Abstract

Optical coherent transients have been studied in Nd3+-doped silica-glass fibers. Two- and three-pulse photon echoes were generated between 0.05 and 1 K to study optical dephasing mechanisms of ions in a disordered environment. The results are explained by a spectral diffusion model, which incorporates elastic dipolar interactions between the ions and atomic tunneling systems in the glass. Various issues associated with applying optical coherent transients to active fibers are discussed.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Stone, C. A. Burrus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 388 (1973).
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  3. P. M. Selzer, D. L. Huber, D. S. Hamilton, W. M. Yen, M. J. Weber, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 813 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. P. M. Thijssen, R. E. Van den Berg, S. Völker, Chem. Phys. Lett. 103, 23 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. J. Weber, in Laser Spectroscopy of Solids, W. M. Yen, P. M. Selzer, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981), Chap. 6.
  6. J. Hegarty, W. M. Yen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 1126 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. M. Pellegrino, W. M. Yen, M. J. Weber, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 6332 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Friedrich, D. Haarer, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 23, 113 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, Opt. Commun. 45, 46 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Hegarty, M. M. Broer, B. Golding, J. R. Simpson, J. B. MacChesney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 2033 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. M. Broer, B. Golding, W. H. Haemmerle, D. L. Huber, J. R. Simpson, Phys. Rev. (to be published).
  12. S. Hüfner, Optical Spectra of Transparent Rare Earth Compounds (Academic, New York, 1978), Chap. 4.
  13. D. L. Huber, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 51, 241 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. H. Stolen, in Coherence and Energy Transfer in Glasses, P. A. Fleury, B. Golding, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1984), Chap. V.
  15. R. H. Stolen, Proc. IEEE 68, 1232 (1980); in Optical Fiber Telecommunications, S. E. Miller, A. G. Chynoweth, eds. (Academic, New York, 1979), Chap. 5.
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. L. Huber, M. M. Broer, B. Golding, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 2281 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  17. B. Golding, J. E. Graebner, in Amorphous Solids, W. A. Phillips, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981), Chap. 7.
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    [CrossRef]
  19. J. L. Black, B. I. Halperin, Phys. Rev. B 16, 2879 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. K. Lyo, in Electronic Excitations and Interaction Processes in Organic Molecular Aggregates, P. Reineker, H. Haken, H. C. Wolf, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983), p. 215.
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. Reineker, H. Morowitz, Chem. Phys. Lett. 86, 359 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  22. T. L. Reinecke, Solid State Commun. 32, 1103 (1979).
    [CrossRef]

1984

J. Friedrich, D. Haarer, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 23, 113 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Huber, M. M. Broer, B. Golding, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 2281 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, Opt. Commun. 45, 46 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Hegarty, M. M. Broer, B. Golding, J. R. Simpson, J. B. MacChesney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 2033 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

D. L. Huber, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 51, 241 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. P. M. Thijssen, R. E. Van den Berg, S. Völker, Chem. Phys. Lett. 103, 23 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. Reineker, H. Morowitz, Chem. Phys. Lett. 86, 359 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980

J. M. Pellegrino, W. M. Yen, M. J. Weber, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 6332 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Stolen, Proc. IEEE 68, 1232 (1980); in Optical Fiber Telecommunications, S. E. Miller, A. G. Chynoweth, eds. (Academic, New York, 1979), Chap. 5.
[CrossRef]

1979

J. Hegarty, W. M. Yen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 1126 (1979).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Reinecke, Solid State Commun. 32, 1103 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977

J. L. Black, B. I. Halperin, Phys. Rev. B 16, 2879 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976

P. M. Selzer, D. L. Huber, D. S. Hamilton, W. M. Yen, M. J. Weber, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 813 (1976).
[CrossRef]

B. Golding, J. E. Graebner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 852 (1976); J. E. Graebner, B. Golding, Phys. Rev. B 19, 964 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1973

J. Stone, C. A. Burrus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 388 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1964

Black, J. L.

J. L. Black, B. I. Halperin, Phys. Rev. B 16, 2879 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Broer, M. M.

D. L. Huber, M. M. Broer, B. Golding, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 2281 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Hegarty, M. M. Broer, B. Golding, J. R. Simpson, J. B. MacChesney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 2033 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Broer, B. Golding, W. H. Haemmerle, D. L. Huber, J. R. Simpson, Phys. Rev. (to be published).

Burrus, C. A.

J. Stone, C. A. Burrus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 388 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Friedrich, J.

J. Friedrich, D. Haarer, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 23, 113 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Golding, B.

D. L. Huber, M. M. Broer, B. Golding, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 2281 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Hegarty, M. M. Broer, B. Golding, J. R. Simpson, J. B. MacChesney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 2033 (1983).
[CrossRef]

B. Golding, J. E. Graebner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 852 (1976); J. E. Graebner, B. Golding, Phys. Rev. B 19, 964 (1979).
[CrossRef]

B. Golding, J. E. Graebner, in Amorphous Solids, W. A. Phillips, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981), Chap. 7.

M. M. Broer, B. Golding, W. H. Haemmerle, D. L. Huber, J. R. Simpson, Phys. Rev. (to be published).

Graebner, J. E.

B. Golding, J. E. Graebner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 852 (1976); J. E. Graebner, B. Golding, Phys. Rev. B 19, 964 (1979).
[CrossRef]

B. Golding, J. E. Graebner, in Amorphous Solids, W. A. Phillips, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981), Chap. 7.

Haarer, D.

J. Friedrich, D. Haarer, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 23, 113 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Haemmerle, W. H.

M. M. Broer, B. Golding, W. H. Haemmerle, D. L. Huber, J. R. Simpson, Phys. Rev. (to be published).

Halperin, B. I.

J. L. Black, B. I. Halperin, Phys. Rev. B 16, 2879 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hamilton, D. S.

P. M. Selzer, D. L. Huber, D. S. Hamilton, W. M. Yen, M. J. Weber, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 813 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Hegarty, J.

J. Hegarty, M. M. Broer, B. Golding, J. R. Simpson, J. B. MacChesney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 2033 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Hegarty, W. M. Yen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 1126 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Huber, D. L.

D. L. Huber, M. M. Broer, B. Golding, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 2281 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Huber, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 51, 241 (1982).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Selzer, D. L. Huber, D. S. Hamilton, W. M. Yen, M. J. Weber, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 813 (1976).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Broer, B. Golding, W. H. Haemmerle, D. L. Huber, J. R. Simpson, Phys. Rev. (to be published).

Hüfner, S.

S. Hüfner, Optical Spectra of Transparent Rare Earth Compounds (Academic, New York, 1978), Chap. 4.

Koester, C. J.

Lyo, S. K.

S. K. Lyo, in Electronic Excitations and Interaction Processes in Organic Molecular Aggregates, P. Reineker, H. Haken, H. C. Wolf, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983), p. 215.
[CrossRef]

MacChesney, J. B.

J. Hegarty, M. M. Broer, B. Golding, J. R. Simpson, J. B. MacChesney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 2033 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Macfarlane, R. M.

R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, Opt. Commun. 45, 46 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Morowitz, H.

R. Reineker, H. Morowitz, Chem. Phys. Lett. 86, 359 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Pellegrino, J. M.

J. M. Pellegrino, W. M. Yen, M. J. Weber, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 6332 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Reinecke, T. L.

T. L. Reinecke, Solid State Commun. 32, 1103 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Reineker, R.

R. Reineker, H. Morowitz, Chem. Phys. Lett. 86, 359 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Selzer, P. M.

P. M. Selzer, D. L. Huber, D. S. Hamilton, W. M. Yen, M. J. Weber, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 813 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Shelby, R. M.

R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, Opt. Commun. 45, 46 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, J. R.

J. Hegarty, M. M. Broer, B. Golding, J. R. Simpson, J. B. MacChesney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 2033 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Broer, B. Golding, W. H. Haemmerle, D. L. Huber, J. R. Simpson, Phys. Rev. (to be published).

Snitzer, E.

Stolen, R. H.

R. H. Stolen, Proc. IEEE 68, 1232 (1980); in Optical Fiber Telecommunications, S. E. Miller, A. G. Chynoweth, eds. (Academic, New York, 1979), Chap. 5.
[CrossRef]

R. H. Stolen, in Coherence and Energy Transfer in Glasses, P. A. Fleury, B. Golding, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1984), Chap. V.

Stone, J.

J. Stone, C. A. Burrus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 388 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Thijssen, H. P. M.

H. P. M. Thijssen, R. E. Van den Berg, S. Völker, Chem. Phys. Lett. 103, 23 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Van den Berg, R. E.

H. P. M. Thijssen, R. E. Van den Berg, S. Völker, Chem. Phys. Lett. 103, 23 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Völker, S.

H. P. M. Thijssen, R. E. Van den Berg, S. Völker, Chem. Phys. Lett. 103, 23 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M. J.

J. M. Pellegrino, W. M. Yen, M. J. Weber, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 6332 (1980).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Selzer, D. L. Huber, D. S. Hamilton, W. M. Yen, M. J. Weber, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 813 (1976).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Weber, in Laser Spectroscopy of Solids, W. M. Yen, P. M. Selzer, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981), Chap. 6.

Yen, W. M.

J. M. Pellegrino, W. M. Yen, M. J. Weber, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 6332 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Hegarty, W. M. Yen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 1126 (1979).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Selzer, D. L. Huber, D. S. Hamilton, W. M. Yen, M. J. Weber, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 813 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.

J. Friedrich, D. Haarer, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 23, 113 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Stone, C. A. Burrus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 388 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

H. P. M. Thijssen, R. E. Van den Berg, S. Völker, Chem. Phys. Lett. 103, 23 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. Reineker, H. Morowitz, Chem. Phys. Lett. 86, 359 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

J. M. Pellegrino, W. M. Yen, M. J. Weber, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 6332 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

D. L. Huber, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 51, 241 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, Opt. Commun. 45, 46 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

J. L. Black, B. I. Halperin, Phys. Rev. B 16, 2879 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

J. Hegarty, M. M. Broer, B. Golding, J. R. Simpson, J. B. MacChesney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 2033 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Selzer, D. L. Huber, D. S. Hamilton, W. M. Yen, M. J. Weber, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 813 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Hegarty, W. M. Yen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 1126 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Huber, M. M. Broer, B. Golding, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 2281 (1984).
[CrossRef]

B. Golding, J. E. Graebner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 852 (1976); J. E. Graebner, B. Golding, Phys. Rev. B 19, 964 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE

R. H. Stolen, Proc. IEEE 68, 1232 (1980); in Optical Fiber Telecommunications, S. E. Miller, A. G. Chynoweth, eds. (Academic, New York, 1979), Chap. 5.
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun.

T. L. Reinecke, Solid State Commun. 32, 1103 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. K. Lyo, in Electronic Excitations and Interaction Processes in Organic Molecular Aggregates, P. Reineker, H. Haken, H. C. Wolf, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983), p. 215.
[CrossRef]

B. Golding, J. E. Graebner, in Amorphous Solids, W. A. Phillips, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981), Chap. 7.

R. H. Stolen, in Coherence and Energy Transfer in Glasses, P. A. Fleury, B. Golding, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1984), Chap. V.

M. J. Weber, in Laser Spectroscopy of Solids, W. M. Yen, P. M. Selzer, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981), Chap. 6.

M. M. Broer, B. Golding, W. H. Haemmerle, D. L. Huber, J. R. Simpson, Phys. Rev. (to be published).

S. Hüfner, Optical Spectra of Transparent Rare Earth Compounds (Academic, New York, 1978), Chap. 4.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Two-pulse photon echoes in Nd3+:SiO2 fiber below 100 mK. P1 and P2 are excitation pulses, and E1–E5 are generated echoes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dephasing rate T2−1 of Nd3+:SiO2 measured with photon echoes showing a T1,3 temperature dependence. High-temperature results are from FLN measurements in a borosilicate glass and show a T1,9 dependence.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Stimulated photon-echo intensity decay at T < 50 mK. The initial decay rate depends on τ12 (τij is the time separation between pulses i and j), which indicates the presence of spectral diffusion. The dashed line indicates the slope of the exponential time dependence that the intensity would have if only radiative decay were present.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ ν h = 1 / π T 2 + 1 / 2 π T 1 .
θ = p 12 E ( t ) d t ,
p 12 E 0 i = { π / 2 , i = 1 π , i = 2 .
p c SRS ( l ) = 1 α L 59 d 2 λ α ,
L = { 1 - exp ( - α l ) } / α .
P c SBS ( l ) = 1 α L 4.4 d 2 λ 2 α Δ ν p ,
E ( τ 12 + τ 13 ) ~ exp ( - 2 τ 12 / T 2 ) [ exp - ( τ 12 + τ 13 ) / T 1 ] ,

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