Abstract

Radiator reorientation kernels are measured in Stark-tunable infrared transitions of 13CH3F. The dominant (ΔM = 1) kernel is obtained by a scale transformation from the shape of a two-pulse photon-echo intensity versus Stark voltage curve, at fixed large echo time delay. The quantum-mechanical transport equation in the presence of coherence M transfer and a dc electric field is reviewed, and the applications of photon echoes in a tunable Stark field to measure reorientation collision kernels are discussed.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. W. Smith, J. Cooper, W. R. Chappell, T. Dillon, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 11, 1547, 1567 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. R. Berman, Phys. Rev. A 5, 927 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. A. Alekseev, T. L. Andreeva, I. I. Sobelman, Sov. Phys. JETP 35, 325 (1972).
  4. P. R. Berman, in Advances in Atomic and Molecular Physics, D. R. Bates, B. Bederson, eds. (Academic, New York, 1977).
  5. S. Stenholm, J. Phys. B 10, 761 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. E. Baylis, Phys. Rev. 7, 1190 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  7. See F. Rohart, B. Segard, B. Marke, J. Phys. B 12, 3891 (1979), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Oka, Adv. At. Mol. Phys. 9, 127 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  9. See C. H. Townes, A. L. Schawlow, Microwave Spectroscopy (Dover, New York, 1955).
  10. L. Q. Lambert, A. Compaan, I. D. Abella, Phys. Rev. A 4, 2022 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Baer, L. D. Abella, Phys. Rev. A 16, 2093 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Hashi, Opt. Commun. 44, 297 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Tangigawa, Y. Fukuda, T. Kohmoto, K. Sakuno, T. Hashi, Opt. lett. 8, 620 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  14. The cosine representation of the δ function valid in the quadrant T 0, Δv 0 is employed. See F. B. Hildebrand, Advanced Calculus for Applications (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1976).
  15. P. R. Berman, J. M. Levy, R. G. Brewer, Phys. Rev. A 11, 1668 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. W. Anderson, Phys. Rev. 76, 647 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. M. Freund, G. Duxbury, M. Romheld, J. T. Tiedje, T. Oka, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 52, 38 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. E. Thomas, M. J. Kelly, J. P. Monchalin, N. A. Kurnit, A. Javan, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 51, 2, 240 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. R. Berman, T. W. Mossberg, S. R. Hartmann, Phys. Rev. A 25, 2550 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. C. McGurk, C. L. Norris, T. G. Schalz, E. F. Pearson, W. H. Flygare, in Laser Spectroscopy, R. G. Brewer, A. Mooradian, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1974), p. 541.
    [CrossRef]

1983

1982

P. R. Berman, T. W. Mossberg, S. R. Hartmann, Phys. Rev. A 25, 2550 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980

J. E. Thomas, M. J. Kelly, J. P. Monchalin, N. A. Kurnit, A. Javan, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 51, 2, 240 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979

See F. Rohart, B. Segard, B. Marke, J. Phys. B 12, 3891 (1979), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

1977

T. Baer, L. D. Abella, Phys. Rev. A 16, 2093 (1977).
[CrossRef]

S. Stenholm, J. Phys. B 10, 761 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975

P. R. Berman, J. M. Levy, R. G. Brewer, Phys. Rev. A 11, 1668 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974

S. M. Freund, G. Duxbury, M. Romheld, J. T. Tiedje, T. Oka, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 52, 38 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973

W. E. Baylis, Phys. Rev. 7, 1190 (1973).
[CrossRef]

T. Oka, Adv. At. Mol. Phys. 9, 127 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972

P. R. Berman, Phys. Rev. A 5, 927 (1972).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Alekseev, T. L. Andreeva, I. I. Sobelman, Sov. Phys. JETP 35, 325 (1972).

P. W. Anderson, Phys. Rev. 76, 647 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971

L. Q. Lambert, A. Compaan, I. D. Abella, Phys. Rev. A 4, 2022 (1971).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Smith, J. Cooper, W. R. Chappell, T. Dillon, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 11, 1547, 1567 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Abella, I. D.

L. Q. Lambert, A. Compaan, I. D. Abella, Phys. Rev. A 4, 2022 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Abella, L. D.

T. Baer, L. D. Abella, Phys. Rev. A 16, 2093 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Alekseev, V. A.

V. A. Alekseev, T. L. Andreeva, I. I. Sobelman, Sov. Phys. JETP 35, 325 (1972).

Anderson, P. W.

P. W. Anderson, Phys. Rev. 76, 647 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Andreeva, T. L.

V. A. Alekseev, T. L. Andreeva, I. I. Sobelman, Sov. Phys. JETP 35, 325 (1972).

Baer, T.

T. Baer, L. D. Abella, Phys. Rev. A 16, 2093 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Baylis, W. E.

W. E. Baylis, Phys. Rev. 7, 1190 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Berman, P. R.

P. R. Berman, T. W. Mossberg, S. R. Hartmann, Phys. Rev. A 25, 2550 (1982).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Berman, J. M. Levy, R. G. Brewer, Phys. Rev. A 11, 1668 (1975).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Berman, Phys. Rev. A 5, 927 (1972).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Berman, in Advances in Atomic and Molecular Physics, D. R. Bates, B. Bederson, eds. (Academic, New York, 1977).

Brewer, R. G.

P. R. Berman, J. M. Levy, R. G. Brewer, Phys. Rev. A 11, 1668 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Chappell, W. R.

E. W. Smith, J. Cooper, W. R. Chappell, T. Dillon, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 11, 1547, 1567 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Compaan, A.

L. Q. Lambert, A. Compaan, I. D. Abella, Phys. Rev. A 4, 2022 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, J.

E. W. Smith, J. Cooper, W. R. Chappell, T. Dillon, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 11, 1547, 1567 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Dillon, T.

E. W. Smith, J. Cooper, W. R. Chappell, T. Dillon, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 11, 1547, 1567 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Duxbury, G.

S. M. Freund, G. Duxbury, M. Romheld, J. T. Tiedje, T. Oka, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 52, 38 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Flygare, W. H.

J. C. McGurk, C. L. Norris, T. G. Schalz, E. F. Pearson, W. H. Flygare, in Laser Spectroscopy, R. G. Brewer, A. Mooradian, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1974), p. 541.
[CrossRef]

Freund, S. M.

S. M. Freund, G. Duxbury, M. Romheld, J. T. Tiedje, T. Oka, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 52, 38 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, Y.

Hartmann, S. R.

P. R. Berman, T. W. Mossberg, S. R. Hartmann, Phys. Rev. A 25, 2550 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hashi, T.

Hildebrand, F. B.

The cosine representation of the δ function valid in the quadrant T 0, Δv 0 is employed. See F. B. Hildebrand, Advanced Calculus for Applications (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1976).

Javan, A.

J. E. Thomas, M. J. Kelly, J. P. Monchalin, N. A. Kurnit, A. Javan, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 51, 2, 240 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, M. J.

J. E. Thomas, M. J. Kelly, J. P. Monchalin, N. A. Kurnit, A. Javan, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 51, 2, 240 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kohmoto, T.

Kurnit, N. A.

J. E. Thomas, M. J. Kelly, J. P. Monchalin, N. A. Kurnit, A. Javan, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 51, 2, 240 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Lambert, L. Q.

L. Q. Lambert, A. Compaan, I. D. Abella, Phys. Rev. A 4, 2022 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Levy, J. M.

P. R. Berman, J. M. Levy, R. G. Brewer, Phys. Rev. A 11, 1668 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Marke, B.

See F. Rohart, B. Segard, B. Marke, J. Phys. B 12, 3891 (1979), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

McGurk, J. C.

J. C. McGurk, C. L. Norris, T. G. Schalz, E. F. Pearson, W. H. Flygare, in Laser Spectroscopy, R. G. Brewer, A. Mooradian, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1974), p. 541.
[CrossRef]

Monchalin, J. P.

J. E. Thomas, M. J. Kelly, J. P. Monchalin, N. A. Kurnit, A. Javan, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 51, 2, 240 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Mossberg, T. W.

P. R. Berman, T. W. Mossberg, S. R. Hartmann, Phys. Rev. A 25, 2550 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Norris, C. L.

J. C. McGurk, C. L. Norris, T. G. Schalz, E. F. Pearson, W. H. Flygare, in Laser Spectroscopy, R. G. Brewer, A. Mooradian, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1974), p. 541.
[CrossRef]

Oka, T.

S. M. Freund, G. Duxbury, M. Romheld, J. T. Tiedje, T. Oka, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 52, 38 (1974).
[CrossRef]

T. Oka, Adv. At. Mol. Phys. 9, 127 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, E. F.

J. C. McGurk, C. L. Norris, T. G. Schalz, E. F. Pearson, W. H. Flygare, in Laser Spectroscopy, R. G. Brewer, A. Mooradian, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1974), p. 541.
[CrossRef]

Rohart, F.

See F. Rohart, B. Segard, B. Marke, J. Phys. B 12, 3891 (1979), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Romheld, M.

S. M. Freund, G. Duxbury, M. Romheld, J. T. Tiedje, T. Oka, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 52, 38 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Sakuno, K.

Schalz, T. G.

J. C. McGurk, C. L. Norris, T. G. Schalz, E. F. Pearson, W. H. Flygare, in Laser Spectroscopy, R. G. Brewer, A. Mooradian, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1974), p. 541.
[CrossRef]

Schawlow, A. L.

See C. H. Townes, A. L. Schawlow, Microwave Spectroscopy (Dover, New York, 1955).

Segard, B.

See F. Rohart, B. Segard, B. Marke, J. Phys. B 12, 3891 (1979), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Smith, E. W.

E. W. Smith, J. Cooper, W. R. Chappell, T. Dillon, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 11, 1547, 1567 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Sobelman, I. I.

V. A. Alekseev, T. L. Andreeva, I. I. Sobelman, Sov. Phys. JETP 35, 325 (1972).

Stenholm, S.

S. Stenholm, J. Phys. B 10, 761 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Tangigawa, M.

Thomas, J. E.

J. E. Thomas, M. J. Kelly, J. P. Monchalin, N. A. Kurnit, A. Javan, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 51, 2, 240 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Tiedje, J. T.

S. M. Freund, G. Duxbury, M. Romheld, J. T. Tiedje, T. Oka, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 52, 38 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Townes, C. H.

See C. H. Townes, A. L. Schawlow, Microwave Spectroscopy (Dover, New York, 1955).

Yamada, K.

Y. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Hashi, Opt. Commun. 44, 297 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Adv. At. Mol. Phys.

T. Oka, Adv. At. Mol. Phys. 9, 127 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Spectrosc.

S. M. Freund, G. Duxbury, M. Romheld, J. T. Tiedje, T. Oka, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 52, 38 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B

See F. Rohart, B. Segard, B. Marke, J. Phys. B 12, 3891 (1979), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

S. Stenholm, J. Phys. B 10, 761 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

E. W. Smith, J. Cooper, W. R. Chappell, T. Dillon, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 11, 1547, 1567 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

Y. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Hashi, Opt. Commun. 44, 297 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Opt. lett.

Phys. Rev.

W. E. Baylis, Phys. Rev. 7, 1190 (1973).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Anderson, Phys. Rev. 76, 647 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

P. R. Berman, T. W. Mossberg, S. R. Hartmann, Phys. Rev. A 25, 2550 (1982).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Berman, Phys. Rev. A 5, 927 (1972).
[CrossRef]

L. Q. Lambert, A. Compaan, I. D. Abella, Phys. Rev. A 4, 2022 (1971).
[CrossRef]

T. Baer, L. D. Abella, Phys. Rev. A 16, 2093 (1977).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Berman, J. M. Levy, R. G. Brewer, Phys. Rev. A 11, 1668 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

J. E. Thomas, M. J. Kelly, J. P. Monchalin, N. A. Kurnit, A. Javan, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 51, 2, 240 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP

V. A. Alekseev, T. L. Andreeva, I. I. Sobelman, Sov. Phys. JETP 35, 325 (1972).

Other

P. R. Berman, in Advances in Atomic and Molecular Physics, D. R. Bates, B. Bederson, eds. (Academic, New York, 1977).

See C. H. Townes, A. L. Schawlow, Microwave Spectroscopy (Dover, New York, 1955).

The cosine representation of the δ function valid in the quadrant T 0, Δv 0 is employed. See F. B. Hildebrand, Advanced Calculus for Applications (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1976).

J. C. McGurk, C. L. Norris, T. G. Schalz, E. F. Pearson, W. H. Flygare, in Laser Spectroscopy, R. G. Brewer, A. Mooradian, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1974), p. 541.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The energy levels and parallel laser transitions in the presence of Stark field for the investigation of collision-induced coherence transfer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scheme of IR Stark photon-echo spectrometer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Oscilloscope trace showing typical photon-echo signal and scattered excitation pulses.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

ln(Ioff/Ion) versus Stark voltage at 2T = 2 μsec and fixed 13CH3F pressure of 3.93 mTor. Total pressure of 13CH3F plus 12CH3F is a, 3.93 mTorr; b, 7.95 mTorr; and c, 11.6 mTorr.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

ln(Ioff/Ion) versus total pressure at 2T = 2 μsec with fixed Stark voltage of a, 10 V; b, 20 V; c, 30 V; d, 40 V. Dotted points are pure 13CH 3F, and crossed points are 13CH3F and 12CH3F.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Radiator reorientation kernel by scale transformation of echo intensity versus Stark voltage. a, 2T = 1 μsec; b, 2T = 2 μsec; c, 2T = 3 μsec; d, 2T = 4 μsec; e, 2T = 5 μsec. Full vertical scale: ln(Ioff/Ion) = 242 Torr−1; = 9.6 (kHz/Torr)/(cm/sec).

Equations (23)

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E ( x , t ) = ½ e ^ z E 0 ( t ) exp [ i ( ω t - q x ) ] + c . c .
ρ a b ( x , v , t ) = P 0 exp ( - i Δ t ) exp [ i ( ω t - q x ) ] = λ a b ( v , t ) exp [ i ( ω t - q x ) ] ,
P = - + d v μ b a ρ a b ( x , v , t ) G ( v ) + c . c . ,
ω s M = - μ p E s K [ 1 J b ( J b + 1 ) - 1 J a ( J a + 1 ) ] M ,
P = M d v μ M ρ M ( v ) .
d ˙ M ( v , t ) = - Γ M ( v ) d M ( v , t ) + M d v W M M ( v v ) × exp { i [ q ( v - v ) + ( M - M ) ω s ] t } d M ( v , t ) .
γ M = M M - + d v W M M ( v v ) , γ v = - + d v W M = M ( v v ) .
W ( M a M a , M b M b , v v )
W ( v v ) W ( Δ v , v ) ,
W ( Δ v ) = 1 4 π d Ω Δ v d v W a ( v ) W ( Δ v , v ) .
d M ( 2 T ) = d M ( 0 ) exp ( - 2 Γ T ) × exp [ - Δ M 0 T d t - + d Δ v W Δ M ( Δ v ) × exp [ - i ( q Δ v + Δ M ω s ) t ] + c . c . ] .
I e ( 2 T ) = I e ( 0 ) exp ( - 4 Γ T ) × exp [ - 2 Δ M 0 T d t - + d Δ v W Δ M ( Δ v ) exp [ - i ( q Δ v + Δ M ω s ) t ] + c . c . ] .
ln I e ( ω s = 0 ) I e ( ω s ) = 16 Re Δ M > 0 0 d Δ v W Δ M ( Δ v ) × 0 T d t cos ( q Δ v t ) [ 1 - cos ( Δ M ω s t ) ] ,
δ ( q Δ v ) - δ ( q Δ v + Δ M ω s ) .
Re W Δ M ( Δ v ) = q 8 π ln I e ( ω s = q Δ v / Δ M ) I e ( ω s ) , lim T ( q Δ v ) - 1 ,
W Δ M ( Δ v ) = Γ Δ M Δ u π exp [ - ( Δ v / Δ u ) 2 ] ,
| - + V J ( M , M ± 1 ) d t | ~ ,
Δ φ = | 1 - + [ V b ( M , M ) - V a ( M , M ) ] d t | .
Δ φ [ V b ( M , M ) V a ( M , M ) - 1 ] [ V a ( M , M ) V a ( M , M ± 1 ) ] × 1 - + V J ( M , M ± 1 ) d t .
Δ φ = | [ J a ( J a + 1 ) J b ( J b + 1 ) - 1 ] ( J a 1 J a - M 0 M ) ( J a 1 J a - M 1 M ) | ,
Δ φ | J a ( J a + 1 ) J b ( J b + 1 ) - 1 | .
- + f ( E ) ln ( I off / I on ) d E ,
f ( E ) = 1 ξ E 0 π exp { - [ E - E 0 ) / ξ E 0 ] 2 } ,

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