Abstract

V2+-doped KMgF3, KMnF3, RbMnF3, CsCaF3, CsCdCl3, and NaCl single crystals are analyzed with respect to their electronic properties and their suitability as laser material for vibronic-laser operation. All systems show broadband emission and together cover the spectral range between 1.9 and 0.9 μm. KMgF3, KMnF3, RbMnF3, and CsCaF3 have the potential for tunable pulsed- or cw-laser operation at room temperature, whereas laser emission with NaCl:V2+ may be expected below 200 K. The CsCaF3:V2+ material has been successfully operated between 1.24 and 1.33 μm.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Digest of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985).
  2. P. Hammerling, A. B. Budgor, A. Pinto, eds. Tunable Solid State Lasers Vol. 47 of Springer Series in Optical Science (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1985).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. F. Johnson, H. J. Guggenheim, R. A. Thomas, “Phonon terminated optical masers,” Phys. Rev. 149, 179 (1966); “Phonon terminated coherent emission from V2+ions in MgF2,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4837 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. C. Powell, ed., Proceedings of the International Coference on Lasers ’83 (STS, McLean, Va., 1985).
  5. K. German, U. Brauch, U. Duirr, “Tunable single frequency laser in Co2+:KZnF3,” in Digest of the Topical Meeting on Tunable Solid-State Lasers 1985 (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985), paper FB3.
  6. G. Litfin, Spindler & Hoyer GmbH & Co., Göttingen, Federal Republic of Germany (personal communication).
  7. P. F. Moulton, paper presented at the International Quantum-Electronics Conference 1982, Munich, Federal Republic of Germany.
  8. U. Brauch, U. Dürr, “Vibronic laser action in V2+:CsCaF3,” Opt. Commun. 55, 35 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Kuwabara, “ESR and optical spectra of V2+ in NaCl,” Phys. Rev. A 138, 99 (1965).
  10. J. R. Chang, G. L. McPherson, J. L. Atwood, “EPR spectra of V(II) and Ni (II) doped into crystals of CsCdCl3,” Inorg. Chem. 14, 3079 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Okazaki, Y. Suemune, “The crystal structures of KMnF3, KFeF3, KCoF3, KNiF3, and KCuF3above and below their Neel temperatures,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 16, 671 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Sugano, Y. Tanabe, H. Kamimura, Multiplets of TM Ions in Crystals, Vol. 33 of Pure and Applied Physics (Academic, New York, 1970).
  13. M. D. Sturge, “The Jahn–Teller effect in solids,” Solid State Phys. 20, 91 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Huang, A. Rhys. “Theory of light absorption and non-radiative transitions in F-centres,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 204, 406 (1951).
  15. M. H. L. Price, “Interactions of lattice vibrations with electrons at point defects,” in Phonons, R. W. Stevenson, ed. (Oliver & Boyd, London, 1967).
  16. R. Englman, Nonradiative Decay of Ions and Molecules in Solids (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1979).
  17. M. D. Sturge, H. J. Guggenheim, “Antiresonance and the optical spectra of TM ions in crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 2459 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Ferguson, H. J. Guggenheim, Y. Tanabe, “The effect of exchange interaction in the spectra of octahedral manganese,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 21, 692 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Montagna, O. Pilla, G. Villiani, “Dynamical JT-effect on spin–orbit multiplets: intensity quenching,” J. Phys. C 12, L699 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. Hauser, H. U. Gundel, “Single crystal absorption and emission spectra of CsVCl3and CsMgCl3:V2+,” J. Lumin. 27, 249 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  21. C. Bosschem, M. Vanhaelst, P. Mattys, E. Boesmann, “EPR Spectra of NaCl:V2+ and KCl:V2+ above room temperature,” Solid State Commun. 32, 1173 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. Emery, J. C. Fayet, “Calculations of the t2g antibonding molecular orbital in (VF6)4+, comparison with ESR investigations on KZnF3:V2+,” Solid State Commun. 33, 801 (1980).
    [CrossRef]

1985 (1)

U. Brauch, U. Dürr, “Vibronic laser action in V2+:CsCaF3,” Opt. Commun. 55, 35 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

A. Hauser, H. U. Gundel, “Single crystal absorption and emission spectra of CsVCl3and CsMgCl3:V2+,” J. Lumin. 27, 249 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

J. Emery, J. C. Fayet, “Calculations of the t2g antibonding molecular orbital in (VF6)4+, comparison with ESR investigations on KZnF3:V2+,” Solid State Commun. 33, 801 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

C. Bosschem, M. Vanhaelst, P. Mattys, E. Boesmann, “EPR Spectra of NaCl:V2+ and KCl:V2+ above room temperature,” Solid State Commun. 32, 1173 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. Montagna, O. Pilla, G. Villiani, “Dynamical JT-effect on spin–orbit multiplets: intensity quenching,” J. Phys. C 12, L699 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

J. R. Chang, G. L. McPherson, J. L. Atwood, “EPR spectra of V(II) and Ni (II) doped into crystals of CsCdCl3,” Inorg. Chem. 14, 3079 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

M. D. Sturge, H. J. Guggenheim, “Antiresonance and the optical spectra of TM ions in crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 2459 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

M. D. Sturge, “The Jahn–Teller effect in solids,” Solid State Phys. 20, 91 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966 (2)

J. Ferguson, H. J. Guggenheim, Y. Tanabe, “The effect of exchange interaction in the spectra of octahedral manganese,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 21, 692 (1966).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Johnson, H. J. Guggenheim, R. A. Thomas, “Phonon terminated optical masers,” Phys. Rev. 149, 179 (1966); “Phonon terminated coherent emission from V2+ions in MgF2,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4837 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

G. Kuwabara, “ESR and optical spectra of V2+ in NaCl,” Phys. Rev. A 138, 99 (1965).

1961 (1)

A. Okazaki, Y. Suemune, “The crystal structures of KMnF3, KFeF3, KCoF3, KNiF3, and KCuF3above and below their Neel temperatures,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 16, 671 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1951 (1)

K. Huang, A. Rhys. “Theory of light absorption and non-radiative transitions in F-centres,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 204, 406 (1951).

Atwood, J. L.

J. R. Chang, G. L. McPherson, J. L. Atwood, “EPR spectra of V(II) and Ni (II) doped into crystals of CsCdCl3,” Inorg. Chem. 14, 3079 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Boesmann, E.

C. Bosschem, M. Vanhaelst, P. Mattys, E. Boesmann, “EPR Spectra of NaCl:V2+ and KCl:V2+ above room temperature,” Solid State Commun. 32, 1173 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bosschem, C.

C. Bosschem, M. Vanhaelst, P. Mattys, E. Boesmann, “EPR Spectra of NaCl:V2+ and KCl:V2+ above room temperature,” Solid State Commun. 32, 1173 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Brauch, U.

U. Brauch, U. Dürr, “Vibronic laser action in V2+:CsCaF3,” Opt. Commun. 55, 35 (1985).
[CrossRef]

K. German, U. Brauch, U. Duirr, “Tunable single frequency laser in Co2+:KZnF3,” in Digest of the Topical Meeting on Tunable Solid-State Lasers 1985 (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985), paper FB3.

Chang, J. R.

J. R. Chang, G. L. McPherson, J. L. Atwood, “EPR spectra of V(II) and Ni (II) doped into crystals of CsCdCl3,” Inorg. Chem. 14, 3079 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Duirr, U.

K. German, U. Brauch, U. Duirr, “Tunable single frequency laser in Co2+:KZnF3,” in Digest of the Topical Meeting on Tunable Solid-State Lasers 1985 (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985), paper FB3.

Dürr, U.

U. Brauch, U. Dürr, “Vibronic laser action in V2+:CsCaF3,” Opt. Commun. 55, 35 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Emery, J.

J. Emery, J. C. Fayet, “Calculations of the t2g antibonding molecular orbital in (VF6)4+, comparison with ESR investigations on KZnF3:V2+,” Solid State Commun. 33, 801 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Englman, R.

R. Englman, Nonradiative Decay of Ions and Molecules in Solids (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1979).

Fayet, J. C.

J. Emery, J. C. Fayet, “Calculations of the t2g antibonding molecular orbital in (VF6)4+, comparison with ESR investigations on KZnF3:V2+,” Solid State Commun. 33, 801 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, J.

J. Ferguson, H. J. Guggenheim, Y. Tanabe, “The effect of exchange interaction in the spectra of octahedral manganese,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 21, 692 (1966).
[CrossRef]

German, K.

K. German, U. Brauch, U. Duirr, “Tunable single frequency laser in Co2+:KZnF3,” in Digest of the Topical Meeting on Tunable Solid-State Lasers 1985 (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985), paper FB3.

Guggenheim, H. J.

M. D. Sturge, H. J. Guggenheim, “Antiresonance and the optical spectra of TM ions in crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 2459 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Ferguson, H. J. Guggenheim, Y. Tanabe, “The effect of exchange interaction in the spectra of octahedral manganese,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 21, 692 (1966).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Johnson, H. J. Guggenheim, R. A. Thomas, “Phonon terminated optical masers,” Phys. Rev. 149, 179 (1966); “Phonon terminated coherent emission from V2+ions in MgF2,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4837 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Gundel, H. U.

A. Hauser, H. U. Gundel, “Single crystal absorption and emission spectra of CsVCl3and CsMgCl3:V2+,” J. Lumin. 27, 249 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hauser, A.

A. Hauser, H. U. Gundel, “Single crystal absorption and emission spectra of CsVCl3and CsMgCl3:V2+,” J. Lumin. 27, 249 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Huang, K.

K. Huang, A. Rhys. “Theory of light absorption and non-radiative transitions in F-centres,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 204, 406 (1951).

Johnson, L. F.

L. F. Johnson, H. J. Guggenheim, R. A. Thomas, “Phonon terminated optical masers,” Phys. Rev. 149, 179 (1966); “Phonon terminated coherent emission from V2+ions in MgF2,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4837 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Kamimura, H.

S. Sugano, Y. Tanabe, H. Kamimura, Multiplets of TM Ions in Crystals, Vol. 33 of Pure and Applied Physics (Academic, New York, 1970).

Kuwabara, G.

G. Kuwabara, “ESR and optical spectra of V2+ in NaCl,” Phys. Rev. A 138, 99 (1965).

Litfin, G.

G. Litfin, Spindler & Hoyer GmbH & Co., Göttingen, Federal Republic of Germany (personal communication).

Mattys, P.

C. Bosschem, M. Vanhaelst, P. Mattys, E. Boesmann, “EPR Spectra of NaCl:V2+ and KCl:V2+ above room temperature,” Solid State Commun. 32, 1173 (1979).
[CrossRef]

McPherson, G. L.

J. R. Chang, G. L. McPherson, J. L. Atwood, “EPR spectra of V(II) and Ni (II) doped into crystals of CsCdCl3,” Inorg. Chem. 14, 3079 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Montagna, M.

M. Montagna, O. Pilla, G. Villiani, “Dynamical JT-effect on spin–orbit multiplets: intensity quenching,” J. Phys. C 12, L699 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Moulton, P. F.

P. F. Moulton, paper presented at the International Quantum-Electronics Conference 1982, Munich, Federal Republic of Germany.

Okazaki, A.

A. Okazaki, Y. Suemune, “The crystal structures of KMnF3, KFeF3, KCoF3, KNiF3, and KCuF3above and below their Neel temperatures,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 16, 671 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Pilla, O.

M. Montagna, O. Pilla, G. Villiani, “Dynamical JT-effect on spin–orbit multiplets: intensity quenching,” J. Phys. C 12, L699 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Price, M. H. L.

M. H. L. Price, “Interactions of lattice vibrations with electrons at point defects,” in Phonons, R. W. Stevenson, ed. (Oliver & Boyd, London, 1967).

Rhys, A.

K. Huang, A. Rhys. “Theory of light absorption and non-radiative transitions in F-centres,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 204, 406 (1951).

Sturge, M. D.

M. D. Sturge, H. J. Guggenheim, “Antiresonance and the optical spectra of TM ions in crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 2459 (1970).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Sturge, “The Jahn–Teller effect in solids,” Solid State Phys. 20, 91 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Suemune, Y.

A. Okazaki, Y. Suemune, “The crystal structures of KMnF3, KFeF3, KCoF3, KNiF3, and KCuF3above and below their Neel temperatures,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 16, 671 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Sugano, S.

S. Sugano, Y. Tanabe, H. Kamimura, Multiplets of TM Ions in Crystals, Vol. 33 of Pure and Applied Physics (Academic, New York, 1970).

Tanabe, Y.

J. Ferguson, H. J. Guggenheim, Y. Tanabe, “The effect of exchange interaction in the spectra of octahedral manganese,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 21, 692 (1966).
[CrossRef]

S. Sugano, Y. Tanabe, H. Kamimura, Multiplets of TM Ions in Crystals, Vol. 33 of Pure and Applied Physics (Academic, New York, 1970).

Thomas, R. A.

L. F. Johnson, H. J. Guggenheim, R. A. Thomas, “Phonon terminated optical masers,” Phys. Rev. 149, 179 (1966); “Phonon terminated coherent emission from V2+ions in MgF2,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4837 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Vanhaelst, M.

C. Bosschem, M. Vanhaelst, P. Mattys, E. Boesmann, “EPR Spectra of NaCl:V2+ and KCl:V2+ above room temperature,” Solid State Commun. 32, 1173 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Villiani, G.

M. Montagna, O. Pilla, G. Villiani, “Dynamical JT-effect on spin–orbit multiplets: intensity quenching,” J. Phys. C 12, L699 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Inorg. Chem. (1)

J. R. Chang, G. L. McPherson, J. L. Atwood, “EPR spectra of V(II) and Ni (II) doped into crystals of CsCdCl3,” Inorg. Chem. 14, 3079 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (1)

A. Hauser, H. U. Gundel, “Single crystal absorption and emission spectra of CsVCl3and CsMgCl3:V2+,” J. Lumin. 27, 249 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. C (1)

M. Montagna, O. Pilla, G. Villiani, “Dynamical JT-effect on spin–orbit multiplets: intensity quenching,” J. Phys. C 12, L699 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. (2)

J. Ferguson, H. J. Guggenheim, Y. Tanabe, “The effect of exchange interaction in the spectra of octahedral manganese,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 21, 692 (1966).
[CrossRef]

A. Okazaki, Y. Suemune, “The crystal structures of KMnF3, KFeF3, KCoF3, KNiF3, and KCuF3above and below their Neel temperatures,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 16, 671 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

U. Brauch, U. Dürr, “Vibronic laser action in V2+:CsCaF3,” Opt. Commun. 55, 35 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

L. F. Johnson, H. J. Guggenheim, R. A. Thomas, “Phonon terminated optical masers,” Phys. Rev. 149, 179 (1966); “Phonon terminated coherent emission from V2+ions in MgF2,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4837 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

G. Kuwabara, “ESR and optical spectra of V2+ in NaCl,” Phys. Rev. A 138, 99 (1965).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. D. Sturge, H. J. Guggenheim, “Antiresonance and the optical spectra of TM ions in crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 2459 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A (1)

K. Huang, A. Rhys. “Theory of light absorption and non-radiative transitions in F-centres,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 204, 406 (1951).

Solid State Commun. (2)

C. Bosschem, M. Vanhaelst, P. Mattys, E. Boesmann, “EPR Spectra of NaCl:V2+ and KCl:V2+ above room temperature,” Solid State Commun. 32, 1173 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Emery, J. C. Fayet, “Calculations of the t2g antibonding molecular orbital in (VF6)4+, comparison with ESR investigations on KZnF3:V2+,” Solid State Commun. 33, 801 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Phys. (1)

M. D. Sturge, “The Jahn–Teller effect in solids,” Solid State Phys. 20, 91 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

M. H. L. Price, “Interactions of lattice vibrations with electrons at point defects,” in Phonons, R. W. Stevenson, ed. (Oliver & Boyd, London, 1967).

R. Englman, Nonradiative Decay of Ions and Molecules in Solids (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1979).

S. Sugano, Y. Tanabe, H. Kamimura, Multiplets of TM Ions in Crystals, Vol. 33 of Pure and Applied Physics (Academic, New York, 1970).

Digest of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985).

P. Hammerling, A. B. Budgor, A. Pinto, eds. Tunable Solid State Lasers Vol. 47 of Springer Series in Optical Science (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1985).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Powell, ed., Proceedings of the International Coference on Lasers ’83 (STS, McLean, Va., 1985).

K. German, U. Brauch, U. Duirr, “Tunable single frequency laser in Co2+:KZnF3,” in Digest of the Topical Meeting on Tunable Solid-State Lasers 1985 (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985), paper FB3.

G. Litfin, Spindler & Hoyer GmbH & Co., Göttingen, Federal Republic of Germany (personal communication).

P. F. Moulton, paper presented at the International Quantum-Electronics Conference 1982, Munich, Federal Republic of Germany.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Tanabe–Sugano diagram for d3 ions such as V2+ or Cr3+.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Low-temperature (T = 10 K) absorption and emission spectra. The cross-hatched bands are emission bands.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Splitting of the 4T2 level that is due to spin–orbit interaction, electron–phonon interaction, and exchange interaction. EJT, Jahn–Teller energy; ħΩ, energy of the effective coupling phonon. (b) Ham reduction of the spin–orbit splitting for RbMnF3.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

△, temperature dependence of the quantum efficiency for emission; ⎔, temperature dependence of the total lifetime.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Excitation spectrum for the 4T24A2V2+ emission in RbMnF3.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Emission range of V2+-doped halide crystals. The black bars indicate published laser operations.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Configuration-coordinate diagram for V2+ in RbMnF3 Dashed line, energy of the emitted photons; wavy lines, relaxation channels.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Structural Properties of the Halide Crystals

Tables Icon

Table 2 Peak Positions of the 4T2(4F) Electronic and the Phonon-Sideband Absorption of V2+ and Crystal-Field Parameters

Tables Icon

Table 3 Properties of the 4T24A2 Vibronic Emission of V2+

Equations (1)

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k NR ( T ) = k NR ( T = 0 ) ( 1 + n ¯ ) r ,

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