Abstract

Laser oscillation in Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 has been demonstrated. Thresholds as low as 3.6 mW and slope efficiencies up to 39% were achieved in a resonantly pumped miniature device. The electro-optical and nonlinear-optical properties of the host were also used to make active internal Q-switched and self-frequency-doubled lasers. Photorefractive damage is shown to be greatly suppressed compared with that for non-MgO-doped material. Absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra, and lifetime measurements are also reported.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. F. Evlanova, A. S. Kovalev, V. A. Koptski, L. S. Kornienko, A. M. Prokhorov, L. N. Rashkovich, “Stimulated emission of LiNbO3crystals with neodymium impurity,” JETP Lett. 5, 291 (1967).
  2. L. I. Ivleva, A. A. Kaminskii, Y. S. Kuz’minov, V. N. Shpakov, “Absorption, luminescence, and induced emission of LiNbO3–Nd3+ crystals,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 13, 1185 (1969).
  3. L. F. Johnson, A. A. Ballman, “Coherent emission from rare earth ions in electro-optic crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 297 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  4. V. T. Gabrielyan, A. A. Kaminskii, L. Li, “Absorption and luminescence spectra and energy levels of Nd3+and Er3+ions in LiNbO3crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi (a) 3, K37 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. A. Kaminskii, “Laser and spectroscopic properties of activated ferroelectrics,” Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 17, 198 (1972).
  6. A. A. Kaminskii, “High temperature spectroscopic investigation of stimulated emission from lasers based on crystals activated with Nd3+ions,” Phys. Status Solidi (a) 1, 573 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. G. Belabaev, A. A. Kaminskii, S. E. Sarkisov, “Stimulated emission from ferroelectric LiNbO3crystal containing Nd3+and Mg2+ions,” Phys. Status Solidi (a) 28, K17 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Y. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Nd:MgO:LiNbO3laser,” in Digest of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985), paper WJ4.
  9. I. P. Kaminow, L. W. Stulz, “Nd:LiNbO3laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 306 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  10. V. G. Dmitriev, E. V. Raevskii, N. M. Rubina, L. N. Rashkovich, O. O. Silichev, A. A. Fomichev, “Simultaneous emission at the fundamental frequency and the second harmonic in an active nonlinear medium: neodymium-doped lithium metaniobate,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 4, 590 (1979).
  11. G. Zhong, J. Jian, Z. Wu, “Measurements of optically induced refractive index damage of lithium niobate doped with different concentrations of MgO,” In Proceedings of the 11th International Quantum Electronics Conference, IEEE Catalog No. 80CH 1561-0 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1980), p. 631.
  12. H. Kai et al., “Pure green laser applicable to high speed photography,” presented at the 14th International Congress on High Speed Photography and Photonics, Moscow, October 19–24, 1980.
  13. D. A. Bryan, R. Gerson, H. E. Tomaschke, “Increased optical damage resistance in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 847 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Cordova-Plaza, M. J. F. Digonnet, “Self-Q-switched Nd:LiNbO3laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2(13), P44 (1985).
  15. G. Burns, D. F. O’Kane, R. S. Title, “Optical and electronspin resonance of Yb3+, Nd3+, and Cr3+ in LiNbO3and LiTaO3,” Phys. Rev. 167, 314 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. A. Kaminskii, Laser Crystals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981).
  17. S. Singh, R. G. Smith, L. G. VanUitert, “Stimulated emission cross-section and fluorescent quantum efficiency of Nd in yttrium aluminum garnet at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 10, 2566 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  18. B. F. Aull, H. P. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in cross-sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 925 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. S. Lomheim, L. G. DeShazer, “New procedure of determining neodymium fluorescence branching ratios as applied to 25 crystal and glass hosts,” Opt. Commun. 24, 89 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. Kubodera, K. Otsuka, S. Miyazawa, “Stable LiNdP4O12miniature laser,” Appl. Opt. 18, 884 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. M. J. F. Digonnet, C. J. Gaeta, “Theoretical analysis of optical fiber laser amplifiers and oscillators,” Appl. Opt. 24, 333 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. G. Huber, “Miniature neodymium lasers” in Current Topics in Material Science, E. Kaldis, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1980), Vol. 4; M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, “Diode pumped fiber laser,” (June1983).
  23. H. G. Danielmeyer, in Lasers: A Series of Advances, A. K. Levine, A. DeMaria, eds. (Marcel-Dekker, New York, 1975), Vol. 4, p. 27.
  24. L. M. Dorozhkin, I. I. Kuratev, N. I. Leonyuk, T. I. Timchenko, A. V. Shestakov, “Nonlinear optical properties of neodymium yttrium aluminum borate crystals,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 7, 555 (1981).
  25. R. G. Smith, “Theory of intracavity optical second harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-6, 215 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  26. W. Silva, Crystal Technology, 1035 East Meadow Circle, Palo Alto, Calif. 94303 (personal communication).
  27. W. Koechner, Solid State Laser Engineering (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), p. 401.

1985 (2)

A. Cordova-Plaza, M. J. F. Digonnet, “Self-Q-switched Nd:LiNbO3laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2(13), P44 (1985).

M. J. F. Digonnet, C. J. Gaeta, “Theoretical analysis of optical fiber laser amplifiers and oscillators,” Appl. Opt. 24, 333 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

D. A. Bryan, R. Gerson, H. E. Tomaschke, “Increased optical damage resistance in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 847 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

B. F. Aull, H. P. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in cross-sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 925 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

L. M. Dorozhkin, I. I. Kuratev, N. I. Leonyuk, T. I. Timchenko, A. V. Shestakov, “Nonlinear optical properties of neodymium yttrium aluminum borate crystals,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 7, 555 (1981).

1979 (2)

K. Kubodera, K. Otsuka, S. Miyazawa, “Stable LiNdP4O12miniature laser,” Appl. Opt. 18, 884 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Dmitriev, E. V. Raevskii, N. M. Rubina, L. N. Rashkovich, O. O. Silichev, A. A. Fomichev, “Simultaneous emission at the fundamental frequency and the second harmonic in an active nonlinear medium: neodymium-doped lithium metaniobate,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 4, 590 (1979).

1978 (1)

T. S. Lomheim, L. G. DeShazer, “New procedure of determining neodymium fluorescence branching ratios as applied to 25 crystal and glass hosts,” Opt. Commun. 24, 89 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1975 (2)

K. G. Belabaev, A. A. Kaminskii, S. E. Sarkisov, “Stimulated emission from ferroelectric LiNbO3crystal containing Nd3+and Mg2+ions,” Phys. Status Solidi (a) 28, K17 (1975).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Kaminow, L. W. Stulz, “Nd:LiNbO3laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 306 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

S. Singh, R. G. Smith, L. G. VanUitert, “Stimulated emission cross-section and fluorescent quantum efficiency of Nd in yttrium aluminum garnet at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 10, 2566 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

A. A. Kaminskii, “Laser and spectroscopic properties of activated ferroelectrics,” Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 17, 198 (1972).

1970 (3)

A. A. Kaminskii, “High temperature spectroscopic investigation of stimulated emission from lasers based on crystals activated with Nd3+ions,” Phys. Status Solidi (a) 1, 573 (1970).
[CrossRef]

V. T. Gabrielyan, A. A. Kaminskii, L. Li, “Absorption and luminescence spectra and energy levels of Nd3+and Er3+ions in LiNbO3crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi (a) 3, K37 (1970).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Smith, “Theory of intracavity optical second harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-6, 215 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969 (2)

L. I. Ivleva, A. A. Kaminskii, Y. S. Kuz’minov, V. N. Shpakov, “Absorption, luminescence, and induced emission of LiNbO3–Nd3+ crystals,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 13, 1185 (1969).

L. F. Johnson, A. A. Ballman, “Coherent emission from rare earth ions in electro-optic crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 297 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

G. Burns, D. F. O’Kane, R. S. Title, “Optical and electronspin resonance of Yb3+, Nd3+, and Cr3+ in LiNbO3and LiTaO3,” Phys. Rev. 167, 314 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

N. F. Evlanova, A. S. Kovalev, V. A. Koptski, L. S. Kornienko, A. M. Prokhorov, L. N. Rashkovich, “Stimulated emission of LiNbO3crystals with neodymium impurity,” JETP Lett. 5, 291 (1967).

Aull, B. F.

B. F. Aull, H. P. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in cross-sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 925 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ballman, A. A.

L. F. Johnson, A. A. Ballman, “Coherent emission from rare earth ions in electro-optic crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 297 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Belabaev, K. G.

K. G. Belabaev, A. A. Kaminskii, S. E. Sarkisov, “Stimulated emission from ferroelectric LiNbO3crystal containing Nd3+and Mg2+ions,” Phys. Status Solidi (a) 28, K17 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Bryan, D. A.

D. A. Bryan, R. Gerson, H. E. Tomaschke, “Increased optical damage resistance in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 847 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Burns, G.

G. Burns, D. F. O’Kane, R. S. Title, “Optical and electronspin resonance of Yb3+, Nd3+, and Cr3+ in LiNbO3and LiTaO3,” Phys. Rev. 167, 314 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

T. Y. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Nd:MgO:LiNbO3laser,” in Digest of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985), paper WJ4.

Cordova-Plaza, A.

A. Cordova-Plaza, M. J. F. Digonnet, “Self-Q-switched Nd:LiNbO3laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2(13), P44 (1985).

Danielmeyer, H. G.

H. G. Danielmeyer, in Lasers: A Series of Advances, A. K. Levine, A. DeMaria, eds. (Marcel-Dekker, New York, 1975), Vol. 4, p. 27.

DeShazer, L. G.

T. S. Lomheim, L. G. DeShazer, “New procedure of determining neodymium fluorescence branching ratios as applied to 25 crystal and glass hosts,” Opt. Commun. 24, 89 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Digonnet, M. J. F.

M. J. F. Digonnet, C. J. Gaeta, “Theoretical analysis of optical fiber laser amplifiers and oscillators,” Appl. Opt. 24, 333 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cordova-Plaza, M. J. F. Digonnet, “Self-Q-switched Nd:LiNbO3laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2(13), P44 (1985).

Dmitriev, V. G.

V. G. Dmitriev, E. V. Raevskii, N. M. Rubina, L. N. Rashkovich, O. O. Silichev, A. A. Fomichev, “Simultaneous emission at the fundamental frequency and the second harmonic in an active nonlinear medium: neodymium-doped lithium metaniobate,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 4, 590 (1979).

Dorozhkin, L. M.

L. M. Dorozhkin, I. I. Kuratev, N. I. Leonyuk, T. I. Timchenko, A. V. Shestakov, “Nonlinear optical properties of neodymium yttrium aluminum borate crystals,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 7, 555 (1981).

Evlanova, N. F.

N. F. Evlanova, A. S. Kovalev, V. A. Koptski, L. S. Kornienko, A. M. Prokhorov, L. N. Rashkovich, “Stimulated emission of LiNbO3crystals with neodymium impurity,” JETP Lett. 5, 291 (1967).

Fan, T. Y.

T. Y. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Nd:MgO:LiNbO3laser,” in Digest of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985), paper WJ4.

Fomichev, A. A.

V. G. Dmitriev, E. V. Raevskii, N. M. Rubina, L. N. Rashkovich, O. O. Silichev, A. A. Fomichev, “Simultaneous emission at the fundamental frequency and the second harmonic in an active nonlinear medium: neodymium-doped lithium metaniobate,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 4, 590 (1979).

Gabrielyan, V. T.

V. T. Gabrielyan, A. A. Kaminskii, L. Li, “Absorption and luminescence spectra and energy levels of Nd3+and Er3+ions in LiNbO3crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi (a) 3, K37 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, C. J.

Gerson, R.

D. A. Bryan, R. Gerson, H. E. Tomaschke, “Increased optical damage resistance in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 847 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

G. Huber, “Miniature neodymium lasers” in Current Topics in Material Science, E. Kaldis, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1980), Vol. 4; M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, “Diode pumped fiber laser,” (June1983).

Ivleva, L. I.

L. I. Ivleva, A. A. Kaminskii, Y. S. Kuz’minov, V. N. Shpakov, “Absorption, luminescence, and induced emission of LiNbO3–Nd3+ crystals,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 13, 1185 (1969).

Jenssen, H. P.

B. F. Aull, H. P. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in cross-sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 925 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Jian, J.

G. Zhong, J. Jian, Z. Wu, “Measurements of optically induced refractive index damage of lithium niobate doped with different concentrations of MgO,” In Proceedings of the 11th International Quantum Electronics Conference, IEEE Catalog No. 80CH 1561-0 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1980), p. 631.

Johnson, L. F.

L. F. Johnson, A. A. Ballman, “Coherent emission from rare earth ions in electro-optic crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 297 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Kai, H.

H. Kai et al., “Pure green laser applicable to high speed photography,” presented at the 14th International Congress on High Speed Photography and Photonics, Moscow, October 19–24, 1980.

Kaminow, I. P.

I. P. Kaminow, L. W. Stulz, “Nd:LiNbO3laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 306 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Kaminskii, A. A.

K. G. Belabaev, A. A. Kaminskii, S. E. Sarkisov, “Stimulated emission from ferroelectric LiNbO3crystal containing Nd3+and Mg2+ions,” Phys. Status Solidi (a) 28, K17 (1975).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, “Laser and spectroscopic properties of activated ferroelectrics,” Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 17, 198 (1972).

A. A. Kaminskii, “High temperature spectroscopic investigation of stimulated emission from lasers based on crystals activated with Nd3+ions,” Phys. Status Solidi (a) 1, 573 (1970).
[CrossRef]

V. T. Gabrielyan, A. A. Kaminskii, L. Li, “Absorption and luminescence spectra and energy levels of Nd3+and Er3+ions in LiNbO3crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi (a) 3, K37 (1970).
[CrossRef]

L. I. Ivleva, A. A. Kaminskii, Y. S. Kuz’minov, V. N. Shpakov, “Absorption, luminescence, and induced emission of LiNbO3–Nd3+ crystals,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 13, 1185 (1969).

A. A. Kaminskii, Laser Crystals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981).

Koechner, W.

W. Koechner, Solid State Laser Engineering (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), p. 401.

Koptski, V. A.

N. F. Evlanova, A. S. Kovalev, V. A. Koptski, L. S. Kornienko, A. M. Prokhorov, L. N. Rashkovich, “Stimulated emission of LiNbO3crystals with neodymium impurity,” JETP Lett. 5, 291 (1967).

Kornienko, L. S.

N. F. Evlanova, A. S. Kovalev, V. A. Koptski, L. S. Kornienko, A. M. Prokhorov, L. N. Rashkovich, “Stimulated emission of LiNbO3crystals with neodymium impurity,” JETP Lett. 5, 291 (1967).

Kovalev, A. S.

N. F. Evlanova, A. S. Kovalev, V. A. Koptski, L. S. Kornienko, A. M. Prokhorov, L. N. Rashkovich, “Stimulated emission of LiNbO3crystals with neodymium impurity,” JETP Lett. 5, 291 (1967).

Kubodera, K.

Kuratev, I. I.

L. M. Dorozhkin, I. I. Kuratev, N. I. Leonyuk, T. I. Timchenko, A. V. Shestakov, “Nonlinear optical properties of neodymium yttrium aluminum borate crystals,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 7, 555 (1981).

Kuz’minov, Y. S.

L. I. Ivleva, A. A. Kaminskii, Y. S. Kuz’minov, V. N. Shpakov, “Absorption, luminescence, and induced emission of LiNbO3–Nd3+ crystals,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 13, 1185 (1969).

Leonyuk, N. I.

L. M. Dorozhkin, I. I. Kuratev, N. I. Leonyuk, T. I. Timchenko, A. V. Shestakov, “Nonlinear optical properties of neodymium yttrium aluminum borate crystals,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 7, 555 (1981).

Li, L.

V. T. Gabrielyan, A. A. Kaminskii, L. Li, “Absorption and luminescence spectra and energy levels of Nd3+and Er3+ions in LiNbO3crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi (a) 3, K37 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Lomheim, T. S.

T. S. Lomheim, L. G. DeShazer, “New procedure of determining neodymium fluorescence branching ratios as applied to 25 crystal and glass hosts,” Opt. Commun. 24, 89 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Miyazawa, S.

O’Kane, D. F.

G. Burns, D. F. O’Kane, R. S. Title, “Optical and electronspin resonance of Yb3+, Nd3+, and Cr3+ in LiNbO3and LiTaO3,” Phys. Rev. 167, 314 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Otsuka, K.

Prokhorov, A. M.

N. F. Evlanova, A. S. Kovalev, V. A. Koptski, L. S. Kornienko, A. M. Prokhorov, L. N. Rashkovich, “Stimulated emission of LiNbO3crystals with neodymium impurity,” JETP Lett. 5, 291 (1967).

Raevskii, E. V.

V. G. Dmitriev, E. V. Raevskii, N. M. Rubina, L. N. Rashkovich, O. O. Silichev, A. A. Fomichev, “Simultaneous emission at the fundamental frequency and the second harmonic in an active nonlinear medium: neodymium-doped lithium metaniobate,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 4, 590 (1979).

Rashkovich, L. N.

V. G. Dmitriev, E. V. Raevskii, N. M. Rubina, L. N. Rashkovich, O. O. Silichev, A. A. Fomichev, “Simultaneous emission at the fundamental frequency and the second harmonic in an active nonlinear medium: neodymium-doped lithium metaniobate,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 4, 590 (1979).

N. F. Evlanova, A. S. Kovalev, V. A. Koptski, L. S. Kornienko, A. M. Prokhorov, L. N. Rashkovich, “Stimulated emission of LiNbO3crystals with neodymium impurity,” JETP Lett. 5, 291 (1967).

Rubina, N. M.

V. G. Dmitriev, E. V. Raevskii, N. M. Rubina, L. N. Rashkovich, O. O. Silichev, A. A. Fomichev, “Simultaneous emission at the fundamental frequency and the second harmonic in an active nonlinear medium: neodymium-doped lithium metaniobate,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 4, 590 (1979).

Sarkisov, S. E.

K. G. Belabaev, A. A. Kaminskii, S. E. Sarkisov, “Stimulated emission from ferroelectric LiNbO3crystal containing Nd3+and Mg2+ions,” Phys. Status Solidi (a) 28, K17 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Shestakov, A. V.

L. M. Dorozhkin, I. I. Kuratev, N. I. Leonyuk, T. I. Timchenko, A. V. Shestakov, “Nonlinear optical properties of neodymium yttrium aluminum borate crystals,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 7, 555 (1981).

Shpakov, V. N.

L. I. Ivleva, A. A. Kaminskii, Y. S. Kuz’minov, V. N. Shpakov, “Absorption, luminescence, and induced emission of LiNbO3–Nd3+ crystals,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 13, 1185 (1969).

Silichev, O. O.

V. G. Dmitriev, E. V. Raevskii, N. M. Rubina, L. N. Rashkovich, O. O. Silichev, A. A. Fomichev, “Simultaneous emission at the fundamental frequency and the second harmonic in an active nonlinear medium: neodymium-doped lithium metaniobate,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 4, 590 (1979).

Silva, W.

W. Silva, Crystal Technology, 1035 East Meadow Circle, Palo Alto, Calif. 94303 (personal communication).

Singh, S.

S. Singh, R. G. Smith, L. G. VanUitert, “Stimulated emission cross-section and fluorescent quantum efficiency of Nd in yttrium aluminum garnet at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 10, 2566 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. G.

S. Singh, R. G. Smith, L. G. VanUitert, “Stimulated emission cross-section and fluorescent quantum efficiency of Nd in yttrium aluminum garnet at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 10, 2566 (1974).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Smith, “Theory of intracavity optical second harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-6, 215 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Stulz, L. W.

I. P. Kaminow, L. W. Stulz, “Nd:LiNbO3laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 306 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Timchenko, T. I.

L. M. Dorozhkin, I. I. Kuratev, N. I. Leonyuk, T. I. Timchenko, A. V. Shestakov, “Nonlinear optical properties of neodymium yttrium aluminum borate crystals,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 7, 555 (1981).

Title, R. S.

G. Burns, D. F. O’Kane, R. S. Title, “Optical and electronspin resonance of Yb3+, Nd3+, and Cr3+ in LiNbO3and LiTaO3,” Phys. Rev. 167, 314 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Tomaschke, H. E.

D. A. Bryan, R. Gerson, H. E. Tomaschke, “Increased optical damage resistance in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 847 (1984).
[CrossRef]

VanUitert, L. G.

S. Singh, R. G. Smith, L. G. VanUitert, “Stimulated emission cross-section and fluorescent quantum efficiency of Nd in yttrium aluminum garnet at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 10, 2566 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z.

G. Zhong, J. Jian, Z. Wu, “Measurements of optically induced refractive index damage of lithium niobate doped with different concentrations of MgO,” In Proceedings of the 11th International Quantum Electronics Conference, IEEE Catalog No. 80CH 1561-0 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1980), p. 631.

Zhong, G.

G. Zhong, J. Jian, Z. Wu, “Measurements of optically induced refractive index damage of lithium niobate doped with different concentrations of MgO,” In Proceedings of the 11th International Quantum Electronics Conference, IEEE Catalog No. 80CH 1561-0 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1980), p. 631.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. A. Bryan, R. Gerson, H. E. Tomaschke, “Increased optical damage resistance in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 847 (1984).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

B. F. Aull, H. P. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in cross-sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 925 (1982).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Kaminow, L. W. Stulz, “Nd:LiNbO3laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 306 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Smith, “Theory of intracavity optical second harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-6, 215 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

L. F. Johnson, A. A. Ballman, “Coherent emission from rare earth ions in electro-optic crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 297 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

A. Cordova-Plaza, M. J. F. Digonnet, “Self-Q-switched Nd:LiNbO3laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2(13), P44 (1985).

JETP Lett. (1)

N. F. Evlanova, A. S. Kovalev, V. A. Koptski, L. S. Kornienko, A. M. Prokhorov, L. N. Rashkovich, “Stimulated emission of LiNbO3crystals with neodymium impurity,” JETP Lett. 5, 291 (1967).

Opt. Commun. (1)

T. S. Lomheim, L. G. DeShazer, “New procedure of determining neodymium fluorescence branching ratios as applied to 25 crystal and glass hosts,” Opt. Commun. 24, 89 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

G. Burns, D. F. O’Kane, R. S. Title, “Optical and electronspin resonance of Yb3+, Nd3+, and Cr3+ in LiNbO3and LiTaO3,” Phys. Rev. 167, 314 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

S. Singh, R. G. Smith, L. G. VanUitert, “Stimulated emission cross-section and fluorescent quantum efficiency of Nd in yttrium aluminum garnet at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 10, 2566 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi (a) (3)

A. A. Kaminskii, “High temperature spectroscopic investigation of stimulated emission from lasers based on crystals activated with Nd3+ions,” Phys. Status Solidi (a) 1, 573 (1970).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Belabaev, A. A. Kaminskii, S. E. Sarkisov, “Stimulated emission from ferroelectric LiNbO3crystal containing Nd3+and Mg2+ions,” Phys. Status Solidi (a) 28, K17 (1975).
[CrossRef]

V. T. Gabrielyan, A. A. Kaminskii, L. Li, “Absorption and luminescence spectra and energy levels of Nd3+and Er3+ions in LiNbO3crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi (a) 3, K37 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. (1)

A. A. Kaminskii, “Laser and spectroscopic properties of activated ferroelectrics,” Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 17, 198 (1972).

Sov. Phys. Dokl. (1)

L. I. Ivleva, A. A. Kaminskii, Y. S. Kuz’minov, V. N. Shpakov, “Absorption, luminescence, and induced emission of LiNbO3–Nd3+ crystals,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 13, 1185 (1969).

Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. (2)

V. G. Dmitriev, E. V. Raevskii, N. M. Rubina, L. N. Rashkovich, O. O. Silichev, A. A. Fomichev, “Simultaneous emission at the fundamental frequency and the second harmonic in an active nonlinear medium: neodymium-doped lithium metaniobate,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 4, 590 (1979).

L. M. Dorozhkin, I. I. Kuratev, N. I. Leonyuk, T. I. Timchenko, A. V. Shestakov, “Nonlinear optical properties of neodymium yttrium aluminum borate crystals,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 7, 555 (1981).

Other (8)

W. Silva, Crystal Technology, 1035 East Meadow Circle, Palo Alto, Calif. 94303 (personal communication).

W. Koechner, Solid State Laser Engineering (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), p. 401.

G. Huber, “Miniature neodymium lasers” in Current Topics in Material Science, E. Kaldis, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1980), Vol. 4; M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, “Diode pumped fiber laser,” (June1983).

H. G. Danielmeyer, in Lasers: A Series of Advances, A. K. Levine, A. DeMaria, eds. (Marcel-Dekker, New York, 1975), Vol. 4, p. 27.

G. Zhong, J. Jian, Z. Wu, “Measurements of optically induced refractive index damage of lithium niobate doped with different concentrations of MgO,” In Proceedings of the 11th International Quantum Electronics Conference, IEEE Catalog No. 80CH 1561-0 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1980), p. 631.

H. Kai et al., “Pure green laser applicable to high speed photography,” presented at the 14th International Congress on High Speed Photography and Photonics, Moscow, October 19–24, 1980.

T. Y. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Nd:MgO:LiNbO3laser,” in Digest of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985), paper WJ4.

A. A. Kaminskii, Laser Crystals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption coefficient as a function of wavelength for the high-doped sample.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Effective stimulated-emission cross section calculated from the fluorescence spectrum.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the miniature Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 laser experimental arrangement. (ND, neutral density.)

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Output-power versus pump-power curves, π polarization.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Output-power versus pump-power curves, σ polarization. (a) R = 5 cm, L = 106 mm, T = 0.42%. (b) R = 10 cm, L = 6.5 mm, T = 0.30%.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Single-ended output at the second harmonic for the self-frequency-doubled laser.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Continuous-Wave Laser Data

Equations (7)

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σ e p ( λ ) = 3 λ 5 β j I p ( λ ) 8 π n 2 c τ R λ I ( λ ) d λ ,
β j = λ I j ( λ ) d λ i λ I i ( λ ) d λ ,
P th = h v p σ τ f δ 2 [ π 2 ( w ¯ p 2 + w ¯ s 2 ) ] .
w ¯ i 2 = w i 2 l 0 l { 1 + [ λ i ( z - z i ) π w i 2 n ] 2 } d z .
ω i , opt = ( λ i l 12 π n ) 1 / 2 ,
s T δ h v s h v p ,
Δ t = Δ t min r r - 1 - ln r ,

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