Inagaki, J. P. Goudonnet, J. W. Little, and E. T. Arakawa, “Photoacoustic study of plasma-resonance absorption in a bigrating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 433–439 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. Rothballer, “The influence of surface plasmon oscillations on the diffraction orders of sinusoidal surface gratings,” Opt. Commun. 20, 429–433 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Recently a direct observation of s-polarized photon to surface plasmon conversion in statistically rough surface was made by using the reversed attenuated-total-reflection method. See S. Hayashi, “SERS on random rough silver surfaces: evidence of surface plasmon excitation and the enhancement factor for copper phthalocyanine,” Surf. Sci. 158, 229–237 (1985).
    [CrossRef]

1985 (5)

M. G. Weber and D. L. Mills, “Symmetry and the reflectivity of diffraction gratings at normal incidence,” Phys. Rev. B 31, 2510–2513 (1985).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Agarwal, “Electromagnetic scattering, local field enhancements, and long-range surface plasmons in layered structures with roughness,” Phys. Rev. B 31, 3534–3539 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. Wirgin and A. A. Maradudin, “Resonant enhancement of the electric field in the grooves of bare metallic gratings exposed to s-polarized light,” Phys. Rev. B 31, 5573–5576 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Recently a direct observation of s-polarized photon to surface plasmon conversion in statistically rough surface was made by using the reversed attenuated-total-reflection method. See S. Hayashi, “SERS on random rough silver surfaces: evidence of surface plasmon excitation and the enhancement factor for copper phthalocyanine,” Surf. Sci. 158, 229–237 (1985).
[CrossRef]

T. Inagaki, J. P. Goudonnet, J. W. Little, and E. T. Arakawa, “Photoacoustic study of plasma-resonance absorption in a bigrating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 433–439 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

N. E. Glass, M. G. Weber, and D. L. Mills, “Attenuation and dispersion of surface polaritons on gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 29, 6548–6559 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

N. E. Glass, A. A. Maradudin, and V. Celli, “Diffraction of light by a bigrating: surface polariton resonances and electric field enhancements,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 5150–5153 (1983).
[CrossRef]

T. Inagaki, M. Motosuga, K. Yamamori, and E. T. Arakawa, “Photoacoustic study of plasmon resonance absorption in a diffraction grating,” Phys. Rev. B 28, 1740–1744 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1977 (1)

W. Rothballer, “The influence of surface plasmon oscillations on the diffraction orders of sinusoidal surface gratings,” Opt. Commun. 20, 429–433 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

I. Pockrand and H. Raether, “Surface plasmon oscillations in silver films with wavy surface profiles: a quantitative experimental study,” Opt. Commun. 18, 395–399 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, G. S.

G. S. Agarwal, “Electromagnetic scattering, local field enhancements, and long-range surface plasmons in layered structures with roughness,” Phys. Rev. B 31, 3534–3539 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, E. T.

T. Inagaki, J. P. Goudonnet, J. W. Little, and E. T. Arakawa, “Photoacoustic study of plasma-resonance absorption in a bigrating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 433–439 (1985).
[CrossRef]

T. Inagaki, M. Motosuga, K. Yamamori, and E. T. Arakawa, “Photoacoustic study of plasmon resonance absorption in a diffraction grating,” Phys. Rev. B 28, 1740–1744 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Celli, V.

N. E. Glass, A. A. Maradudin, and V. Celli, “Diffraction of light by a bigrating: surface polariton resonances and electric field enhancements,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 5150–5153 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Elson, J. M.

Glass, N. E.

N. E. Glass, M. G. Weber, and D. L. Mills, “Attenuation and dispersion of surface polaritons on gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 29, 6548–6559 (1984).
[CrossRef]

N. E. Glass, A. A. Maradudin, and V. Celli, “Diffraction of light by a bigrating: surface polariton resonances and electric field enhancements,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 5150–5153 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Goudonnet, J. P.

Hayashi, S.

Recently a direct observation of s-polarized photon to surface plasmon conversion in statistically rough surface was made by using the reversed attenuated-total-reflection method. See S. Hayashi, “SERS on random rough silver surfaces: evidence of surface plasmon excitation and the enhancement factor for copper phthalocyanine,” Surf. Sci. 158, 229–237 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Inagaki, T.

T. Inagaki, J. P. Goudonnet, J. W. Little, and E. T. Arakawa, “Photoacoustic study of plasma-resonance absorption in a bigrating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 433–439 (1985).
[CrossRef]

T. Inagaki, M. Motosuga, K. Yamamori, and E. T. Arakawa, “Photoacoustic study of plasmon resonance absorption in a diffraction grating,” Phys. Rev. B 28, 1740–1744 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Little, J. W.

Maradudin, A. A.

A. Wirgin and A. A. Maradudin, “Resonant enhancement of the electric field in the grooves of bare metallic gratings exposed to s-polarized light,” Phys. Rev. B 31, 5573–5576 (1985).
[CrossRef]

N. E. Glass, A. A. Maradudin, and V. Celli, “Diffraction of light by a bigrating: surface polariton resonances and electric field enhancements,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 5150–5153 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Maystre, D.

For a review, see, for example, D. Maystre, in Electromagnetic Surface Modes, A. D. Boardman, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982), Chap. 17; H. Raether, in Surface Polaritons, V. M. Agranovich and D. L. Mills, eds. (North-Holland, New York, 1982), Chap. 9.

Mills, D. L.

M. G. Weber and D. L. Mills, “Symmetry and the reflectivity of diffraction gratings at normal incidence,” Phys. Rev. B 31, 2510–2513 (1985).
[CrossRef]

N. E. Glass, M. G. Weber, and D. L. Mills, “Attenuation and dispersion of surface polaritons on gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 29, 6548–6559 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Motosuga, M.

T. Inagaki, M. Motosuga, K. Yamamori, and E. T. Arakawa, “Photoacoustic study of plasmon resonance absorption in a diffraction grating,” Phys. Rev. B 28, 1740–1744 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Pockrand, I.

I. Pockrand and H. Raether, “Surface plasmon oscillations in silver films with wavy surface profiles: a quantitative experimental study,” Opt. Commun. 18, 395–399 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Raether, H.

I. Pockrand and H. Raether, “Surface plasmon oscillations in silver films with wavy surface profiles: a quantitative experimental study,” Opt. Commun. 18, 395–399 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Rosencwaig, A.

A. Rosencwaig, Photoacoustics and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy (Wiley, New York, 1980).

Rothballer, W.

W. Rothballer, “The influence of surface plasmon oscillations on the diffraction orders of sinusoidal surface gratings,” Opt. Commun. 20, 429–433 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Sung, C. C.

Weber, M. G.

M. G. Weber and D. L. Mills, “Symmetry and the reflectivity of diffraction gratings at normal incidence,” Phys. Rev. B 31, 2510–2513 (1985).
[CrossRef]

N. E. Glass, M. G. Weber, and D. L. Mills, “Attenuation and dispersion of surface polaritons on gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 29, 6548–6559 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wirgin, A.

A. Wirgin and A. A. Maradudin, “Resonant enhancement of the electric field in the grooves of bare metallic gratings exposed to s-polarized light,” Phys. Rev. B 31, 5573–5576 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Yamamori, K.

T. Inagaki, M. Motosuga, K. Yamamori, and E. T. Arakawa, “Photoacoustic study of plasmon resonance absorption in a diffraction grating,” Phys. Rev. B 28, 1740–1744 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (2)

I. Pockrand and H. Raether, “Surface plasmon oscillations in silver films with wavy surface profiles: a quantitative experimental study,” Opt. Commun. 18, 395–399 (1976).
[CrossRef]

W. Rothballer, “The influence of surface plasmon oscillations on the diffraction orders of sinusoidal surface gratings,” Opt. Commun. 20, 429–433 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (7)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

N. E. Glass, A. A. Maradudin, and V. Celli, “Diffraction of light by a bigrating: surface polariton resonances and electric field enhancements,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 5150–5153 (1983).
[CrossRef]

N. E. Glass, M. G. Weber, and D. L. Mills, “Attenuation and dispersion of surface polaritons on gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 29, 6548–6559 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Weber and D. L. Mills, “Symmetry and the reflectivity of diffraction gratings at normal incidence,” Phys. Rev. B 31, 2510–2513 (1985).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Agarwal, “Electromagnetic scattering, local field enhancements, and long-range surface plasmons in layered structures with roughness,” Phys. Rev. B 31, 3534–3539 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. Wirgin and A. A. Maradudin, “Resonant enhancement of the electric field in the grooves of bare metallic gratings exposed to s-polarized light,” Phys. Rev. B 31, 5573–5576 (1985).
[CrossRef]

T. Inagaki, M. Motosuga, K. Yamamori, and E. T. Arakawa, “Photoacoustic study of plasmon resonance absorption in a diffraction grating,” Phys. Rev. B 28, 1740–1744 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Sci. (1)

Recently a direct observation of s-polarized photon to surface plasmon conversion in statistically rough surface was made by using the reversed attenuated-total-reflection method. See S. Hayashi, “SERS on random rough silver surfaces: evidence of surface plasmon excitation and the enhancement factor for copper phthalocyanine,” Surf. Sci. 158, 229–237 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

For a review, see, for example, D. Maystre, in Electromagnetic Surface Modes, A. D. Boardman, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982), Chap. 17; H. Raether, in Surface Polaritons, V. M. Agranovich and D. L. Mills, eds. (North-Holland, New York, 1982), Chap. 9.

A. Rosencwaig, Photoacoustics and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy (Wiley, New York, 1980).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental configuration for observation of plasmon resonance in conical (nonplanar) diffraction. θ is the angle between the ruling direction and the plane of photon incidence.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Recorder trace of PA signal from a silver-coated grating with corrugation amplitude h = 25 nm measured with p-polarized photons as a function of the angle of incidence. The various curves are for different ruling azimuth θ relative to the plane of incidence. The groove spacing is d, and λ is the wavelength of the incident photons.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Recorder trace of PA signal from the same grating shown in Fig. 2, measured with s-polarized photon.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Peak absorptances of p- and s-polarized photons observed for the plasma resonances n = +1 and +2 in a silver-coated grating with corrugation amplitude h = 25 nm as a function of the ruling azimuth θ relative to the plane of photon incidence. Solid curves are the calculated results from the perturbation theory, and dotted curves are the calculated results of the square of the electric-field component of the incident photons perpendicular to the grating grooves multiplied by cos ϕ, where ϕ is the angle of incidence.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Peak absorptances of p- and s-polarized photons observed for the plasma resonances n = +1 and +2 in a silver-coated grating with corrugation amplitude h = 9 nm as a function of the ruling azimuth θ.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Peak absorptances of p- and s-polarized photons observed for the plasma resonances n = +1, +2, and +3 in a silver-coated grating with corrugation amplitude h = 41 nm as a function of the ruling azimuth θ.

Equations (1)

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k sp = k + n g ,

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