Abstract

We have used a number of experimental techniques to identify the photorefractive species in commercial samples of BaTiO3. We find that Fe impurities (in the Fe2+ and Fe3+ states) are the predominant photorefractive species. Techniques for optimizing the photorefractive properties of BaTiO3 are discussed.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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  2. G. E. Peterson, A. M. Glass, A. Carnevale, and P. M. Bridenbaugh, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 56, 278 (1973).
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  3. M. G. Clark, F. J. DiSalvo, A. M. Glass, and G. E. Peterson, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 6209 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  4. H. Kurz, E. Kratzig, W. Keune, H. Engelmann, U. Gonser, B. Dischler, and A. Rauber, Appl. Phys. 12, 355 (1977).
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  5. M. B. Klein, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 519, 136 (1984).
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  8. N. V. Kukhtarev, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 2, 438 (1976).
  9. N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949, 961 (1979).
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  11. D. L. Staebler and J. J. Amodei, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1042 (1972).
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  12. R. Orlowski and E. Kratzig, Solid State Commun. 27, 1351 (1978).
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  16. J. Feinberg, D. Heiman, A. R. Tanguay, and R. W. Hellwarth, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 1297 (1980).
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  17. S. Ducharme and J. Feinberg, J. Appl. Phys. 56, 839 (1984).
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  18. H. J. Hagemann and D. Hennings, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 64, 590 (1981).
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  19. H. J. Hagemann, A. Hero, and U. Gonser, Phys. Status Solidi A 61, 63 (1980).
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  20. E. Siegel and K. A. Muller, Phys. Rev. B 20, 3587 (1979).
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  24. N. H. Chan, R. K. Sharma, and D. M. Smyth, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 64, 556 (1981).
  25. N. H. Chan, R. K. Sharma, and D. M. Smyth, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 65, 167 (1982).
  26. J. Daniels, Philips Res. Rep. 31, 505 (1976).
  27. S. Ikegami and I. Ueda, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 19, 159 (1964).
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  28. C. N. Berglund and W. S. Baer, Phys. Rev. 157, 358 (1967).
    [Crossref]
  29. N. V. Kukhtarev, E. Kratzig, H. C. Kulich, and R. A. Rupp, Appl. Phys. B 35, 17 (1984).
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  34. H. Ikushima and S. Hayakawa, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 19, 1986 (1964).
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  35. J. Rodel and G. Tomandl, J. Mater. Sci. 19, 3515 (1984).
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  36. M. Nakahara and T. Murakami, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 3795 (1974).
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  37. E. S. Kirkpatrick, K. A. Muller, and R. S. Rubins, Phys. Rev. B 5, A86 (1964).
  38. W. Phillips, J. J. Amodei, and D. L. Staebler, RCA Rev. 33, 94 (1972).
  39. G. A. Cox and R. H. Tredgold, Phys. Lett. 11, 22 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  40. P. Gerthsen, K. H. Hardtl, and A. Csillag, Phys. Status Solidi A 13, 127 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  41. A. M. J. H. Seuter, Philips Res. Rep. Suppl. 3, 1 (1974).
  42. L. F. Mattheis, Phys. Rev. B 12, 4718 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  43. P. Pertosa and F. M. Michel-Calendini, Phys. Rev. B 17, 2011 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  44. F. M. Michel-Calendini, H. Chermette, and J. Weber, J. Phys. C 13, 1427 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  45. F. M. Michel-Calendini, Ferroelectrics 37, 499 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  46. F. M. Michel-Calendini, Solid State Commun. 52, 167 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  47. P. Moretti and F. M. Michel-Calendini, Ferroeletrics 55, 219 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  48. F. M. Michel-Calendini, Ferroelectrics Lett. 3, 31 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  49. F. M. Michel-Calendini, L. Hafid, G. Godefroy, and H. Chermette, Solid State Commun. 54, 951 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  50. N. S. Hush, Prog. Inorg. Chem. 8, 391 (1967).
    [Crossref]
  51. R. G. Burns, Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 9, 345 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  52. D. Rak, I. Ledoux, and J. P. Huignard, Opt. Commun. 49, 302 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  53. E. Kratzig, F. Welz, R. Orlowski, V. Doorman, and M. Rosenkranz, Solid State Commun. 34, 817 (1980).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  56. M. Minden, Hughes Research Laboratories, Malibu, Calif. 90265 (personal communication).
  57. P. Coufova, Czech. J. Phys. B 18, 1038 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  58. S. Ducharme and J. Feinberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 283 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  59. R. A. Mullen and R. W. Hellwarth, J. Appl. Phys. 58, 40 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  60. G. C. Valley, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-49, 1637 (1983).
    [Crossref]

1986 (1)

1985 (3)

R. A. Mullen and R. W. Hellwarth, J. Appl. Phys. 58, 40 (1985).
[Crossref]

F. M. Michel-Calendini, L. Hafid, G. Godefroy, and H. Chermette, Solid State Commun. 54, 951 (1985).
[Crossref]

M. B. Klein and G. C. Valley, J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4901 (1985).
[Crossref]

1984 (8)

M. B. Klein, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 519, 136 (1984).

S. Ducharme and J. Feinberg, J. Appl. Phys. 56, 839 (1984).
[Crossref]

N. V. Kukhtarev, E. Kratzig, H. C. Kulich, and R. A. Rupp, Appl. Phys. B 35, 17 (1984).
[Crossref]

J. Rodel and G. Tomandl, J. Mater. Sci. 19, 3515 (1984).
[Crossref]

F. M. Michel-Calendini, Solid State Commun. 52, 167 (1984).
[Crossref]

P. Moretti and F. M. Michel-Calendini, Ferroeletrics 55, 219 (1984).
[Crossref]

F. M. Michel-Calendini, Ferroelectrics Lett. 3, 31 (1984).
[Crossref]

D. Rak, I. Ledoux, and J. P. Huignard, Opt. Commun. 49, 302 (1984).
[Crossref]

1983 (2)

G. C. Valley, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-49, 1637 (1983).
[Crossref]

G. C. Valley and M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. 22, 704 (1983).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

N. H. Chan, R. K. Sharma, and D. M. Smyth, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 65, 167 (1982).

1981 (4)

N. H. Chan, R. K. Sharma, and D. M. Smyth, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 64, 556 (1981).

H. J. Hagemann and D. Hennings, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 64, 590 (1981).
[Crossref]

R. G. Burns, Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 9, 345 (1981).
[Crossref]

F. M. Michel-Calendini, Ferroelectrics 37, 499 (1981).
[Crossref]

1980 (4)

F. M. Michel-Calendini, H. Chermette, and J. Weber, J. Phys. C 13, 1427 (1980).
[Crossref]

E. Kratzig, F. Welz, R. Orlowski, V. Doorman, and M. Rosenkranz, Solid State Commun. 34, 817 (1980).
[Crossref]

H. J. Hagemann, A. Hero, and U. Gonser, Phys. Status Solidi A 61, 63 (1980).
[Crossref]

J. Feinberg, D. Heiman, A. R. Tanguay, and R. W. Hellwarth, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 1297 (1980).
[Crossref]

1979 (3)

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949, 961 (1979).
[Crossref]

E. Siegel and K. A. Muller, Phys. Rev. B 20, 3587 (1979).
[Crossref]

H. J. Hagemann and H. Ihrig, Phys. Rev. B 20, 3871 (1979).
[Crossref]

1978 (3)

P. Pertosa and F. M. Michel-Calendini, Phys. Rev. B 17, 2011 (1978).
[Crossref]

R. Orlowski and E. Kratzig, Solid State Commun. 27, 1351 (1978).
[Crossref]

N. G. Eror and D. M. Smyth, J. Solid State Chem. 24, 235 (1978).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

H. Kurz, E. Kratzig, W. Keune, H. Engelmann, U. Gonser, B. Dischler, and A. Rauber, Appl. Phys. 12, 355 (1977).
[Crossref]

1976 (2)

N. V. Kukhtarev, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 2, 438 (1976).

J. Daniels, Philips Res. Rep. 31, 505 (1976).

1975 (1)

V. L. Vinetskii and N. V. Kukhtarev, Sov. Phys. Solid State 16, 2414 (1975).

1974 (2)

M. Nakahara and T. Murakami, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 3795 (1974).
[Crossref]

A. M. J. H. Seuter, Philips Res. Rep. Suppl. 3, 1 (1974).

1973 (3)

F. J. Morin and J. R. Oliver, Phys. Rev. B 8, 5847 (1973).
[Crossref]

G. E. Peterson, A. M. Glass, A. Carnevale, and P. M. Bridenbaugh, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 56, 278 (1973).
[Crossref]

M. G. Clark, F. J. DiSalvo, A. M. Glass, and G. E. Peterson, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 6209 (1973).
[Crossref]

1972 (4)

D. L. Staebler and J. J. Amodei, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1042 (1972).
[Crossref]

L. F. Mattheis, Phys. Rev. B 12, 4718 (1972).
[Crossref]

W. Phillips, J. J. Amodei, and D. L. Staebler, RCA Rev. 33, 94 (1972).

P. Gerthsen, K. H. Hardtl, and A. Csillag, Phys. Status Solidi A 13, 127 (1972).
[Crossref]

1971 (2)

V. Belrus, J. Kalinajs, A. Linz, and R. C. Folweiler, Mater. Res. Bull. 6, 899 (1971).
[Crossref]

G. E. Peterson, A. M. Glass, and T. J. Negran, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 130 (1971).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

P. Coufova, Czech. J. Phys. B 18, 1038 (1968).
[Crossref]

1967 (3)

N. S. Hush, Prog. Inorg. Chem. 8, 391 (1967).
[Crossref]

C. N. Berglund and H. J. Braun, Phys. Rev. 164, 790 (1967).
[Crossref]

C. N. Berglund and W. S. Baer, Phys. Rev. 157, 358 (1967).
[Crossref]

1964 (4)

H. Ikushima and S. Hayakawa, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 19, 1986 (1964).
[Crossref]

E. S. Kirkpatrick, K. A. Muller, and R. S. Rubins, Phys. Rev. B 5, A86 (1964).

G. A. Cox and R. H. Tredgold, Phys. Lett. 11, 22 (1964).
[Crossref]

S. Ikegami and I. Ueda, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 19, 159 (1964).
[Crossref]

1959 (1)

A. W. Hornig, R. C. Rempel, and H. E. Weaver, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 10, 1 (1959).
[Crossref]

Abragam, A.

A. Abragam and B. Bleaney, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance of Transition Metal Ions (Oxford U. Press, London, 1970).

Amodei, J. J.

W. Phillips, J. J. Amodei, and D. L. Staebler, RCA Rev. 33, 94 (1972).

D. L. Staebler and J. J. Amodei, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1042 (1972).
[Crossref]

Baer, W. S.

C. N. Berglund and W. S. Baer, Phys. Rev. 157, 358 (1967).
[Crossref]

Belrus, V.

V. Belrus, J. Kalinajs, A. Linz, and R. C. Folweiler, Mater. Res. Bull. 6, 899 (1971).
[Crossref]

Berglund, C. N.

C. N. Berglund and H. J. Braun, Phys. Rev. 164, 790 (1967).
[Crossref]

C. N. Berglund and W. S. Baer, Phys. Rev. 157, 358 (1967).
[Crossref]

Bleaney, B.

A. Abragam and B. Bleaney, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance of Transition Metal Ions (Oxford U. Press, London, 1970).

Braun, H. J.

C. N. Berglund and H. J. Braun, Phys. Rev. 164, 790 (1967).
[Crossref]

Bridenbaugh, P. M.

G. E. Peterson, A. M. Glass, A. Carnevale, and P. M. Bridenbaugh, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 56, 278 (1973).
[Crossref]

Burns, R. G.

R. G. Burns, Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 9, 345 (1981).
[Crossref]

Carnevale, A.

G. E. Peterson, A. M. Glass, A. Carnevale, and P. M. Bridenbaugh, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 56, 278 (1973).
[Crossref]

Chan, N. H.

N. H. Chan, R. K. Sharma, and D. M. Smyth, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 65, 167 (1982).

N. H. Chan, R. K. Sharma, and D. M. Smyth, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 64, 556 (1981).

Chermette, H.

F. M. Michel-Calendini, L. Hafid, G. Godefroy, and H. Chermette, Solid State Commun. 54, 951 (1985).
[Crossref]

F. M. Michel-Calendini, H. Chermette, and J. Weber, J. Phys. C 13, 1427 (1980).
[Crossref]

Clark, M. G.

M. G. Clark, F. J. DiSalvo, A. M. Glass, and G. E. Peterson, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 6209 (1973).
[Crossref]

Coufova, P.

P. Coufova, Czech. J. Phys. B 18, 1038 (1968).
[Crossref]

Cox, G. A.

G. A. Cox and R. H. Tredgold, Phys. Lett. 11, 22 (1964).
[Crossref]

Csillag, A.

P. Gerthsen, K. H. Hardtl, and A. Csillag, Phys. Status Solidi A 13, 127 (1972).
[Crossref]

Daniels, J.

J. Daniels, Philips Res. Rep. 31, 505 (1976).

DiSalvo, F. J.

M. G. Clark, F. J. DiSalvo, A. M. Glass, and G. E. Peterson, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 6209 (1973).
[Crossref]

Dischler, B.

H. Kurz, E. Kratzig, W. Keune, H. Engelmann, U. Gonser, B. Dischler, and A. Rauber, Appl. Phys. 12, 355 (1977).
[Crossref]

Doorman, V.

E. Kratzig, F. Welz, R. Orlowski, V. Doorman, and M. Rosenkranz, Solid State Commun. 34, 817 (1980).
[Crossref]

Ducharme, S.

S. Ducharme and J. Feinberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 283 (1986).
[Crossref]

S. Ducharme and J. Feinberg, J. Appl. Phys. 56, 839 (1984).
[Crossref]

Engelmann, H.

H. Kurz, E. Kratzig, W. Keune, H. Engelmann, U. Gonser, B. Dischler, and A. Rauber, Appl. Phys. 12, 355 (1977).
[Crossref]

Eror, N. G.

N. G. Eror and D. M. Smyth, J. Solid State Chem. 24, 235 (1978).
[Crossref]

Feinberg, J.

S. Ducharme and J. Feinberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 283 (1986).
[Crossref]

S. Ducharme and J. Feinberg, J. Appl. Phys. 56, 839 (1984).
[Crossref]

J. Feinberg, D. Heiman, A. R. Tanguay, and R. W. Hellwarth, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 1297 (1980).
[Crossref]

Folweiler, R. C.

V. Belrus, J. Kalinajs, A. Linz, and R. C. Folweiler, Mater. Res. Bull. 6, 899 (1971).
[Crossref]

Gerthsen, P.

P. Gerthsen, K. H. Hardtl, and A. Csillag, Phys. Status Solidi A 13, 127 (1972).
[Crossref]

Glass, A. M.

M. G. Clark, F. J. DiSalvo, A. M. Glass, and G. E. Peterson, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 6209 (1973).
[Crossref]

G. E. Peterson, A. M. Glass, A. Carnevale, and P. M. Bridenbaugh, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 56, 278 (1973).
[Crossref]

G. E. Peterson, A. M. Glass, and T. J. Negran, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 130 (1971).
[Crossref]

Godefroy, G.

F. M. Michel-Calendini, L. Hafid, G. Godefroy, and H. Chermette, Solid State Commun. 54, 951 (1985).
[Crossref]

Gonser, U.

H. J. Hagemann, A. Hero, and U. Gonser, Phys. Status Solidi A 61, 63 (1980).
[Crossref]

H. Kurz, E. Kratzig, W. Keune, H. Engelmann, U. Gonser, B. Dischler, and A. Rauber, Appl. Phys. 12, 355 (1977).
[Crossref]

Hafid, L.

F. M. Michel-Calendini, L. Hafid, G. Godefroy, and H. Chermette, Solid State Commun. 54, 951 (1985).
[Crossref]

Hagemann, H. J.

H. J. Hagemann and D. Hennings, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 64, 590 (1981).
[Crossref]

H. J. Hagemann, A. Hero, and U. Gonser, Phys. Status Solidi A 61, 63 (1980).
[Crossref]

H. J. Hagemann and H. Ihrig, Phys. Rev. B 20, 3871 (1979).
[Crossref]

H. J. Hagemann, Ph.D. dissertation (Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule, Aachen, Federal Republic of Germany, 1980).

Hardtl, K. H.

P. Gerthsen, K. H. Hardtl, and A. Csillag, Phys. Status Solidi A 13, 127 (1972).
[Crossref]

Hayakawa, S.

H. Ikushima and S. Hayakawa, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 19, 1986 (1964).
[Crossref]

Heiman, D.

J. Feinberg, D. Heiman, A. R. Tanguay, and R. W. Hellwarth, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 1297 (1980).
[Crossref]

Hellwarth, R. W.

R. A. Mullen and R. W. Hellwarth, J. Appl. Phys. 58, 40 (1985).
[Crossref]

J. Feinberg, D. Heiman, A. R. Tanguay, and R. W. Hellwarth, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 1297 (1980).
[Crossref]

Hennings, D.

H. J. Hagemann and D. Hennings, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 64, 590 (1981).
[Crossref]

Hero, A.

H. J. Hagemann, A. Hero, and U. Gonser, Phys. Status Solidi A 61, 63 (1980).
[Crossref]

Hornig, A. W.

A. W. Hornig, R. C. Rempel, and H. E. Weaver, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 10, 1 (1959).
[Crossref]

Huignard, J. P.

D. Rak, I. Ledoux, and J. P. Huignard, Opt. Commun. 49, 302 (1984).
[Crossref]

Hush, N. S.

N. S. Hush, Prog. Inorg. Chem. 8, 391 (1967).
[Crossref]

Ihrig, H.

H. J. Hagemann and H. Ihrig, Phys. Rev. B 20, 3871 (1979).
[Crossref]

Ikegami, S.

S. Ikegami and I. Ueda, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 19, 159 (1964).
[Crossref]

Ikushima, H.

H. Ikushima and S. Hayakawa, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 19, 1986 (1964).
[Crossref]

Kalinajs, J.

V. Belrus, J. Kalinajs, A. Linz, and R. C. Folweiler, Mater. Res. Bull. 6, 899 (1971).
[Crossref]

Keune, W.

H. Kurz, E. Kratzig, W. Keune, H. Engelmann, U. Gonser, B. Dischler, and A. Rauber, Appl. Phys. 12, 355 (1977).
[Crossref]

Kirkpatrick, E. S.

E. S. Kirkpatrick, K. A. Muller, and R. S. Rubins, Phys. Rev. B 5, A86 (1964).

Klein, M. B.

M. B. Klein and G. C. Valley, J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4901 (1985).
[Crossref]

M. B. Klein, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 519, 136 (1984).

G. C. Valley and M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. 22, 704 (1983).
[Crossref]

Kratzig, E.

N. V. Kukhtarev, E. Kratzig, H. C. Kulich, and R. A. Rupp, Appl. Phys. B 35, 17 (1984).
[Crossref]

E. Kratzig, F. Welz, R. Orlowski, V. Doorman, and M. Rosenkranz, Solid State Commun. 34, 817 (1980).
[Crossref]

R. Orlowski and E. Kratzig, Solid State Commun. 27, 1351 (1978).
[Crossref]

H. Kurz, E. Kratzig, W. Keune, H. Engelmann, U. Gonser, B. Dischler, and A. Rauber, Appl. Phys. 12, 355 (1977).
[Crossref]

Kukhtarev, N. V.

N. V. Kukhtarev, E. Kratzig, H. C. Kulich, and R. A. Rupp, Appl. Phys. B 35, 17 (1984).
[Crossref]

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949, 961 (1979).
[Crossref]

N. V. Kukhtarev, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 2, 438 (1976).

V. L. Vinetskii and N. V. Kukhtarev, Sov. Phys. Solid State 16, 2414 (1975).

Kulich, H. C.

N. V. Kukhtarev, E. Kratzig, H. C. Kulich, and R. A. Rupp, Appl. Phys. B 35, 17 (1984).
[Crossref]

Kurz, H.

H. Kurz, E. Kratzig, W. Keune, H. Engelmann, U. Gonser, B. Dischler, and A. Rauber, Appl. Phys. 12, 355 (1977).
[Crossref]

Ledoux, I.

D. Rak, I. Ledoux, and J. P. Huignard, Opt. Commun. 49, 302 (1984).
[Crossref]

Linz, A.

V. Belrus, J. Kalinajs, A. Linz, and R. C. Folweiler, Mater. Res. Bull. 6, 899 (1971).
[Crossref]

Markov, V. B.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949, 961 (1979).
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Mattheis, L. F.

L. F. Mattheis, Phys. Rev. B 12, 4718 (1972).
[Crossref]

Michel-Calendini, F. M.

F. M. Michel-Calendini, L. Hafid, G. Godefroy, and H. Chermette, Solid State Commun. 54, 951 (1985).
[Crossref]

P. Moretti and F. M. Michel-Calendini, Ferroeletrics 55, 219 (1984).
[Crossref]

F. M. Michel-Calendini, Ferroelectrics Lett. 3, 31 (1984).
[Crossref]

F. M. Michel-Calendini, Solid State Commun. 52, 167 (1984).
[Crossref]

F. M. Michel-Calendini, Ferroelectrics 37, 499 (1981).
[Crossref]

F. M. Michel-Calendini, H. Chermette, and J. Weber, J. Phys. C 13, 1427 (1980).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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M. Minden, Hughes Research Laboratories, Malibu, Calif. 90265 (personal communication).

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P. Moretti and F. M. Michel-Calendini, Ferroeletrics 55, 219 (1984).
[Crossref]

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F. J. Morin and J. R. Oliver, Phys. Rev. B 8, 5847 (1973).
[Crossref]

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R. A. Mullen and R. W. Hellwarth, J. Appl. Phys. 58, 40 (1985).
[Crossref]

Muller, K. A.

E. Siegel and K. A. Muller, Phys. Rev. B 20, 3587 (1979).
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M. Nakahara and T. Murakami, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 3795 (1974).
[Crossref]

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M. Nakahara and T. Murakami, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 3795 (1974).
[Crossref]

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G. E. Peterson, A. M. Glass, and T. J. Negran, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 130 (1971).
[Crossref]

Odulov, S. G.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949, 961 (1979).
[Crossref]

Oliver, J. R.

F. J. Morin and J. R. Oliver, Phys. Rev. B 8, 5847 (1973).
[Crossref]

Orlowski, R.

E. Kratzig, F. Welz, R. Orlowski, V. Doorman, and M. Rosenkranz, Solid State Commun. 34, 817 (1980).
[Crossref]

R. Orlowski and E. Kratzig, Solid State Commun. 27, 1351 (1978).
[Crossref]

Pertosa, P.

P. Pertosa and F. M. Michel-Calendini, Phys. Rev. B 17, 2011 (1978).
[Crossref]

Peterson, G. E.

G. E. Peterson, A. M. Glass, A. Carnevale, and P. M. Bridenbaugh, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 56, 278 (1973).
[Crossref]

M. G. Clark, F. J. DiSalvo, A. M. Glass, and G. E. Peterson, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 6209 (1973).
[Crossref]

G. E. Peterson, A. M. Glass, and T. J. Negran, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 130 (1971).
[Crossref]

Phillips, W.

W. Phillips, J. J. Amodei, and D. L. Staebler, RCA Rev. 33, 94 (1972).

Rak, D.

D. Rak, I. Ledoux, and J. P. Huignard, Opt. Commun. 49, 302 (1984).
[Crossref]

Rauber, A.

H. Kurz, E. Kratzig, W. Keune, H. Engelmann, U. Gonser, B. Dischler, and A. Rauber, Appl. Phys. 12, 355 (1977).
[Crossref]

Rempel, R. C.

A. W. Hornig, R. C. Rempel, and H. E. Weaver, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 10, 1 (1959).
[Crossref]

Rodel, J.

J. Rodel and G. Tomandl, J. Mater. Sci. 19, 3515 (1984).
[Crossref]

Rose, A.

A. Rose, Concepts in Photoconductivity and Allied Problems (Krieger, New York, 1978).

Rosenkranz, M.

E. Kratzig, F. Welz, R. Orlowski, V. Doorman, and M. Rosenkranz, Solid State Commun. 34, 817 (1980).
[Crossref]

Rubins, R. S.

E. S. Kirkpatrick, K. A. Muller, and R. S. Rubins, Phys. Rev. B 5, A86 (1964).

Rupp, R. A.

N. V. Kukhtarev, E. Kratzig, H. C. Kulich, and R. A. Rupp, Appl. Phys. B 35, 17 (1984).
[Crossref]

Rytz, D.

D. Rytz, Hughes Research Laboratories, Malibu, Calif. 90265 (personal communication).

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A. M. J. H. Seuter, Philips Res. Rep. Suppl. 3, 1 (1974).

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N. H. Chan, R. K. Sharma, and D. M. Smyth, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 65, 167 (1982).

N. H. Chan, R. K. Sharma, and D. M. Smyth, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 64, 556 (1981).

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E. Siegel and K. A. Muller, Phys. Rev. B 20, 3587 (1979).
[Crossref]

Smyth, D. M.

N. H. Chan, R. K. Sharma, and D. M. Smyth, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 65, 167 (1982).

N. H. Chan, R. K. Sharma, and D. M. Smyth, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 64, 556 (1981).

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[Crossref]

Soskin, M. S.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949, 961 (1979).
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D. L. Staebler and J. J. Amodei, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1042 (1972).
[Crossref]

W. Phillips, J. J. Amodei, and D. L. Staebler, RCA Rev. 33, 94 (1972).

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J. Feinberg, D. Heiman, A. R. Tanguay, and R. W. Hellwarth, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 1297 (1980).
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J. Rodel and G. Tomandl, J. Mater. Sci. 19, 3515 (1984).
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G. A. Cox and R. H. Tredgold, Phys. Lett. 11, 22 (1964).
[Crossref]

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S. Ikegami and I. Ueda, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 19, 159 (1964).
[Crossref]

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M. B. Klein and G. C. Valley, J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4901 (1985).
[Crossref]

G. C. Valley and M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. 22, 704 (1983).
[Crossref]

G. C. Valley, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-49, 1637 (1983).
[Crossref]

G. C. Valley, J. Appl. Phys. (to be published).

Vinetskii, V. L.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949, 961 (1979).
[Crossref]

V. L. Vinetskii and N. V. Kukhtarev, Sov. Phys. Solid State 16, 2414 (1975).

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A. W. Hornig, R. C. Rempel, and H. E. Weaver, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 10, 1 (1959).
[Crossref]

Weber, J.

F. M. Michel-Calendini, H. Chermette, and J. Weber, J. Phys. C 13, 1427 (1980).
[Crossref]

Welz, F.

E. Kratzig, F. Welz, R. Orlowski, V. Doorman, and M. Rosenkranz, Solid State Commun. 34, 817 (1980).
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Wemple, S. H.

S. H. Wemple, in Ohmic Contacts to Semiconductors, B. Schwartz, ed. (Electrochemical Society, New York, 1968).

Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (1)

R. G. Burns, Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 9, 345 (1981).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Kurz, E. Kratzig, W. Keune, H. Engelmann, U. Gonser, B. Dischler, and A. Rauber, Appl. Phys. 12, 355 (1977).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

N. V. Kukhtarev, E. Kratzig, H. C. Kulich, and R. A. Rupp, Appl. Phys. B 35, 17 (1984).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. E. Peterson, A. M. Glass, and T. J. Negran, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 130 (1971).
[Crossref]

Czech. J. Phys. B (1)

P. Coufova, Czech. J. Phys. B 18, 1038 (1968).
[Crossref]

Ferroelectrics (2)

F. M. Michel-Calendini, Ferroelectrics 37, 499 (1981).
[Crossref]

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949, 961 (1979).
[Crossref]

Ferroelectrics Lett. (1)

F. M. Michel-Calendini, Ferroelectrics Lett. 3, 31 (1984).
[Crossref]

Ferroeletrics (1)

P. Moretti and F. M. Michel-Calendini, Ferroeletrics 55, 219 (1984).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. C. Valley, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-49, 1637 (1983).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (2)

G. E. Peterson, A. M. Glass, A. Carnevale, and P. M. Bridenbaugh, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 56, 278 (1973).
[Crossref]

H. J. Hagemann and D. Hennings, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 64, 590 (1981).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2)

N. H. Chan, R. K. Sharma, and D. M. Smyth, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 64, 556 (1981).

N. H. Chan, R. K. Sharma, and D. M. Smyth, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 65, 167 (1982).

J. Appl. Phys. (6)

J. Feinberg, D. Heiman, A. R. Tanguay, and R. W. Hellwarth, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 1297 (1980).
[Crossref]

S. Ducharme and J. Feinberg, J. Appl. Phys. 56, 839 (1984).
[Crossref]

D. L. Staebler and J. J. Amodei, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1042 (1972).
[Crossref]

M. B. Klein and G. C. Valley, J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4901 (1985).
[Crossref]

R. A. Mullen and R. W. Hellwarth, J. Appl. Phys. 58, 40 (1985).
[Crossref]

M. Nakahara and T. Murakami, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 3795 (1974).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

M. G. Clark, F. J. DiSalvo, A. M. Glass, and G. E. Peterson, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 6209 (1973).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

J. Rodel and G. Tomandl, J. Mater. Sci. 19, 3515 (1984).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. C (1)

F. M. Michel-Calendini, H. Chermette, and J. Weber, J. Phys. C 13, 1427 (1980).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

A. W. Hornig, R. C. Rempel, and H. E. Weaver, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 10, 1 (1959).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. (2)

H. Ikushima and S. Hayakawa, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 19, 1986 (1964).
[Crossref]

S. Ikegami and I. Ueda, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 19, 159 (1964).
[Crossref]

J. Solid State Chem. (1)

N. G. Eror and D. M. Smyth, J. Solid State Chem. 24, 235 (1978).
[Crossref]

Mater. Res. Bull. (1)

V. Belrus, J. Kalinajs, A. Linz, and R. C. Folweiler, Mater. Res. Bull. 6, 899 (1971).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. Rak, I. Ledoux, and J. P. Huignard, Opt. Commun. 49, 302 (1984).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

G. C. Valley and M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. 22, 704 (1983).
[Crossref]

Philips Res. Rep. (1)

J. Daniels, Philips Res. Rep. 31, 505 (1976).

Philips Res. Rep. Suppl. (1)

A. M. J. H. Seuter, Philips Res. Rep. Suppl. 3, 1 (1974).

Phys. Lett. (1)

G. A. Cox and R. H. Tredgold, Phys. Lett. 11, 22 (1964).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (2)

C. N. Berglund and W. S. Baer, Phys. Rev. 157, 358 (1967).
[Crossref]

C. N. Berglund and H. J. Braun, Phys. Rev. 164, 790 (1967).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (6)

E. Siegel and K. A. Muller, Phys. Rev. B 20, 3587 (1979).
[Crossref]

F. J. Morin and J. R. Oliver, Phys. Rev. B 8, 5847 (1973).
[Crossref]

E. S. Kirkpatrick, K. A. Muller, and R. S. Rubins, Phys. Rev. B 5, A86 (1964).

L. F. Mattheis, Phys. Rev. B 12, 4718 (1972).
[Crossref]

P. Pertosa and F. M. Michel-Calendini, Phys. Rev. B 17, 2011 (1978).
[Crossref]

H. J. Hagemann and H. Ihrig, Phys. Rev. B 20, 3871 (1979).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi A (2)

P. Gerthsen, K. H. Hardtl, and A. Csillag, Phys. Status Solidi A 13, 127 (1972).
[Crossref]

H. J. Hagemann, A. Hero, and U. Gonser, Phys. Status Solidi A 61, 63 (1980).
[Crossref]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

M. B. Klein, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 519, 136 (1984).

Prog. Inorg. Chem. (1)

N. S. Hush, Prog. Inorg. Chem. 8, 391 (1967).
[Crossref]

RCA Rev. (1)

W. Phillips, J. J. Amodei, and D. L. Staebler, RCA Rev. 33, 94 (1972).

Solid State Commun. (4)

F. M. Michel-Calendini, Solid State Commun. 52, 167 (1984).
[Crossref]

E. Kratzig, F. Welz, R. Orlowski, V. Doorman, and M. Rosenkranz, Solid State Commun. 34, 817 (1980).
[Crossref]

F. M. Michel-Calendini, L. Hafid, G. Godefroy, and H. Chermette, Solid State Commun. 54, 951 (1985).
[Crossref]

R. Orlowski and E. Kratzig, Solid State Commun. 27, 1351 (1978).
[Crossref]

Sov. Phys. Solid State (1)

V. L. Vinetskii and N. V. Kukhtarev, Sov. Phys. Solid State 16, 2414 (1975).

Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. V. Kukhtarev, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 2, 438 (1976).

Other (7)

G. C. Valley, J. Appl. Phys. (to be published).

H. J. Hagemann, Ph.D. dissertation (Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule, Aachen, Federal Republic of Germany, 1980).

A. Abragam and B. Bleaney, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance of Transition Metal Ions (Oxford U. Press, London, 1970).

D. Rytz, Hughes Research Laboratories, Malibu, Calif. 90265 (personal communication).

S. H. Wemple, in Ohmic Contacts to Semiconductors, B. Schwartz, ed. (Electrochemical Society, New York, 1968).

A. Rose, Concepts in Photoconductivity and Allied Problems (Krieger, New York, 1978).

M. Minden, Hughes Research Laboratories, Malibu, Calif. 90265 (personal communication).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energy-level model for the photorefractive effect. Electrons are photoionized from level X and recombine at X+; holes are photoionized from X+ and recombine at X.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Gratings in a photorefractive material. The periodic irradiance pattern results from the interference of two waves in the material.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relative contribution of electrons and holes to the photo-conductivity in LiNbO3 (from Ref. 10).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral variation of the absorption coefficient in the visible for four BaTiO3 samples.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

EPR spectrum observed with the dc magnetic field directed along the [010] axis [Bĉ and in the (100) plane].

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Expanded EPR spectrum about the g ≃ 2 spectral region at the same magnetic-field orientation as in Fig. 5.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Angular dependence of the EPR transitions for Fe3+ (○) and Cr3+ (△) when B is rotated in the (100) plane. ● and □ represent unidentified transitions.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Absorption coefficient, concentration of empty traps, and Fe3+ concentration versus total Fe concentration for four samples of BaTiO3. The samples are identified at the bottom of the plot.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Relative contribution of electrons and holes to the photoconductivity in BaTiO3 assuming that R = μe/μh = 2500. The experimental points are from the beam-coupling data, using σ ¯ = σ ¯ h - σ ¯ e.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Schematic representation of the energy levels of Mn+O6−12+n clusters in BaTiO3. (a) TiO68−, (b) FeO610– (Fe2+), and (c) FeO69− (Fe3+). In (b) and (c), the up-spin levels are located on the left side of each panel and the down-spin levels are on the right. The levels in (a) and (c) have been calculated by the SCF–MS–, method.44,49 The levels in (b) are extrapolated from those of the Fe2+VO center.4648 CB and VB correspond, respectively, to the conduction-band minimum (t2g Ti 3d states) and the valence-band maximum (t1g O 2p states of the TiO68− cluster). Note the tendency of the higher valence states (e.g., Fe3+) to lie lower in the band gap.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Beam-Coupling Data for Seven Samples of BaTiO3

Tables Icon

Table 2 Absorption Coefficient at 4416 Å for Ec

Tables Icon

Table 3 Transition-Metal Impurities in BaTiO3 Measured by Spark-Source Emission Spectroscopya

Tables Icon

Table 4 Electronic Properties of First-Row Transition Metalsa

Tables Icon

Table 5 Fe3+ Concentration Measured by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance

Equations (40)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E sc = σ ¯ E d E q E d + E q .
σ ¯ = μ h p - μ e n μ h p + μ e n ,
E d = k T e 2 π Λ g .
E q = 2 e Λ g N E ,
p μ h = n μ e
p n = μ e μ h .
s e I N = γ e n N +
s h I N + = γ h p N .
N + N = ( γ h s e p γ e s h n ) 1 / 2 .
N + N = ( γ h s e μ e γ e s h μ h ) 1 / 2 .
σ ¯ e = σ e σ e + σ h
σ ¯ h = σ h σ e + σ h ,
[ M 3 + ] = 2 [ V O 2 + ] I ,
[ M 3 + ] + n = 2 [ V O 2 + ] + p .
[ Al 3 + ] + 2 [ Fe 2 + ] + [ Fe 3 + ] + n = 2 [ V O 2 + ] + p .
r eff = F p σ ¯ r 13 ,
α = α P + α N P ,
H = β ( S · g · B ) + B 4 ( O 4 0 + 5 O 4 4 ) + B 2 0 O 2 0 + B 4 0 O 4 0 .
O 2 0 = [ 3 S z 2 - S ( S + 1 ) ] , O 4 0 = [ 35 S z 4 - 30 S ( S + 1 ) S z 2 + 25 S z 2 - 6 S ( S + 1 ) ] , O 4 4 = [ 1 2 ( S + 4 + S - 4 ) ] ,
a = 120 B 4 ,             D = 3 B 2 0 ,             F = 180 B 4 0 .
g = 1.9740 ± 0.0002 , g = 1.9774 ± 0.0002 ,
D = 0.0150 ± 0.0001 cm - 1 .
N = [ Fe 2 + ] 2 - 9 × 10 16 cm - 3 , N + = [ Fe 3 + ] [ Fe ] 2 - 8 × 10 18 cm - 3 ,
[ Fe 3 + ] [ Fe 2 + ] 40 - 120.
σ ¯ = σ ¯ h - σ ¯ e .
σ ¯ e = x 2 R 1 + x 2 R
σ ¯ h = 1 1 + x 2 R ,
R = γ h s e μ e γ e s h μ h .
τ = τ di f ( Λ g , E 0 ) ,
τ di / 4 π e α Φ μ τ R I 0 ,
τ di ag 4 π e I 0 ( γ h s h μ h ) x ag ,
τ di r 4 π e I 0 ( γ e s e μ e ) 1 x r ,
τ di r τ di ag = R - 1 ( x ag x r ) - 1 .
H + + Fe 2 + H 0 + Fe 3 +
OH - + Fe 2 + O 2 - + H 0 + Fe 3 + .
Ti 4 + + O 2 - + ( 1 / 2 ) H 2 Ti 3 + + OH -
2 Ti 4 + + O 2 - + H 2 2 Ti 3 + + V O + H 2 O .
V 4 + + Fe 3 + V 5 + + Fe 2 + .
[ N 3 - ] + 2 Δ [ Fe 2 + ] + Δ [ Fe 3 + ] = 0 ,
N 3 - + 3 Fe 3 + 3 Fe 2 + + ( 1 / 2 ) N 2 .

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