Abstract

We have used a number of experimental techniques to identify the photorefractive species in commercial samples of BaTiO3. We find that Fe impurities (in the Fe2+ and Fe3+ states) are the predominant photorefractive species. Techniques for optimizing the photorefractive properties of BaTiO3 are discussed.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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1986 (1)

1985 (3)

R. A. Mullen, R. W. Hellwarth, J. Appl. Phys. 58, 40 (1985).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Michel-Calendini, L. Hafid, G. Godefroy, H. Chermette, Solid State Commun. 54, 951 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Klein, G. C. Valley, J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4901 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (8)

M. B. Klein, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 519, 136 (1984).

S. Ducharme, J. Feinberg, J. Appl. Phys. 56, 839 (1984).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Kukhtarev, E. Kratzig, H. C. Kulich, R. A. Rupp, Appl. Phys. B 35, 17 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Rodel, G. Tomandl, J. Mater. Sci. 19, 3515 (1984).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Michel-Calendini, Solid State Commun. 52, 167 (1984).
[CrossRef]

P. Moretti, F. M. Michel-Calendini, Ferroeletrics 55, 219 (1984).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Michel-Calendini, Ferroelectrics Lett. 3, 31 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. Rak, I. Ledoux, J. P. Huignard, Opt. Commun. 49, 302 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

G. C. Valley, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-49, 1637 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. 22, 704 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

N. H. Chan, R. K. Sharma, D. M. Smyth, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 65, 167 (1982).

1981 (4)

N. H. Chan, R. K. Sharma, D. M. Smyth, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 64, 556 (1981).

H. J. Hagemann, D. Hennings, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 64, 590 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Burns, Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 9, 345 (1981).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Michel-Calendini, Ferroelectrics 37, 499 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (4)

F. M. Michel-Calendini, H. Chermette, J. Weber, J. Phys. C 13, 1427 (1980).
[CrossRef]

E. Kratzig, F. Welz, R. Orlowski, V. Doorman, M. Rosenkranz, Solid State Commun. 34, 817 (1980).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Hagemann, A. Hero, U. Gonser, Phys. Status Solidi A 61, 63 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Feinberg, D. Heiman, A. R. Tanguay, R. W. Hellwarth, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 1297 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (3)

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949, 961 (1979).
[CrossRef]

E. Siegel, K. A. Muller, Phys. Rev. B 20, 3587 (1979).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Hagemann, H. Ihrig, Phys. Rev. B 20, 3871 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (3)

P. Pertosa, F. M. Michel-Calendini, Phys. Rev. B 17, 2011 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. Orlowski, E. Kratzig, Solid State Commun. 27, 1351 (1978).
[CrossRef]

N. G. Eror, D. M. Smyth, J. Solid State Chem. 24, 235 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

H. Kurz, E. Kratzig, W. Keune, H. Engelmann, U. Gonser, B. Dischler, A. Rauber, Appl. Phys. 12, 355 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (2)

N. V. Kukhtarev, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 2, 438 (1976).

J. Daniels, Philips Res. Rep. 31, 505 (1976).

1975 (1)

V. L. Vinetskii, N. V. Kukhtarev, Sov. Phys. Solid State 16, 2414 (1975).

1974 (2)

M. Nakahara, T. Murakami, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 3795 (1974).
[CrossRef]

A. M. J. H. Seuter, Philips Res. Rep. Suppl. 3, 1 (1974).

1973 (3)

F. J. Morin, J. R. Oliver, Phys. Rev. B 8, 5847 (1973).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Peterson, A. M. Glass, A. Carnevale, P. M. Bridenbaugh, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 56, 278 (1973).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Clark, F. J. DiSalvo, A. M. Glass, G. E. Peterson, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 6209 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (4)

D. L. Staebler, J. J. Amodei, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1042 (1972).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Mattheis, Phys. Rev. B 12, 4718 (1972).
[CrossRef]

W. Phillips, J. J. Amodei, D. L. Staebler, RCA Rev. 33, 94 (1972).

P. Gerthsen, K. H. Hardtl, A. Csillag, Phys. Status Solidi A 13, 127 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (2)

V. Belrus, J. Kalinajs, A. Linz, R. C. Folweiler, Mater. Res. Bull. 6, 899 (1971).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Peterson, A. M. Glass, T. J. Negran, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 130 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

P. Coufova, Czech. J. Phys. B 18, 1038 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967 (3)

N. S. Hush, Prog. Inorg. Chem. 8, 391 (1967).
[CrossRef]

C. N. Berglund, H. J. Braun, Phys. Rev. 164, 790 (1967).
[CrossRef]

C. N. Berglund, W. S. Baer, Phys. Rev. 157, 358 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1964 (4)

H. Ikushima, S. Hayakawa, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 19, 1986 (1964).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Kirkpatrick, K. A. Muller, R. S. Rubins, Phys. Rev. B 5, A86 (1964).

G. A. Cox, R. H. Tredgold, Phys. Lett. 11, 22 (1964).
[CrossRef]

S. Ikegami, I. Ueda, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 19, 159 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

A. W. Hornig, R. C. Rempel, H. E. Weaver, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 10, 1 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Abragam, A.

A. Abragam, B. Bleaney, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance of Transition Metal Ions (Oxford U. Press, London, 1970).

Amodei, J. J.

D. L. Staebler, J. J. Amodei, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1042 (1972).
[CrossRef]

W. Phillips, J. J. Amodei, D. L. Staebler, RCA Rev. 33, 94 (1972).

Baer, W. S.

C. N. Berglund, W. S. Baer, Phys. Rev. 157, 358 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Belrus, V.

V. Belrus, J. Kalinajs, A. Linz, R. C. Folweiler, Mater. Res. Bull. 6, 899 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Berglund, C. N.

C. N. Berglund, W. S. Baer, Phys. Rev. 157, 358 (1967).
[CrossRef]

C. N. Berglund, H. J. Braun, Phys. Rev. 164, 790 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Bleaney, B.

A. Abragam, B. Bleaney, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance of Transition Metal Ions (Oxford U. Press, London, 1970).

Braun, H. J.

C. N. Berglund, H. J. Braun, Phys. Rev. 164, 790 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Bridenbaugh, P. M.

G. E. Peterson, A. M. Glass, A. Carnevale, P. M. Bridenbaugh, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 56, 278 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Burns, R. G.

R. G. Burns, Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 9, 345 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Carnevale, A.

G. E. Peterson, A. M. Glass, A. Carnevale, P. M. Bridenbaugh, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 56, 278 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Chan, N. H.

N. H. Chan, R. K. Sharma, D. M. Smyth, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 65, 167 (1982).

N. H. Chan, R. K. Sharma, D. M. Smyth, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 64, 556 (1981).

Chermette, H.

F. M. Michel-Calendini, L. Hafid, G. Godefroy, H. Chermette, Solid State Commun. 54, 951 (1985).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Michel-Calendini, H. Chermette, J. Weber, J. Phys. C 13, 1427 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Clark, M. G.

M. G. Clark, F. J. DiSalvo, A. M. Glass, G. E. Peterson, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 6209 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Coufova, P.

P. Coufova, Czech. J. Phys. B 18, 1038 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Cox, G. A.

G. A. Cox, R. H. Tredgold, Phys. Lett. 11, 22 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Csillag, A.

P. Gerthsen, K. H. Hardtl, A. Csillag, Phys. Status Solidi A 13, 127 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Daniels, J.

J. Daniels, Philips Res. Rep. 31, 505 (1976).

DiSalvo, F. J.

M. G. Clark, F. J. DiSalvo, A. M. Glass, G. E. Peterson, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 6209 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Dischler, B.

H. Kurz, E. Kratzig, W. Keune, H. Engelmann, U. Gonser, B. Dischler, A. Rauber, Appl. Phys. 12, 355 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Doorman, V.

E. Kratzig, F. Welz, R. Orlowski, V. Doorman, M. Rosenkranz, Solid State Commun. 34, 817 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ducharme, S.

S. Ducharme, J. Feinberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 283 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. Ducharme, J. Feinberg, J. Appl. Phys. 56, 839 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Engelmann, H.

H. Kurz, E. Kratzig, W. Keune, H. Engelmann, U. Gonser, B. Dischler, A. Rauber, Appl. Phys. 12, 355 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Eror, N. G.

N. G. Eror, D. M. Smyth, J. Solid State Chem. 24, 235 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Feinberg, J.

S. Ducharme, J. Feinberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 283 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. Ducharme, J. Feinberg, J. Appl. Phys. 56, 839 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Feinberg, D. Heiman, A. R. Tanguay, R. W. Hellwarth, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 1297 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Folweiler, R. C.

V. Belrus, J. Kalinajs, A. Linz, R. C. Folweiler, Mater. Res. Bull. 6, 899 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Gerthsen, P.

P. Gerthsen, K. H. Hardtl, A. Csillag, Phys. Status Solidi A 13, 127 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Glass, A. M.

G. E. Peterson, A. M. Glass, A. Carnevale, P. M. Bridenbaugh, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 56, 278 (1973).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Clark, F. J. DiSalvo, A. M. Glass, G. E. Peterson, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 6209 (1973).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Peterson, A. M. Glass, T. J. Negran, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 130 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Godefroy, G.

F. M. Michel-Calendini, L. Hafid, G. Godefroy, H. Chermette, Solid State Commun. 54, 951 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Gonser, U.

H. J. Hagemann, A. Hero, U. Gonser, Phys. Status Solidi A 61, 63 (1980).
[CrossRef]

H. Kurz, E. Kratzig, W. Keune, H. Engelmann, U. Gonser, B. Dischler, A. Rauber, Appl. Phys. 12, 355 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hafid, L.

F. M. Michel-Calendini, L. Hafid, G. Godefroy, H. Chermette, Solid State Commun. 54, 951 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hagemann, H. J.

H. J. Hagemann, D. Hennings, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 64, 590 (1981).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Hagemann, A. Hero, U. Gonser, Phys. Status Solidi A 61, 63 (1980).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Hagemann, H. Ihrig, Phys. Rev. B 20, 3871 (1979).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Hagemann, Ph.D. dissertation (Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule, Aachen, Federal Republic of Germany, 1980).

Hardtl, K. H.

P. Gerthsen, K. H. Hardtl, A. Csillag, Phys. Status Solidi A 13, 127 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Hayakawa, S.

H. Ikushima, S. Hayakawa, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 19, 1986 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Heiman, D.

J. Feinberg, D. Heiman, A. R. Tanguay, R. W. Hellwarth, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 1297 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hellwarth, R. W.

R. A. Mullen, R. W. Hellwarth, J. Appl. Phys. 58, 40 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Feinberg, D. Heiman, A. R. Tanguay, R. W. Hellwarth, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 1297 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hennings, D.

H. J. Hagemann, D. Hennings, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 64, 590 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Hero, A.

H. J. Hagemann, A. Hero, U. Gonser, Phys. Status Solidi A 61, 63 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hornig, A. W.

A. W. Hornig, R. C. Rempel, H. E. Weaver, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 10, 1 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Huignard, J. P.

D. Rak, I. Ledoux, J. P. Huignard, Opt. Commun. 49, 302 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hush, N. S.

N. S. Hush, Prog. Inorg. Chem. 8, 391 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Ihrig, H.

H. J. Hagemann, H. Ihrig, Phys. Rev. B 20, 3871 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ikegami, S.

S. Ikegami, I. Ueda, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 19, 159 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Ikushima, H.

H. Ikushima, S. Hayakawa, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 19, 1986 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Kalinajs, J.

V. Belrus, J. Kalinajs, A. Linz, R. C. Folweiler, Mater. Res. Bull. 6, 899 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Keune, W.

H. Kurz, E. Kratzig, W. Keune, H. Engelmann, U. Gonser, B. Dischler, A. Rauber, Appl. Phys. 12, 355 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kirkpatrick, E. S.

E. S. Kirkpatrick, K. A. Muller, R. S. Rubins, Phys. Rev. B 5, A86 (1964).

Klein, M. B.

M. B. Klein, G. C. Valley, J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4901 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Klein, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 519, 136 (1984).

G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. 22, 704 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kratzig, E.

N. V. Kukhtarev, E. Kratzig, H. C. Kulich, R. A. Rupp, Appl. Phys. B 35, 17 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. Kratzig, F. Welz, R. Orlowski, V. Doorman, M. Rosenkranz, Solid State Commun. 34, 817 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. Orlowski, E. Kratzig, Solid State Commun. 27, 1351 (1978).
[CrossRef]

H. Kurz, E. Kratzig, W. Keune, H. Engelmann, U. Gonser, B. Dischler, A. Rauber, Appl. Phys. 12, 355 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kukhtarev, N. V.

N. V. Kukhtarev, E. Kratzig, H. C. Kulich, R. A. Rupp, Appl. Phys. B 35, 17 (1984).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949, 961 (1979).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Kukhtarev, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 2, 438 (1976).

V. L. Vinetskii, N. V. Kukhtarev, Sov. Phys. Solid State 16, 2414 (1975).

Kulich, H. C.

N. V. Kukhtarev, E. Kratzig, H. C. Kulich, R. A. Rupp, Appl. Phys. B 35, 17 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

H. Kurz, E. Kratzig, W. Keune, H. Engelmann, U. Gonser, B. Dischler, A. Rauber, Appl. Phys. 12, 355 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ledoux, I.

D. Rak, I. Ledoux, J. P. Huignard, Opt. Commun. 49, 302 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Linz, A.

V. Belrus, J. Kalinajs, A. Linz, R. C. Folweiler, Mater. Res. Bull. 6, 899 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Markov, V. B.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949, 961 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Mattheis, L. F.

L. F. Mattheis, Phys. Rev. B 12, 4718 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Michel-Calendini, F. M.

F. M. Michel-Calendini, L. Hafid, G. Godefroy, H. Chermette, Solid State Commun. 54, 951 (1985).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Michel-Calendini, Solid State Commun. 52, 167 (1984).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Michel-Calendini, Ferroelectrics Lett. 3, 31 (1984).
[CrossRef]

P. Moretti, F. M. Michel-Calendini, Ferroeletrics 55, 219 (1984).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Michel-Calendini, Ferroelectrics 37, 499 (1981).
[CrossRef]

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N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949, 961 (1979).
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F. J. Morin, J. R. Oliver, Phys. Rev. B 8, 5847 (1973).
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E. Kratzig, F. Welz, R. Orlowski, V. Doorman, M. Rosenkranz, Solid State Commun. 34, 817 (1980).
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P. Pertosa, F. M. Michel-Calendini, Phys. Rev. B 17, 2011 (1978).
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G. E. Peterson, A. M. Glass, A. Carnevale, P. M. Bridenbaugh, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 56, 278 (1973).
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M. G. Clark, F. J. DiSalvo, A. M. Glass, G. E. Peterson, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 6209 (1973).
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W. Phillips, J. J. Amodei, D. L. Staebler, RCA Rev. 33, 94 (1972).

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D. Rak, I. Ledoux, J. P. Huignard, Opt. Commun. 49, 302 (1984).
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H. Kurz, E. Kratzig, W. Keune, H. Engelmann, U. Gonser, B. Dischler, A. Rauber, Appl. Phys. 12, 355 (1977).
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A. W. Hornig, R. C. Rempel, H. E. Weaver, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 10, 1 (1959).
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J. Rodel, G. Tomandl, J. Mater. Sci. 19, 3515 (1984).
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A. Rose, Concepts in Photoconductivity and Allied Problems (Krieger, New York, 1978).

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E. S. Kirkpatrick, K. A. Muller, R. S. Rubins, Phys. Rev. B 5, A86 (1964).

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D. Rytz, Hughes Research Laboratories, Malibu, Calif. 90265 (personal communication).

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F. M. Michel-Calendini, H. Chermette, J. Weber, J. Phys. C 13, 1427 (1980).
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E. Kratzig, F. Welz, R. Orlowski, V. Doorman, M. Rosenkranz, Solid State Commun. 34, 817 (1980).
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Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Kurz, E. Kratzig, W. Keune, H. Engelmann, U. Gonser, B. Dischler, A. Rauber, Appl. Phys. 12, 355 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

N. V. Kukhtarev, E. Kratzig, H. C. Kulich, R. A. Rupp, Appl. Phys. B 35, 17 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. E. Peterson, A. M. Glass, T. J. Negran, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 130 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Czech. J. Phys. B (1)

P. Coufova, Czech. J. Phys. B 18, 1038 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Ferroelectrics (2)

F. M. Michel-Calendini, Ferroelectrics 37, 499 (1981).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949, 961 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ferroelectrics Lett. (1)

F. M. Michel-Calendini, Ferroelectrics Lett. 3, 31 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ferroeletrics (1)

P. Moretti, F. M. Michel-Calendini, Ferroeletrics 55, 219 (1984).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. C. Valley, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-49, 1637 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (2)

G. E. Peterson, A. M. Glass, A. Carnevale, P. M. Bridenbaugh, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 56, 278 (1973).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Hagemann, D. Hennings, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 64, 590 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2)

N. H. Chan, R. K. Sharma, D. M. Smyth, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 64, 556 (1981).

N. H. Chan, R. K. Sharma, D. M. Smyth, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 65, 167 (1982).

J. Appl. Phys. (6)

J. Feinberg, D. Heiman, A. R. Tanguay, R. W. Hellwarth, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 1297 (1980).
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S. Ducharme, J. Feinberg, J. Appl. Phys. 56, 839 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Staebler, J. J. Amodei, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1042 (1972).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Klein, G. C. Valley, J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4901 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Mullen, R. W. Hellwarth, J. Appl. Phys. 58, 40 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakahara, T. Murakami, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 3795 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

M. G. Clark, F. J. DiSalvo, A. M. Glass, G. E. Peterson, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 6209 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

J. Rodel, G. Tomandl, J. Mater. Sci. 19, 3515 (1984).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. C (1)

F. M. Michel-Calendini, H. Chermette, J. Weber, J. Phys. C 13, 1427 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

A. W. Hornig, R. C. Rempel, H. E. Weaver, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 10, 1 (1959).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. (2)

H. Ikushima, S. Hayakawa, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 19, 1986 (1964).
[CrossRef]

S. Ikegami, I. Ueda, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 19, 159 (1964).
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N. G. Eror, D. M. Smyth, J. Solid State Chem. 24, 235 (1978).
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V. Belrus, J. Kalinajs, A. Linz, R. C. Folweiler, Mater. Res. Bull. 6, 899 (1971).
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Opt. Commun. (1)

D. Rak, I. Ledoux, J. P. Huignard, Opt. Commun. 49, 302 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. 22, 704 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Philips Res. Rep. (1)

J. Daniels, Philips Res. Rep. 31, 505 (1976).

Philips Res. Rep. Suppl. (1)

A. M. J. H. Seuter, Philips Res. Rep. Suppl. 3, 1 (1974).

Phys. Lett. (1)

G. A. Cox, R. H. Tredgold, Phys. Lett. 11, 22 (1964).
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Phys. Rev. (2)

C. N. Berglund, W. S. Baer, Phys. Rev. 157, 358 (1967).
[CrossRef]

C. N. Berglund, H. J. Braun, Phys. Rev. 164, 790 (1967).
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Phys. Rev. B (6)

E. Siegel, K. A. Muller, Phys. Rev. B 20, 3587 (1979).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Morin, J. R. Oliver, Phys. Rev. B 8, 5847 (1973).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Kirkpatrick, K. A. Muller, R. S. Rubins, Phys. Rev. B 5, A86 (1964).

L. F. Mattheis, Phys. Rev. B 12, 4718 (1972).
[CrossRef]

P. Pertosa, F. M. Michel-Calendini, Phys. Rev. B 17, 2011 (1978).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Hagemann, H. Ihrig, Phys. Rev. B 20, 3871 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A (2)

P. Gerthsen, K. H. Hardtl, A. Csillag, Phys. Status Solidi A 13, 127 (1972).
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H. J. Hagemann, A. Hero, U. Gonser, Phys. Status Solidi A 61, 63 (1980).
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Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

M. B. Klein, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 519, 136 (1984).

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N. S. Hush, Prog. Inorg. Chem. 8, 391 (1967).
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RCA Rev. (1)

W. Phillips, J. J. Amodei, D. L. Staebler, RCA Rev. 33, 94 (1972).

Solid State Commun. (4)

F. M. Michel-Calendini, Solid State Commun. 52, 167 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. Kratzig, F. Welz, R. Orlowski, V. Doorman, M. Rosenkranz, Solid State Commun. 34, 817 (1980).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Michel-Calendini, L. Hafid, G. Godefroy, H. Chermette, Solid State Commun. 54, 951 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. Orlowski, E. Kratzig, Solid State Commun. 27, 1351 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. Solid State (1)

V. L. Vinetskii, N. V. Kukhtarev, Sov. Phys. Solid State 16, 2414 (1975).

Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. V. Kukhtarev, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 2, 438 (1976).

Other (7)

G. C. Valley, J. Appl. Phys. (to be published).

H. J. Hagemann, Ph.D. dissertation (Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule, Aachen, Federal Republic of Germany, 1980).

A. Abragam, B. Bleaney, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance of Transition Metal Ions (Oxford U. Press, London, 1970).

D. Rytz, Hughes Research Laboratories, Malibu, Calif. 90265 (personal communication).

S. H. Wemple, in Ohmic Contacts to Semiconductors, B. Schwartz, ed. (Electrochemical Society, New York, 1968).

A. Rose, Concepts in Photoconductivity and Allied Problems (Krieger, New York, 1978).

M. Minden, Hughes Research Laboratories, Malibu, Calif. 90265 (personal communication).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energy-level model for the photorefractive effect. Electrons are photoionized from level X and recombine at X+; holes are photoionized from X+ and recombine at X.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Gratings in a photorefractive material. The periodic irradiance pattern results from the interference of two waves in the material.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relative contribution of electrons and holes to the photo-conductivity in LiNbO3 (from Ref. 10).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral variation of the absorption coefficient in the visible for four BaTiO3 samples.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

EPR spectrum observed with the dc magnetic field directed along the [010] axis [Bĉ and in the (100) plane].

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Expanded EPR spectrum about the g ≃ 2 spectral region at the same magnetic-field orientation as in Fig. 5.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Angular dependence of the EPR transitions for Fe3+ (○) and Cr3+ (△) when B is rotated in the (100) plane. ● and □ represent unidentified transitions.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Absorption coefficient, concentration of empty traps, and Fe3+ concentration versus total Fe concentration for four samples of BaTiO3. The samples are identified at the bottom of the plot.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Relative contribution of electrons and holes to the photoconductivity in BaTiO3 assuming that R = μe/μh = 2500. The experimental points are from the beam-coupling data, using σ ¯ = σ ¯ h - σ ¯ e.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Schematic representation of the energy levels of Mn+O6−12+n clusters in BaTiO3. (a) TiO68−, (b) FeO610– (Fe2+), and (c) FeO69− (Fe3+). In (b) and (c), the up-spin levels are located on the left side of each panel and the down-spin levels are on the right. The levels in (a) and (c) have been calculated by the SCF–MS–, method.44,49 The levels in (b) are extrapolated from those of the Fe2+VO center.4648 CB and VB correspond, respectively, to the conduction-band minimum (t2g Ti 3d states) and the valence-band maximum (t1g O 2p states of the TiO68− cluster). Note the tendency of the higher valence states (e.g., Fe3+) to lie lower in the band gap.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Beam-Coupling Data for Seven Samples of BaTiO3

Tables Icon

Table 2 Absorption Coefficient at 4416 Å for Ec

Tables Icon

Table 3 Transition-Metal Impurities in BaTiO3 Measured by Spark-Source Emission Spectroscopya

Tables Icon

Table 4 Electronic Properties of First-Row Transition Metalsa

Tables Icon

Table 5 Fe3+ Concentration Measured by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance

Equations (40)

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E sc = σ ¯ E d E q E d + E q .
σ ¯ = μ h p - μ e n μ h p + μ e n ,
E d = k T e 2 π Λ g .
E q = 2 e Λ g N E ,
p μ h = n μ e
p n = μ e μ h .
s e I N = γ e n N +
s h I N + = γ h p N .
N + N = ( γ h s e p γ e s h n ) 1 / 2 .
N + N = ( γ h s e μ e γ e s h μ h ) 1 / 2 .
σ ¯ e = σ e σ e + σ h
σ ¯ h = σ h σ e + σ h ,
[ M 3 + ] = 2 [ V O 2 + ] I ,
[ M 3 + ] + n = 2 [ V O 2 + ] + p .
[ Al 3 + ] + 2 [ Fe 2 + ] + [ Fe 3 + ] + n = 2 [ V O 2 + ] + p .
r eff = F p σ ¯ r 13 ,
α = α P + α N P ,
H = β ( S · g · B ) + B 4 ( O 4 0 + 5 O 4 4 ) + B 2 0 O 2 0 + B 4 0 O 4 0 .
O 2 0 = [ 3 S z 2 - S ( S + 1 ) ] , O 4 0 = [ 35 S z 4 - 30 S ( S + 1 ) S z 2 + 25 S z 2 - 6 S ( S + 1 ) ] , O 4 4 = [ 1 2 ( S + 4 + S - 4 ) ] ,
a = 120 B 4 ,             D = 3 B 2 0 ,             F = 180 B 4 0 .
g = 1.9740 ± 0.0002 , g = 1.9774 ± 0.0002 ,
D = 0.0150 ± 0.0001 cm - 1 .
N = [ Fe 2 + ] 2 - 9 × 10 16 cm - 3 , N + = [ Fe 3 + ] [ Fe ] 2 - 8 × 10 18 cm - 3 ,
[ Fe 3 + ] [ Fe 2 + ] 40 - 120.
σ ¯ = σ ¯ h - σ ¯ e .
σ ¯ e = x 2 R 1 + x 2 R
σ ¯ h = 1 1 + x 2 R ,
R = γ h s e μ e γ e s h μ h .
τ = τ di f ( Λ g , E 0 ) ,
τ di / 4 π e α Φ μ τ R I 0 ,
τ di ag 4 π e I 0 ( γ h s h μ h ) x ag ,
τ di r 4 π e I 0 ( γ e s e μ e ) 1 x r ,
τ di r τ di ag = R - 1 ( x ag x r ) - 1 .
H + + Fe 2 + H 0 + Fe 3 +
OH - + Fe 2 + O 2 - + H 0 + Fe 3 + .
Ti 4 + + O 2 - + ( 1 / 2 ) H 2 Ti 3 + + OH -
2 Ti 4 + + O 2 - + H 2 2 Ti 3 + + V O + H 2 O .
V 4 + + Fe 3 + V 5 + + Fe 2 + .
[ N 3 - ] + 2 Δ [ Fe 2 + ] + Δ [ Fe 3 + ] = 0 ,
N 3 - + 3 Fe 3 + 3 Fe 2 + + ( 1 / 2 ) N 2 .

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