Abstract

We consider some possible mechanisms for producing gain in the 10-nm spectral region. They involve the creation of a population inversion in a confined plasma column by selective excitation of multiply charged ions through absorption of many (>10) ultraviolet photons. Calculations of the energy-level structure of ions in the Kr isoelectronic sequence show singly and multiply excited states that provide suitable strong radiative transitions in the region of 10 nm. The potential for achieving x-ray lasing action in Kr-like ions pumped by a KrF excimer laser is most favorable at high Z.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. Boyer, H. Egger, T. S. Luk, H. Pummer, and C. K. Rhodes, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1, 3 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. A. Lompré, A. L’Huillier, G. Mainfray, and J. Y. Fan, J. Phys. B 17, L817 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, J. Phys. B 16, 1363 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Kruit, J. Kimman, and M. van der Wiel, J. Phys. B 14, L597 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Agostini and G. Petite, J. Phys. B 17, L811 (1984); see also C. L. Cromer and C. W. Clark, J. Phys. B 18, L497 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Feldman, H. J. Krautwald, and K. H. Welge, in Multiphoton Ionization of Atoms, S. L. Chin and P. Lambropoulos, eds. (Academic, New York, 1984), p. 223.
  7. N. B. Delone, V. V. Suran, and B. A. Zon, in Multiphoton Ionization of Atoms, S. L. Chin and P. Lambropoulos, eds. (Academic, New York, 1984), p. 235.
  8. S. Suckewar, “Apparatus and method for generating soft x-ray lasing action in a confined plasma column through the use of a picosecond laser,” U.S. Patent Pending 06/794, 153 (November1, 1985).
  9. S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, D. R. Voorhees, H. M. Milchberg, C. Keane, and A. Semet, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1855 (1983); S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, and D. Voorhees, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Reader, G. L. Epstein, and J. O. Ekberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 273 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Reader, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 286 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. L. Epstein and J. Reader, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 476 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Reader and N. Acquista, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 239 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Even-Zohar and B. S. Fraenkel, J. Phys. B 5, 1596 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. O’Sullivan, J. T. Costello, and P. K. Carroll, J. Phys. B 17, 345 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. T. Costello and G. O’Sullivan, J. Phys. B 17, 4477 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. E. Moore, Ionization Potentialsand Ionization Limits Derived from the Analyses of Optical Spectra (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1970).
  18. Using a modified version of the code of C. Froese-Fischer, Comp. Phys. Commun. 14, 145 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. Layzer, Z. Horak, M. N. Lewis, and D. P. Thompson, Ann. Phys. 29, 101 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. Hotop and W. C. Lineberger, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 4, 539 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  21. K. Codling and R. P. Madden, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 76A, 1 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. E. Hansen and W. Persson, Phys. Scr. 8, 279 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Valin and P. Marmet, J. Phys. B 8, 2953 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Boulay and P. Marchand, Can. J. Phys. 60, 855 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, Phys. Rev. A 27, 2503 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  26. T. S. Luk, H. Pummer, K. Boyer, M. Shahidi, H. Egger, and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 110 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  27. L. Allen and C. T. Stroud, Phys. Rep. 91, 1 (1982).
    [CrossRef]

1984 (5)

K. Boyer, H. Egger, T. S. Luk, H. Pummer, and C. K. Rhodes, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1, 3 (1984).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Lompré, A. L’Huillier, G. Mainfray, and J. Y. Fan, J. Phys. B 17, L817 (1984).
[CrossRef]

P. Agostini and G. Petite, J. Phys. B 17, L811 (1984); see also C. L. Cromer and C. W. Clark, J. Phys. B 18, L497 (1985).
[CrossRef]

G. O’Sullivan, J. T. Costello, and P. K. Carroll, J. Phys. B 17, 345 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Costello and G. O’Sullivan, J. Phys. B 17, 4477 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (4)

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, D. R. Voorhees, H. M. Milchberg, C. Keane, and A. Semet, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1855 (1983); S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, and D. Voorhees, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, J. Phys. B 16, 1363 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, Phys. Rev. A 27, 2503 (1983).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Luk, H. Pummer, K. Boyer, M. Shahidi, H. Egger, and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 110 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (3)

L. Allen and C. T. Stroud, Phys. Rep. 91, 1 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. Boulay and P. Marchand, Can. J. Phys. 60, 855 (1982).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Epstein and J. Reader, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 476 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

P. Kruit, J. Kimman, and M. van der Wiel, J. Phys. B 14, L597 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

1978 (1)

Using a modified version of the code of C. Froese-Fischer, Comp. Phys. Commun. 14, 145 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1975 (3)

H. Hotop and W. C. Lineberger, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 4, 539 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Reader, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 286 (1975).
[CrossRef]

M. Valin and P. Marmet, J. Phys. B 8, 2953 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

J. E. Hansen and W. Persson, Phys. Scr. 8, 279 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (3)

K. Codling and R. P. Madden, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 76A, 1 (1972).
[CrossRef]

M. Even-Zohar and B. S. Fraenkel, J. Phys. B 5, 1596 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Reader, G. L. Epstein, and J. O. Ekberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 273 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

D. Layzer, Z. Horak, M. N. Lewis, and D. P. Thompson, Ann. Phys. 29, 101 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Acquista, N.

Agostini, P.

P. Agostini and G. Petite, J. Phys. B 17, L811 (1984); see also C. L. Cromer and C. W. Clark, J. Phys. B 18, L497 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Allen, L.

L. Allen and C. T. Stroud, Phys. Rep. 91, 1 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Boulay, M.

M. Boulay and P. Marchand, Can. J. Phys. 60, 855 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Boyer, K.

K. Boyer, H. Egger, T. S. Luk, H. Pummer, and C. K. Rhodes, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1, 3 (1984).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Luk, H. Pummer, K. Boyer, M. Shahidi, H. Egger, and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 110 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Carroll, P. K.

G. O’Sullivan, J. T. Costello, and P. K. Carroll, J. Phys. B 17, 345 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Codling, K.

K. Codling and R. P. Madden, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 76A, 1 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Costello, J. T.

J. T. Costello and G. O’Sullivan, J. Phys. B 17, 4477 (1984).
[CrossRef]

G. O’Sullivan, J. T. Costello, and P. K. Carroll, J. Phys. B 17, 345 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Delone, N. B.

N. B. Delone, V. V. Suran, and B. A. Zon, in Multiphoton Ionization of Atoms, S. L. Chin and P. Lambropoulos, eds. (Academic, New York, 1984), p. 235.

Egger, H.

K. Boyer, H. Egger, T. S. Luk, H. Pummer, and C. K. Rhodes, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1, 3 (1984).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Luk, H. Pummer, K. Boyer, M. Shahidi, H. Egger, and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 110 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ekberg, J. O.

Epstein, G. L.

Even-Zohar, M.

M. Even-Zohar and B. S. Fraenkel, J. Phys. B 5, 1596 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Fan, J. Y.

L. A. Lompré, A. L’Huillier, G. Mainfray, and J. Y. Fan, J. Phys. B 17, L817 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, D.

D. Feldman, H. J. Krautwald, and K. H. Welge, in Multiphoton Ionization of Atoms, S. L. Chin and P. Lambropoulos, eds. (Academic, New York, 1984), p. 223.

Fraenkel, B. S.

M. Even-Zohar and B. S. Fraenkel, J. Phys. B 5, 1596 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Froese-Fischer, C.

Using a modified version of the code of C. Froese-Fischer, Comp. Phys. Commun. 14, 145 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, J. E.

J. E. Hansen and W. Persson, Phys. Scr. 8, 279 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Horak, Z.

D. Layzer, Z. Horak, M. N. Lewis, and D. P. Thompson, Ann. Phys. 29, 101 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Hotop, H.

H. Hotop and W. C. Lineberger, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 4, 539 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Keane, C.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, D. R. Voorhees, H. M. Milchberg, C. Keane, and A. Semet, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1855 (1983); S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, and D. Voorhees, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimman, J.

P. Kruit, J. Kimman, and M. van der Wiel, J. Phys. B 14, L597 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Krautwald, H. J.

D. Feldman, H. J. Krautwald, and K. H. Welge, in Multiphoton Ionization of Atoms, S. L. Chin and P. Lambropoulos, eds. (Academic, New York, 1984), p. 223.

Kruit, P.

P. Kruit, J. Kimman, and M. van der Wiel, J. Phys. B 14, L597 (1981).
[CrossRef]

L’Huillier, A.

L. A. Lompré, A. L’Huillier, G. Mainfray, and J. Y. Fan, J. Phys. B 17, L817 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, J. Phys. B 16, 1363 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, Phys. Rev. A 27, 2503 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Layzer, D.

D. Layzer, Z. Horak, M. N. Lewis, and D. P. Thompson, Ann. Phys. 29, 101 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, M. N.

D. Layzer, Z. Horak, M. N. Lewis, and D. P. Thompson, Ann. Phys. 29, 101 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Lineberger, W. C.

H. Hotop and W. C. Lineberger, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 4, 539 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Lompre, L. A.

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, Phys. Rev. A 27, 2503 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lompré, L. A.

L. A. Lompré, A. L’Huillier, G. Mainfray, and J. Y. Fan, J. Phys. B 17, L817 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, J. Phys. B 16, 1363 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Luk, T. S.

K. Boyer, H. Egger, T. S. Luk, H. Pummer, and C. K. Rhodes, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1, 3 (1984).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Luk, H. Pummer, K. Boyer, M. Shahidi, H. Egger, and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 110 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Madden, R. P.

K. Codling and R. P. Madden, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 76A, 1 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Mainfray, G.

L. A. Lompré, A. L’Huillier, G. Mainfray, and J. Y. Fan, J. Phys. B 17, L817 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, J. Phys. B 16, 1363 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, Phys. Rev. A 27, 2503 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Manus, C.

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, Phys. Rev. A 27, 2503 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, J. Phys. B 16, 1363 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Marchand, P.

M. Boulay and P. Marchand, Can. J. Phys. 60, 855 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Marmet, P.

M. Valin and P. Marmet, J. Phys. B 8, 2953 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Milchberg, H. M.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, D. R. Voorhees, H. M. Milchberg, C. Keane, and A. Semet, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1855 (1983); S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, and D. Voorhees, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moore, C. E.

C. E. Moore, Ionization Potentialsand Ionization Limits Derived from the Analyses of Optical Spectra (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1970).

O’Sullivan, G.

G. O’Sullivan, J. T. Costello, and P. K. Carroll, J. Phys. B 17, 345 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Costello and G. O’Sullivan, J. Phys. B 17, 4477 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Persson, W.

J. E. Hansen and W. Persson, Phys. Scr. 8, 279 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Petite, G.

P. Agostini and G. Petite, J. Phys. B 17, L811 (1984); see also C. L. Cromer and C. W. Clark, J. Phys. B 18, L497 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Pummer, H.

K. Boyer, H. Egger, T. S. Luk, H. Pummer, and C. K. Rhodes, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1, 3 (1984).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Luk, H. Pummer, K. Boyer, M. Shahidi, H. Egger, and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 110 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Reader, J.

Rhodes, C. K.

K. Boyer, H. Egger, T. S. Luk, H. Pummer, and C. K. Rhodes, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1, 3 (1984).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Luk, H. Pummer, K. Boyer, M. Shahidi, H. Egger, and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 110 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Semet, A.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, D. R. Voorhees, H. M. Milchberg, C. Keane, and A. Semet, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1855 (1983); S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, and D. Voorhees, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shahidi, M.

T. S. Luk, H. Pummer, K. Boyer, M. Shahidi, H. Egger, and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 110 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Skinner, C. H.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, D. R. Voorhees, H. M. Milchberg, C. Keane, and A. Semet, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1855 (1983); S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, and D. Voorhees, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stroud, C. T.

L. Allen and C. T. Stroud, Phys. Rep. 91, 1 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Suckewar, S.

S. Suckewar, “Apparatus and method for generating soft x-ray lasing action in a confined plasma column through the use of a picosecond laser,” U.S. Patent Pending 06/794, 153 (November1, 1985).

Suckewer, S.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, D. R. Voorhees, H. M. Milchberg, C. Keane, and A. Semet, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1855 (1983); S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, and D. Voorhees, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suran, V. V.

N. B. Delone, V. V. Suran, and B. A. Zon, in Multiphoton Ionization of Atoms, S. L. Chin and P. Lambropoulos, eds. (Academic, New York, 1984), p. 235.

Thompson, D. P.

D. Layzer, Z. Horak, M. N. Lewis, and D. P. Thompson, Ann. Phys. 29, 101 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Valin, M.

M. Valin and P. Marmet, J. Phys. B 8, 2953 (1975).
[CrossRef]

van der Wiel, M.

P. Kruit, J. Kimman, and M. van der Wiel, J. Phys. B 14, L597 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Voorhees, D. R.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, D. R. Voorhees, H. M. Milchberg, C. Keane, and A. Semet, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1855 (1983); S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, and D. Voorhees, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welge, K. H.

D. Feldman, H. J. Krautwald, and K. H. Welge, in Multiphoton Ionization of Atoms, S. L. Chin and P. Lambropoulos, eds. (Academic, New York, 1984), p. 223.

Zon, B. A.

N. B. Delone, V. V. Suran, and B. A. Zon, in Multiphoton Ionization of Atoms, S. L. Chin and P. Lambropoulos, eds. (Academic, New York, 1984), p. 235.

Ann. Phys. (1)

D. Layzer, Z. Horak, M. N. Lewis, and D. P. Thompson, Ann. Phys. 29, 101 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

M. Boulay and P. Marchand, Can. J. Phys. 60, 855 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Comp. Phys. Commun. (1)

Using a modified version of the code of C. Froese-Fischer, Comp. Phys. Commun. 14, 145 (1978).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, D. R. Voorhees, H. M. Milchberg, C. Keane, and A. Semet, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1855 (1983); S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, and D. Voorhees, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (4)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. B (8)

L. A. Lompré, A. L’Huillier, G. Mainfray, and J. Y. Fan, J. Phys. B 17, L817 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, J. Phys. B 16, 1363 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. Kruit, J. Kimman, and M. van der Wiel, J. Phys. B 14, L597 (1981).
[CrossRef]

P. Agostini and G. Petite, J. Phys. B 17, L811 (1984); see also C. L. Cromer and C. W. Clark, J. Phys. B 18, L497 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. Even-Zohar and B. S. Fraenkel, J. Phys. B 5, 1596 (1972).
[CrossRef]

G. O’Sullivan, J. T. Costello, and P. K. Carroll, J. Phys. B 17, 345 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Costello and G. O’Sullivan, J. Phys. B 17, 4477 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. Valin and P. Marmet, J. Phys. B 8, 2953 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data (1)

H. Hotop and W. C. Lineberger, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 4, 539 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. (1)

K. Codling and R. P. Madden, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 76A, 1 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rep. (1)

L. Allen and C. T. Stroud, Phys. Rep. 91, 1 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, Phys. Rev. A 27, 2503 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

T. S. Luk, H. Pummer, K. Boyer, M. Shahidi, H. Egger, and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 110 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Scr. (1)

J. E. Hansen and W. Persson, Phys. Scr. 8, 279 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

C. E. Moore, Ionization Potentialsand Ionization Limits Derived from the Analyses of Optical Spectra (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1970).

D. Feldman, H. J. Krautwald, and K. H. Welge, in Multiphoton Ionization of Atoms, S. L. Chin and P. Lambropoulos, eds. (Academic, New York, 1984), p. 223.

N. B. Delone, V. V. Suran, and B. A. Zon, in Multiphoton Ionization of Atoms, S. L. Chin and P. Lambropoulos, eds. (Academic, New York, 1984), p. 235.

S. Suckewar, “Apparatus and method for generating soft x-ray lasing action in a confined plasma column through the use of a picosecond laser,” U.S. Patent Pending 06/794, 153 (November1, 1985).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Adjusted HF versus experimental values of the 4p6–4p5 2P3/2 ionization energies for the first seven members of the Kr isoelectronic sequence. The adjusted HF values are given by IHF = E(4p5) − E(4p6) − ζ/2, where E is the nonrelativistic total energy and ζ is obtained from ζHF through Eq. (5). Sources of experimental energies are listed in Table 1.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

HF versus experimental values of the spin–orbit parameter ζ of the ground state of Br-like ions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Energy levels of Br- and Kr-like ions of Cd. The absolute energies of the two ions have been displaced so that the 5p states of Cd12+ can be seen as satellites of the states of Cd13+ configurations; 44 eV is the energy separation of the centers of gravity of the Cd13+ configurations; 52.7 eV is the maximum energy separation between states of Cd12+.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

HF values of the wavelength of 4p45s2–4p55s transitions in the Kr isoelectronic sequence.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic N-photon-resonant, N + M-photon ionization process, as discussed in Section 3.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of Experimental and Scaled HF Ionization Energies 4s24p6–4s24p5 2P3/2 for the Kr Isoelectronic Sequence

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of Experimental and Scaled HF Values of the 4p5 Intervala

Tables Icon

Table 3 Comparison of Experimental and Scaled HF Values of the 4s24p6–4s4p6 Ionization Energy

Tables Icon

Table 4 Comparison of Experimental and Calculated Values of the Excitation Energies 4 s 2 4 p 6 - 4 s 4 p 6 5 p P 3 1 , P 1 1

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Table 5 HF Excitation Energies for 4s24p6–4s24p45s2, Averaged Over All Terms of Final State Configuration

Equations (9)

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Kr ( 4 s 2 4 p 6 ) + 4 γ ( 193 nm ) Kr ( 4 s 4 p 6 4 d ) .
Kr ( 4 s 4 p 6 4 d ) Kr ( 4 s 2 4 p 5 4 d ) + γ ( 93 nm ) .
X + N γ L X * * X * + γ ,
I expt = 6743.4 cm - 1 + 1.007833 I HF .
ζ expt = 26.4 cm - 1 + 1.1016 ζ HF .
I expt = - 24 524 cm - 1 + 1.01 403 I HF .
E = I - ( Z eff 2 / n * 2 ) Rydberg ,
Δ = j d ¯ j a × ¯ 1 2 2 ( ω j a - ω ) ,
A k i = 6.67 × 10 15 λ - 2 f i k g i / g k sec - 1 ,

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