Abstract

Spectroscopic, optical, and thermomechanical properties of gadolinium scandium gallium garnet doped with trivalent neodymium and/or chromium are reported for use in the design of high-power solid-state lasers.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  3. B. Struve, G. Huber, V. V. Laptev, I. A. Shcherbakov, E. V. Zharikov, “Tunable room-temperature cw laser action in Cr3+:GdScGa–garnet,” Appl. Phys. B 30, 117–120 (1983).
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    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Beimowski, G. Huber, D. Pruss, V. V. Laptev, I. A. Shcherbakov, Y. V. Zharikov, “Efficient Cr3+ Sensitized Nd3+:GdScGa–garnet laser at 1.06 μ m,” Appl. Phys. B 28, 234–235 (1982).
  7. D. Pruss, G. Huber, A. Beimowski, V. V. Laptev, I. A. Shcherbakov, Y. V. Zharikov, “Efficient Cr3+ sensitized Nd3+:GdScGa–garnet laser at 1.06 μ m,” Appl. Phys. B 28, 355–358 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. V. Zharikov, V. A. Zhitnyuk, G. M. Zverev, S. P. Kalitin, I. I. Kuratev, V. V. Laptev, A. M. Onishchenko, V. V. Osiko, V. A. Pashkov, A. S. Pimenov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Smirnov, M. F. Stel’makh, A. V. Shestakov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Active media for high-efficiency neodymium lasers with nonselective pumping,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1652–1653 (1982).
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  9. E. V. Zharikov, N. N. II’ichev, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. G. Ostroumov, P. P. Pashinin, A. S. Pimenov, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectral, luminescence, and lasing properties of gadolinium scandium gallium garnet crystals activated with neodymium and chromium ions,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 82–85 (1983).
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  12. E. V. Zharikov, V. V. Laptev, V. G. Ostroumov, Yu. S. Privis, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Investigation of a new laser active medium in the form of gadolinium scandium gallium garnet crystals activated with chromium and neodymium,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 1056–1062 (1984).
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  48. V. F. Kitaeva, N. N. Sobolev, I. L. Christyi, E. V. Zharikov, V. V. Osiko, M. I. Timoshechkin, A. S. Zolot’ko, “Molecular scattering of light in erbium-doped garnets,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 22, 805–807 (1980).
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    [CrossRef]
  57. P. Chantikul, G. R. Anstis, B. R. Lawn, D. B. Marshall, “A critical evaluation of indentation techniques for measuring fracture toughness: II, strength method,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 64, 539–543 (1981).
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  58. R. F. Cook, B. R. Lawn, “A modified indentation toughness technique,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 66, C-200–C-201 (1983).
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  66. I. L. Chistyi, V. F. Kitaeva, V. V. Osiko, N. N. Sobolev, B. P. Starikov, M. I. Timoshechkin, “Molecular scattering of light in garnets,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 17, 922–926 (1975).
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1985 (1)

B. Struve, G. Huber, “The effect of the crystal field strength of the optical spectra of Cr3+ in gallium garnet laser crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 36, 195–201 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (6)

E. V. Zharikov, S. V. Lavrishchev, V. V. Laptev, V. G. Ostroumov, Z. S. Saidov, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “New possibilities for Cr3+ ions as activators of the active media of solid-state lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 332–336 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, V. V. Laptev, V. G. Ostroumov, Yu. S. Privis, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Investigation of a new laser active medium in the form of gadolinium scandium gallium garnet crystals activated with chromium and neodymium,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 1056–1062 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, V. G. Ostroumov, Yu. S. Privis, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Determining optimum neodymium concentrations in gadolinium-scandium-gallium-garnet crystals,” Sov. J. Appl. Spectrosc. 41, 1075–1078 (1984).
[CrossRef]

K. Maeda, N. Wada, M. Umino, M. Abe, Y. Takada, N. Nakano, H. Kuroda, “Concentration dependence of fluorescence lifetime of Nd3+doped Gd3Ga5O12lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, L759–L760 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Balabonova, E. V. Zharikov, V. V. Laptev, V. D. Shigorin, “Refractive indices of rare earth gallium garnets,” Sov. Phys. Crystallog. 29, 704–705 (1984).

E. V. Zharikov, V. F. Kitaeva, V. V. Osiko, I. R. Rustamov, N. N. Sobolev, “Elastic, photoelastic, and thermo-physical properties of gadolinium-scandium-gallium-garnet,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 26, 922–923 (1984).

1983 (7)

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. II’ichev, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. G. Ostroumov, P. P. Pashinin, A. S. Pimenov, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectral, luminescence, and lasing properties of gadolinium scandium gallium garnet crystals activated with neodymium and chromium ions,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 82–85 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, M. B. Zhitkova, G. M. Zverev, M. P. Isaev, S. P. Kalitin, I. I. Kuratev, V. R. Kushnir, V. V. Laptev, V. V. Osiko, V. A. Pashkov, A. S. Pimenov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Smirnov, M. F. Stel’makh, A. M. Shestakov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Output characteristics of a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet laser operating in the pulse-periodic regime,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1306–1307 (1983).
[CrossRef]

B. Struve, G. Huber, V. V. Laptev, I. A. Shcherbakov, E. V. Zharikov, “Tunable room-temperature cw laser action in Cr3+:GdScGa–garnet,” Appl. Phys. B 30, 117–120 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. II’ichev, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. V. Osiko, V. G. Ostroumov, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Smirnov, A. F. Umyskov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Tunable laser utilizing an electronic-vibrational transition in chromium in a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet crystal,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1274–1276 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Emmett, W. F. Krupke, J. B. Trenholme, “Future development of high-power solid state laser systems,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1–23 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Cook, B. R. Lawn, “A modified indentation toughness technique,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 66, C-200–C-201 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, A. S. Zolot’ko, V. F. Kitaeva, V. V. Laptev, U. V. Osiko, N. N. Sobolev, I. A. Sychev, “Measurement of elastic and photoelastic constants of the garnet (La2Nd0.3Lu0.7)Lu2-Ga3O12,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 25, 568–571 (1983).

1982 (7)

A. Beimowski, G. Huber, D. Pruss, V. V. Laptev, I. A. Shcherbakov, Y. V. Zharikov, “Efficient Cr3+ Sensitized Nd3+:GdScGa–garnet laser at 1.06 μ m,” Appl. Phys. B 28, 234–235 (1982).

D. Pruss, G. Huber, A. Beimowski, V. V. Laptev, I. A. Shcherbakov, Y. V. Zharikov, “Efficient Cr3+ sensitized Nd3+:GdScGa–garnet laser at 1.06 μ m,” Appl. Phys. B 28, 355–358 (1982).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, V. A. Zhitnyuk, G. M. Zverev, S. P. Kalitin, I. I. Kuratev, V. V. Laptev, A. M. Onishchenko, V. V. Osiko, V. A. Pashkov, A. S. Pimenov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Smirnov, M. F. Stel’makh, A. V. Shestakov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Active media for high-efficiency neodymium lasers with nonselective pumping,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1652–1653 (1982).
[CrossRef]

B. Struve, G. Huber, V. V. Laptev, I. A. Shcherbakov, Y. V. Zharikov, “Laser action and broad band fluorescence in Cr3+:GdScGa–garnet,” Appl. Phys. B 28, 235–236 (1982).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. II’ichev, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. G. Ostroumov, P. P. Pashinin, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Sensitization of neodymium ion luminescence by chromium ions in a Gd3Ga5O12crystal,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 338–341 (1982).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, V. V. Laptev, E. I. Sidorova, Yu. P. Timofeev, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Absolute quantum efficiency of luminescence of Cr3+ions in gadolinium-gallium and gadolinium-scandium-gallium-garnet crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1124–1125 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Avanesov, B. I. Denker, V. V. Osiko, V. G. Ostroumov, V. P. Sakun, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Luminescence sensitization and its application to enhance the efficiency of solid-state laser active media,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 421–425 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

G. R. Anstis, P. Chantikul, B. R. Lawn, D. B. Marshall, “A critical evaluation of indentation techniques for measuring fracture toughness: I, direct crack measurements,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 64, 533–538 (1981).
[CrossRef]

P. Chantikul, G. R. Anstis, B. R. Lawn, D. B. Marshall, “A critical evaluation of indentation techniques for measuring fracture toughness: II, strength method,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 64, 539–543 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

V. F. Kitaeva, N. N. Sobolev, I. L. Christyi, E. V. Zharikov, V. V. Osiko, M. I. Timoshechkin, A. S. Zolot’ko, “Molecular scattering of light in erbium-doped garnets,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 22, 805–807 (1980).

1979 (1)

R. E. Taylor, “Heat pulse thermal diffusivity measurements,” High Temp. High Pressures 11, 43–58 (1979).

1978 (2)

M. J. Weber, D. Milam, W. L. Smith, “Nonlinear refractive index of glasses and crystals,” Opt. Eng. 17, 463–469 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. Feldman, “Measurement of the photoelastic constants of optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 17, 453–462 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

I. L. Chistyi, Tr. Fiz. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR 102, 129–201 (1977).

1976 (3)

Y. K. Voron’ko, T. G. Mamedov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, V. P. Sakun, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Nature of nonradiative excitation energy relation in condensed media with high activator concentrations,” Sov. Phys. JETP 44, 251–261 (1976).

B. I. Denker, V. V. Osiko, B. P. Starikov, M. I. Timoshechkin, I. A. Shcherbakov, A. Ya. Yablonskii, “Spectroscopic properties of neodymium-activated scandium garnets,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 334–336 (1976).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, Kh. S. Bagdasarov, G. A. Bogomolova, M. M. Gritsenko, A. M. Kevorkov, S. E. Sarkisov, “Luminescence and stimulated emission of Nd3+ions in Gd3Sc2Ga3O12crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi (a) 34, K109–K114 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

I. L. Chistyi, V. F. Kitaeva, V. V. Osiko, N. N. Sobolev, B. P. Starikov, M. I. Timoshechkin, “Molecular scattering of light in garnets,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 17, 922–926 (1975).

1974 (1)

W. F. Krupke, “Induced emission cross-sections in neodymium laser glasses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 450–457 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972 (3)

S. Geller, G. P. Espinosa, L. D. Fullmer, P. B. Crandell, “Thermal expansion of some garnets,” Mater. Res. Bull. 7, 1219–1224 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. Vacher, L. Boyer, “Brillouin scattering: a tool for the measurement of elastic and photoelastic constants,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 639–673 (1972).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Papadakis, “Absolute accuracy of the pulse-echo overlap method and the pulse-superposition method for ultrasonic velocity,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 52, 843–846 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1968 (2)

S. M. Wiederhorn, A. M. Shorb, R. L. Moses, “Critical analysis of the theory of the double cantilever method,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1569–1572 (1968).
[CrossRef]

T. Kushida, H. Marcos, J. Geusic, “Laser transition cross-section and fluorescence branching ratio for Nd3+ in yttrium aluminum garnet,” Phys. Rev. 167, 289–291 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

R. W. Dixon, “Photoelastic properties of selected materials and their relevance for applications to acoustic light modulators and scanners,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 5149–5153 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

L. F. Johnson, H. J. Guggenheim, R. A. Thomas, “Phonon-terminated optical masers,” Phys. Rev. 149, 179–185 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

Z. J. Kiss, R. C. Duncan, “Cross-pumped Cr3+–Nd3+:YAG laser system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 5, 200–202 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1962 (2)

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

F. Birch, “The velocity of compressional waves in rocks in 10 kilobars, Part 2,” J. Geophys. Res. 66, 2199–2224 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1956 (1)

B. J. Skinner, “Physical properties of end-members of the garnet group,” Am. Mineral 41, 428–436 (1956).

1954 (1)

D. L. Dexter, J. Schulman, “Theory of concentration quenching in inorganic phosphors,” J. Chem. Phys. 22, 1063–1070 (1954).
[CrossRef]

1953 (1)

D. L. Dexter, “Theory of sensitized liminescence in solids,” J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836–850 (1953).
[CrossRef]

1948 (1)

T. Förster, “Intermolecular energy-transfer and fluorescence,” Ann. Phys. 2, 55–75 (1948).
[CrossRef]

1939 (1)

W. Wiebull, “A statistical theory of the strength of materials,” R. Swedish Acad. Eng. Sci. Proc. 151, 1–45 (1939).

Abe, M.

K. Maeda, N. Wada, M. Umino, M. Abe, Y. Takada, N. Nakano, H. Kuroda, “Concentration dependence of fluorescence lifetime of Nd3+doped Gd3Ga5O12lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, L759–L760 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, O. L.

O. L. Anderson, “Determination and some uses of isotropic elastic constants of polycrystalline aggregates using single crystal data,” in Physical Acoustics, B. W. B. Mason, ed. (Academic, New York, 1965), Vol. 3, Part B, pp. 43–95.

Anstis, G. R.

G. R. Anstis, P. Chantikul, B. R. Lawn, D. B. Marshall, “A critical evaluation of indentation techniques for measuring fracture toughness: I, direct crack measurements,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 64, 533–538 (1981).
[CrossRef]

P. Chantikul, G. R. Anstis, B. R. Lawn, D. B. Marshall, “A critical evaluation of indentation techniques for measuring fracture toughness: II, strength method,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 64, 539–543 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Avanesov, A. G.

A. G. Avanesov, B. I. Denker, V. V. Osiko, V. G. Ostroumov, V. P. Sakun, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Luminescence sensitization and its application to enhance the efficiency of solid-state laser active media,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 421–425 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Bagdasarov, Kh. S.

A. A. Kaminskii, Kh. S. Bagdasarov, G. A. Bogomolova, M. M. Gritsenko, A. M. Kevorkov, S. E. Sarkisov, “Luminescence and stimulated emission of Nd3+ions in Gd3Sc2Ga3O12crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi (a) 34, K109–K114 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Baker, T. L.

S. W. Freiman, T. L. Baker, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (personal communication, 1985).

Balabonova, S. A.

S. A. Balabonova, E. V. Zharikov, V. V. Laptev, V. D. Shigorin, “Refractive indices of rare earth gallium garnets,” Sov. Phys. Crystallog. 29, 704–705 (1984).

S. A. Balabonova, E. V. Zharikov, V. V. Laptev, V. D. Shigorin, P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute Report 231, Moscow (1983).

Beimowski, A.

A. Beimowski, G. Huber, D. Pruss, V. V. Laptev, I. A. Shcherbakov, Y. V. Zharikov, “Efficient Cr3+ Sensitized Nd3+:GdScGa–garnet laser at 1.06 μ m,” Appl. Phys. B 28, 234–235 (1982).

D. Pruss, G. Huber, A. Beimowski, V. V. Laptev, I. A. Shcherbakov, Y. V. Zharikov, “Efficient Cr3+ sensitized Nd3+:GdScGa–garnet laser at 1.06 μ m,” Appl. Phys. B 28, 355–358 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Birch, F.

F. Birch, “The velocity of compressional waves in rocks in 10 kilobars, Part 2,” J. Geophys. Res. 66, 2199–2224 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Blasse, G.

R. C. Powell, G. Blasse, in Structure and Bonding, J. D. Dunitz, J. B. Goodenough, P. Hemmerlich, J. A. Ibers, C. K. Jorgensen, J. B. Neilands, D. Reinen, R. P. J. Williams, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1980), Vol. 42, pp. 43–96.
[CrossRef]

Bogomolova, G. A.

A. A. Kaminskii, Kh. S. Bagdasarov, G. A. Bogomolova, M. M. Gritsenko, A. M. Kevorkov, S. E. Sarkisov, “Luminescence and stimulated emission of Nd3+ions in Gd3Sc2Ga3O12crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi (a) 34, K109–K114 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Boyer, L.

R. Vacher, L. Boyer, “Brillouin scattering: a tool for the measurement of elastic and photoelastic constants,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 639–673 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bruni, F.

F. Bruni, “Growth of Nd:YAG and Cr:Nd:GSGG crystals,” presented at the Proc. of the Tunable Solid State Lasers for Remote Sensing Workshop, NASA, Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va.

Bruni, F. J.

F. J. Bruni, “Gadolinium gallium garnet,” in Crystal Growth, Properties and Applications, C. J. M. Rooijmans, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1978), Vol. 1, pp. 54–70.

Chantikul, P.

P. Chantikul, G. R. Anstis, B. R. Lawn, D. B. Marshall, “A critical evaluation of indentation techniques for measuring fracture toughness: II, strength method,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 64, 539–543 (1981).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Anstis, P. Chantikul, B. R. Lawn, D. B. Marshall, “A critical evaluation of indentation techniques for measuring fracture toughness: I, direct crack measurements,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 64, 533–538 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Chistyi, I. L.

I. L. Chistyi, Tr. Fiz. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR 102, 129–201 (1977).

I. L. Chistyi, V. F. Kitaeva, V. V. Osiko, N. N. Sobolev, B. P. Starikov, M. I. Timoshechkin, “Molecular scattering of light in garnets,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 17, 922–926 (1975).

V. F. Kitaeva, E. V. Zharikov, I. L. Chistyi, “The Properties of Crystals with Garnet Structure,” P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute Report 146, Moscow (1984).

Christyi, I. L.

V. F. Kitaeva, N. N. Sobolev, I. L. Christyi, E. V. Zharikov, V. V. Osiko, M. I. Timoshechkin, A. S. Zolot’ko, “Molecular scattering of light in erbium-doped garnets,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 22, 805–807 (1980).

Cook, R. F.

R. F. Cook, B. R. Lawn, “A modified indentation toughness technique,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 66, C-200–C-201 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Crandell, P. B.

S. Geller, G. P. Espinosa, L. D. Fullmer, P. B. Crandell, “Thermal expansion of some garnets,” Mater. Res. Bull. 7, 1219–1224 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Denker, B. I.

A. G. Avanesov, B. I. Denker, V. V. Osiko, V. G. Ostroumov, V. P. Sakun, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Luminescence sensitization and its application to enhance the efficiency of solid-state laser active media,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 421–425 (1982).
[CrossRef]

B. I. Denker, V. V. Osiko, B. P. Starikov, M. I. Timoshechkin, I. A. Shcherbakov, A. Ya. Yablonskii, “Spectroscopic properties of neodymium-activated scandium garnets,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 334–336 (1976).
[CrossRef]

DeShazer, L. G.

C. S. Hoefer, K. W. Kirby, L. G. DeShazer, “Thermo-optic properties of garnet laser crystals,” Hughes Research Laboratory, Malibu, California, to be published.

Dexter, D. L.

D. L. Dexter, J. Schulman, “Theory of concentration quenching in inorganic phosphors,” J. Chem. Phys. 22, 1063–1070 (1954).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Dexter, “Theory of sensitized liminescence in solids,” J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836–850 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Dixon, R. W.

R. W. Dixon, “Photoelastic properties of selected materials and their relevance for applications to acoustic light modulators and scanners,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 5149–5153 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Duncan, R. C.

Z. J. Kiss, R. C. Duncan, “Cross-pumped Cr3+–Nd3+:YAG laser system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 5, 200–202 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Emmett, J. L.

J. L. Emmett, W. F. Krupke, J. B. Trenholme, “Future development of high-power solid state laser systems,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1–23 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Emmett, W. F. Krupke, W. R. Sooy, “The potential of high power solid state lasers,” (September1984).
[CrossRef]

Espinosa, G. P.

S. Geller, G. P. Espinosa, L. D. Fullmer, P. B. Crandell, “Thermal expansion of some garnets,” Mater. Res. Bull. 7, 1219–1224 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, A.

A. Feldman, “Measurement of the photoelastic constants of optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 17, 453–462 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. Feldman, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (personal communication).

Förster, T.

T. Förster, “Intermolecular energy-transfer and fluorescence,” Ann. Phys. 2, 55–75 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Freiman, S. W.

S. W. Freiman, T. L. Baker, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (personal communication, 1985).

Fullmer, L. D.

S. Geller, G. P. Espinosa, L. D. Fullmer, P. B. Crandell, “Thermal expansion of some garnets,” Mater. Res. Bull. 7, 1219–1224 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Geller, S.

S. Geller, G. P. Espinosa, L. D. Fullmer, P. B. Crandell, “Thermal expansion of some garnets,” Mater. Res. Bull. 7, 1219–1224 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Geusic, J.

T. Kushida, H. Marcos, J. Geusic, “Laser transition cross-section and fluorescence branching ratio for Nd3+ in yttrium aluminum garnet,” Phys. Rev. 167, 289–291 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Gritsenko, M. M.

A. A. Kaminskii, Kh. S. Bagdasarov, G. A. Bogomolova, M. M. Gritsenko, A. M. Kevorkov, S. E. Sarkisov, “Luminescence and stimulated emission of Nd3+ions in Gd3Sc2Ga3O12crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi (a) 34, K109–K114 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Groot, H.

R. E. Taylor, H. Groot, R.L. Shoemaker, “Thermo-physical properties of a garnet,” , Lafayette, Ind. (June1985).

Guggenheim, H. J.

L. F. Johnson, H. J. Guggenheim, R. A. Thomas, “Phonon-terminated optical masers,” Phys. Rev. 149, 179–185 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Hasselman, D. P. H.

D. P. H. Hasselman, Virginia Polytechnic University, Blacksburg, Va. (personal communication, 1985).

Hoefer, C. S.

C. S. Hoefer, K. W. Kirby, L. G. DeShazer, “Thermo-optic properties of garnet laser crystals,” Hughes Research Laboratory, Malibu, California, to be published.

Huber, G.

B. Struve, G. Huber, “The effect of the crystal field strength of the optical spectra of Cr3+ in gallium garnet laser crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 36, 195–201 (1985).
[CrossRef]

B. Struve, G. Huber, V. V. Laptev, I. A. Shcherbakov, E. V. Zharikov, “Tunable room-temperature cw laser action in Cr3+:GdScGa–garnet,” Appl. Phys. B 30, 117–120 (1983).
[CrossRef]

B. Struve, G. Huber, V. V. Laptev, I. A. Shcherbakov, Y. V. Zharikov, “Laser action and broad band fluorescence in Cr3+:GdScGa–garnet,” Appl. Phys. B 28, 235–236 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. Beimowski, G. Huber, D. Pruss, V. V. Laptev, I. A. Shcherbakov, Y. V. Zharikov, “Efficient Cr3+ Sensitized Nd3+:GdScGa–garnet laser at 1.06 μ m,” Appl. Phys. B 28, 234–235 (1982).

D. Pruss, G. Huber, A. Beimowski, V. V. Laptev, I. A. Shcherbakov, Y. V. Zharikov, “Efficient Cr3+ sensitized Nd3+:GdScGa–garnet laser at 1.06 μ m,” Appl. Phys. B 28, 355–358 (1982).
[CrossRef]

G. Huber, K. Petermann, in Tunable Solid State Lasers, P. Hammerling, A. B. Budgor, A. Pinto, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1985), Vol. 47, pp. 11–19.
[CrossRef]

II’ichev, N. N.

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. II’ichev, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. V. Osiko, V. G. Ostroumov, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Smirnov, A. F. Umyskov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Tunable laser utilizing an electronic-vibrational transition in chromium in a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet crystal,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1274–1276 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. II’ichev, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. G. Ostroumov, P. P. Pashinin, A. S. Pimenov, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectral, luminescence, and lasing properties of gadolinium scandium gallium garnet crystals activated with neodymium and chromium ions,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 82–85 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. II’ichev, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. G. Ostroumov, P. P. Pashinin, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Sensitization of neodymium ion luminescence by chromium ions in a Gd3Ga5O12crystal,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 338–341 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Isaev, M. P.

E. V. Zharikov, M. B. Zhitkova, G. M. Zverev, M. P. Isaev, S. P. Kalitin, I. I. Kuratev, V. R. Kushnir, V. V. Laptev, V. V. Osiko, V. A. Pashkov, A. S. Pimenov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Smirnov, M. F. Stel’makh, A. M. Shestakov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Output characteristics of a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet laser operating in the pulse-periodic regime,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1306–1307 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, L. F.

L. F. Johnson, H. J. Guggenheim, R. A. Thomas, “Phonon-terminated optical masers,” Phys. Rev. 149, 179–185 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Judd, B. R.

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Kalitin, S. P.

E. V. Zharikov, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, V. G. Ostroumov, Yu. S. Privis, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Determining optimum neodymium concentrations in gadolinium-scandium-gallium-garnet crystals,” Sov. J. Appl. Spectrosc. 41, 1075–1078 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. II’ichev, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. V. Osiko, V. G. Ostroumov, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Smirnov, A. F. Umyskov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Tunable laser utilizing an electronic-vibrational transition in chromium in a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet crystal,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1274–1276 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, M. B. Zhitkova, G. M. Zverev, M. P. Isaev, S. P. Kalitin, I. I. Kuratev, V. R. Kushnir, V. V. Laptev, V. V. Osiko, V. A. Pashkov, A. S. Pimenov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Smirnov, M. F. Stel’makh, A. M. Shestakov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Output characteristics of a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet laser operating in the pulse-periodic regime,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1306–1307 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, V. A. Zhitnyuk, G. M. Zverev, S. P. Kalitin, I. I. Kuratev, V. V. Laptev, A. M. Onishchenko, V. V. Osiko, V. A. Pashkov, A. S. Pimenov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Smirnov, M. F. Stel’makh, A. V. Shestakov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Active media for high-efficiency neodymium lasers with nonselective pumping,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1652–1653 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kaminskii, A. A.

A. A. Kaminskii, Kh. S. Bagdasarov, G. A. Bogomolova, M. M. Gritsenko, A. M. Kevorkov, S. E. Sarkisov, “Luminescence and stimulated emission of Nd3+ions in Gd3Sc2Ga3O12crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi (a) 34, K109–K114 (1976).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, Laser Crystals (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1981), Vol. 14, p. 322.

Kevorkov, A. M.

A. A. Kaminskii, Kh. S. Bagdasarov, G. A. Bogomolova, M. M. Gritsenko, A. M. Kevorkov, S. E. Sarkisov, “Luminescence and stimulated emission of Nd3+ions in Gd3Sc2Ga3O12crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi (a) 34, K109–K114 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kirby, K. W.

C. S. Hoefer, K. W. Kirby, L. G. DeShazer, “Thermo-optic properties of garnet laser crystals,” Hughes Research Laboratory, Malibu, California, to be published.

Kiss, Z. J.

Z. J. Kiss, R. C. Duncan, “Cross-pumped Cr3+–Nd3+:YAG laser system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 5, 200–202 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Kitaeva, V. F.

E. V. Zharikov, V. F. Kitaeva, V. V. Osiko, I. R. Rustamov, N. N. Sobolev, “Elastic, photoelastic, and thermo-physical properties of gadolinium-scandium-gallium-garnet,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 26, 922–923 (1984).

E. V. Zharikov, A. S. Zolot’ko, V. F. Kitaeva, V. V. Laptev, U. V. Osiko, N. N. Sobolev, I. A. Sychev, “Measurement of elastic and photoelastic constants of the garnet (La2Nd0.3Lu0.7)Lu2-Ga3O12,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 25, 568–571 (1983).

V. F. Kitaeva, N. N. Sobolev, I. L. Christyi, E. V. Zharikov, V. V. Osiko, M. I. Timoshechkin, A. S. Zolot’ko, “Molecular scattering of light in erbium-doped garnets,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 22, 805–807 (1980).

I. L. Chistyi, V. F. Kitaeva, V. V. Osiko, N. N. Sobolev, B. P. Starikov, M. I. Timoshechkin, “Molecular scattering of light in garnets,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 17, 922–926 (1975).

V. F. Kitaeva, E. V. Zharikov, I. L. Chistyi, “The Properties of Crystals with Garnet Structure,” P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute Report 146, Moscow (1984).

Koechner, W.

W. Koechner, in Solid State Laser Engineering (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), pp. 345–353.

W. Koechner, in Solid State Laser Engineering (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1976), Vol. 1, pp. 80–90.

W. Koechner, in Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1976), Vol. 1, p. 17.
[CrossRef]

Krupke, W. F.

J. L. Emmett, W. F. Krupke, J. B. Trenholme, “Future development of high-power solid state laser systems,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1–23 (1983).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Krupke, “Induced emission cross-sections in neodymium laser glasses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 450–457 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Emmett, W. F. Krupke, W. R. Sooy, “The potential of high power solid state lasers,” (September1984).
[CrossRef]

Kuratev, I. I.

E. V. Zharikov, M. B. Zhitkova, G. M. Zverev, M. P. Isaev, S. P. Kalitin, I. I. Kuratev, V. R. Kushnir, V. V. Laptev, V. V. Osiko, V. A. Pashkov, A. S. Pimenov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Smirnov, M. F. Stel’makh, A. M. Shestakov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Output characteristics of a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet laser operating in the pulse-periodic regime,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1306–1307 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, V. A. Zhitnyuk, G. M. Zverev, S. P. Kalitin, I. I. Kuratev, V. V. Laptev, A. M. Onishchenko, V. V. Osiko, V. A. Pashkov, A. S. Pimenov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Smirnov, M. F. Stel’makh, A. V. Shestakov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Active media for high-efficiency neodymium lasers with nonselective pumping,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1652–1653 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kuroda, H.

K. Maeda, N. Wada, M. Umino, M. Abe, Y. Takada, N. Nakano, H. Kuroda, “Concentration dependence of fluorescence lifetime of Nd3+doped Gd3Ga5O12lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, L759–L760 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kushida, T.

T. Kushida, H. Marcos, J. Geusic, “Laser transition cross-section and fluorescence branching ratio for Nd3+ in yttrium aluminum garnet,” Phys. Rev. 167, 289–291 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Kushnir, V. R.

E. V. Zharikov, M. B. Zhitkova, G. M. Zverev, M. P. Isaev, S. P. Kalitin, I. I. Kuratev, V. R. Kushnir, V. V. Laptev, V. V. Osiko, V. A. Pashkov, A. S. Pimenov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Smirnov, M. F. Stel’makh, A. M. Shestakov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Output characteristics of a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet laser operating in the pulse-periodic regime,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1306–1307 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Laptev, V. V.

E. V. Zharikov, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, V. G. Ostroumov, Yu. S. Privis, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Determining optimum neodymium concentrations in gadolinium-scandium-gallium-garnet crystals,” Sov. J. Appl. Spectrosc. 41, 1075–1078 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, S. V. Lavrishchev, V. V. Laptev, V. G. Ostroumov, Z. S. Saidov, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “New possibilities for Cr3+ ions as activators of the active media of solid-state lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 332–336 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, V. V. Laptev, V. G. Ostroumov, Yu. S. Privis, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Investigation of a new laser active medium in the form of gadolinium scandium gallium garnet crystals activated with chromium and neodymium,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 1056–1062 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Balabonova, E. V. Zharikov, V. V. Laptev, V. D. Shigorin, “Refractive indices of rare earth gallium garnets,” Sov. Phys. Crystallog. 29, 704–705 (1984).

E. V. Zharikov, A. S. Zolot’ko, V. F. Kitaeva, V. V. Laptev, U. V. Osiko, N. N. Sobolev, I. A. Sychev, “Measurement of elastic and photoelastic constants of the garnet (La2Nd0.3Lu0.7)Lu2-Ga3O12,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 25, 568–571 (1983).

E. V. Zharikov, M. B. Zhitkova, G. M. Zverev, M. P. Isaev, S. P. Kalitin, I. I. Kuratev, V. R. Kushnir, V. V. Laptev, V. V. Osiko, V. A. Pashkov, A. S. Pimenov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Smirnov, M. F. Stel’makh, A. M. Shestakov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Output characteristics of a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet laser operating in the pulse-periodic regime,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1306–1307 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. II’ichev, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. G. Ostroumov, P. P. Pashinin, A. S. Pimenov, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectral, luminescence, and lasing properties of gadolinium scandium gallium garnet crystals activated with neodymium and chromium ions,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 82–85 (1983).
[CrossRef]

B. Struve, G. Huber, V. V. Laptev, I. A. Shcherbakov, E. V. Zharikov, “Tunable room-temperature cw laser action in Cr3+:GdScGa–garnet,” Appl. Phys. B 30, 117–120 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. II’ichev, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. V. Osiko, V. G. Ostroumov, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Smirnov, A. F. Umyskov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Tunable laser utilizing an electronic-vibrational transition in chromium in a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet crystal,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1274–1276 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. Beimowski, G. Huber, D. Pruss, V. V. Laptev, I. A. Shcherbakov, Y. V. Zharikov, “Efficient Cr3+ Sensitized Nd3+:GdScGa–garnet laser at 1.06 μ m,” Appl. Phys. B 28, 234–235 (1982).

B. Struve, G. Huber, V. V. Laptev, I. A. Shcherbakov, Y. V. Zharikov, “Laser action and broad band fluorescence in Cr3+:GdScGa–garnet,” Appl. Phys. B 28, 235–236 (1982).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, V. A. Zhitnyuk, G. M. Zverev, S. P. Kalitin, I. I. Kuratev, V. V. Laptev, A. M. Onishchenko, V. V. Osiko, V. A. Pashkov, A. S. Pimenov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Smirnov, M. F. Stel’makh, A. V. Shestakov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Active media for high-efficiency neodymium lasers with nonselective pumping,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1652–1653 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. Pruss, G. Huber, A. Beimowski, V. V. Laptev, I. A. Shcherbakov, Y. V. Zharikov, “Efficient Cr3+ sensitized Nd3+:GdScGa–garnet laser at 1.06 μ m,” Appl. Phys. B 28, 355–358 (1982).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. II’ichev, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. G. Ostroumov, P. P. Pashinin, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Sensitization of neodymium ion luminescence by chromium ions in a Gd3Ga5O12crystal,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 338–341 (1982).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, V. V. Laptev, E. I. Sidorova, Yu. P. Timofeev, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Absolute quantum efficiency of luminescence of Cr3+ions in gadolinium-gallium and gadolinium-scandium-gallium-garnet crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1124–1125 (1982).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Balabonova, E. V. Zharikov, V. V. Laptev, V. D. Shigorin, P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute Report 231, Moscow (1983).

Lavrishchev, S. V.

E. V. Zharikov, S. V. Lavrishchev, V. V. Laptev, V. G. Ostroumov, Z. S. Saidov, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “New possibilities for Cr3+ ions as activators of the active media of solid-state lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 332–336 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lawn, B. R.

R. F. Cook, B. R. Lawn, “A modified indentation toughness technique,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 66, C-200–C-201 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. Chantikul, G. R. Anstis, B. R. Lawn, D. B. Marshall, “A critical evaluation of indentation techniques for measuring fracture toughness: II, strength method,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 64, 539–543 (1981).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Anstis, P. Chantikul, B. R. Lawn, D. B. Marshall, “A critical evaluation of indentation techniques for measuring fracture toughness: I, direct crack measurements,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 64, 533–538 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, K.

K. Maeda, N. Wada, M. Umino, M. Abe, Y. Takada, N. Nakano, H. Kuroda, “Concentration dependence of fluorescence lifetime of Nd3+doped Gd3Ga5O12lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, L759–L760 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Malyutin, A. A.

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. II’ichev, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. G. Ostroumov, P. P. Pashinin, A. S. Pimenov, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectral, luminescence, and lasing properties of gadolinium scandium gallium garnet crystals activated with neodymium and chromium ions,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 82–85 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. II’ichev, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. V. Osiko, V. G. Ostroumov, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Smirnov, A. F. Umyskov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Tunable laser utilizing an electronic-vibrational transition in chromium in a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet crystal,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1274–1276 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. II’ichev, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. G. Ostroumov, P. P. Pashinin, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Sensitization of neodymium ion luminescence by chromium ions in a Gd3Ga5O12crystal,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 338–341 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Mamedov, T. G.

Y. K. Voron’ko, T. G. Mamedov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, V. P. Sakun, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Nature of nonradiative excitation energy relation in condensed media with high activator concentrations,” Sov. Phys. JETP 44, 251–261 (1976).

Marcos, H.

T. Kushida, H. Marcos, J. Geusic, “Laser transition cross-section and fluorescence branching ratio for Nd3+ in yttrium aluminum garnet,” Phys. Rev. 167, 289–291 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Marion, J. E.

J. E. Marion, “Strengthened Solid State Laser Materials,” Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Report UCRL-92680 (May1985).

Marshall, D. B.

P. Chantikul, G. R. Anstis, B. R. Lawn, D. B. Marshall, “A critical evaluation of indentation techniques for measuring fracture toughness: II, strength method,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 64, 539–543 (1981).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Anstis, P. Chantikul, B. R. Lawn, D. B. Marshall, “A critical evaluation of indentation techniques for measuring fracture toughness: I, direct crack measurements,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 64, 533–538 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Mason, W. P.

W. P. Mason, “Acoustic properties of solids,” in American Institute of Physics Handbook, 3rd ed., D. E. Gray, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1972) pp. 3-98–3-117.

Milam, D.

M. J. Weber, D. Milam, W. L. Smith, “Nonlinear refractive index of glasses and crystals,” Opt. Eng. 17, 463–469 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Moses, R. L.

S. M. Wiederhorn, A. M. Shorb, R. L. Moses, “Critical analysis of the theory of the double cantilever method,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1569–1572 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Nakano, N.

K. Maeda, N. Wada, M. Umino, M. Abe, Y. Takada, N. Nakano, H. Kuroda, “Concentration dependence of fluorescence lifetime of Nd3+doped Gd3Ga5O12lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, L759–L760 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ofelt, G. S.

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Onishchenko, A. M.

E. V. Zharikov, V. A. Zhitnyuk, G. M. Zverev, S. P. Kalitin, I. I. Kuratev, V. V. Laptev, A. M. Onishchenko, V. V. Osiko, V. A. Pashkov, A. S. Pimenov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Smirnov, M. F. Stel’makh, A. V. Shestakov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Active media for high-efficiency neodymium lasers with nonselective pumping,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1652–1653 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Osiko, U. V.

E. V. Zharikov, A. S. Zolot’ko, V. F. Kitaeva, V. V. Laptev, U. V. Osiko, N. N. Sobolev, I. A. Sychev, “Measurement of elastic and photoelastic constants of the garnet (La2Nd0.3Lu0.7)Lu2-Ga3O12,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 25, 568–571 (1983).

Osiko, V. V.

E. V. Zharikov, V. F. Kitaeva, V. V. Osiko, I. R. Rustamov, N. N. Sobolev, “Elastic, photoelastic, and thermo-physical properties of gadolinium-scandium-gallium-garnet,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 26, 922–923 (1984).

E. V. Zharikov, M. B. Zhitkova, G. M. Zverev, M. P. Isaev, S. P. Kalitin, I. I. Kuratev, V. R. Kushnir, V. V. Laptev, V. V. Osiko, V. A. Pashkov, A. S. Pimenov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Smirnov, M. F. Stel’makh, A. M. Shestakov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Output characteristics of a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet laser operating in the pulse-periodic regime,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1306–1307 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. II’ichev, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. V. Osiko, V. G. Ostroumov, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Smirnov, A. F. Umyskov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Tunable laser utilizing an electronic-vibrational transition in chromium in a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet crystal,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1274–1276 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, V. A. Zhitnyuk, G. M. Zverev, S. P. Kalitin, I. I. Kuratev, V. V. Laptev, A. M. Onishchenko, V. V. Osiko, V. A. Pashkov, A. S. Pimenov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Smirnov, M. F. Stel’makh, A. V. Shestakov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Active media for high-efficiency neodymium lasers with nonselective pumping,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1652–1653 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Avanesov, B. I. Denker, V. V. Osiko, V. G. Ostroumov, V. P. Sakun, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Luminescence sensitization and its application to enhance the efficiency of solid-state laser active media,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 421–425 (1982).
[CrossRef]

V. F. Kitaeva, N. N. Sobolev, I. L. Christyi, E. V. Zharikov, V. V. Osiko, M. I. Timoshechkin, A. S. Zolot’ko, “Molecular scattering of light in erbium-doped garnets,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 22, 805–807 (1980).

B. I. Denker, V. V. Osiko, B. P. Starikov, M. I. Timoshechkin, I. A. Shcherbakov, A. Ya. Yablonskii, “Spectroscopic properties of neodymium-activated scandium garnets,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 334–336 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Voron’ko, T. G. Mamedov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, V. P. Sakun, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Nature of nonradiative excitation energy relation in condensed media with high activator concentrations,” Sov. Phys. JETP 44, 251–261 (1976).

I. L. Chistyi, V. F. Kitaeva, V. V. Osiko, N. N. Sobolev, B. P. Starikov, M. I. Timoshechkin, “Molecular scattering of light in garnets,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 17, 922–926 (1975).

Ostroumov, V. G.

E. V. Zharikov, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, V. G. Ostroumov, Yu. S. Privis, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Determining optimum neodymium concentrations in gadolinium-scandium-gallium-garnet crystals,” Sov. J. Appl. Spectrosc. 41, 1075–1078 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, V. V. Laptev, V. G. Ostroumov, Yu. S. Privis, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Investigation of a new laser active medium in the form of gadolinium scandium gallium garnet crystals activated with chromium and neodymium,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 1056–1062 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, S. V. Lavrishchev, V. V. Laptev, V. G. Ostroumov, Z. S. Saidov, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “New possibilities for Cr3+ ions as activators of the active media of solid-state lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 332–336 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. II’ichev, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. G. Ostroumov, P. P. Pashinin, A. S. Pimenov, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectral, luminescence, and lasing properties of gadolinium scandium gallium garnet crystals activated with neodymium and chromium ions,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 82–85 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. II’ichev, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. V. Osiko, V. G. Ostroumov, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Smirnov, A. F. Umyskov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Tunable laser utilizing an electronic-vibrational transition in chromium in a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet crystal,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1274–1276 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Avanesov, B. I. Denker, V. V. Osiko, V. G. Ostroumov, V. P. Sakun, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Luminescence sensitization and its application to enhance the efficiency of solid-state laser active media,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 421–425 (1982).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. II’ichev, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. G. Ostroumov, P. P. Pashinin, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Sensitization of neodymium ion luminescence by chromium ions in a Gd3Ga5O12crystal,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 338–341 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Papadakis, E. P.

E. P. Papadakis, “Absolute accuracy of the pulse-echo overlap method and the pulse-superposition method for ultrasonic velocity,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 52, 843–846 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Pashinin, P. P.

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. II’ichev, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. V. Osiko, V. G. Ostroumov, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Smirnov, A. F. Umyskov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Tunable laser utilizing an electronic-vibrational transition in chromium in a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet crystal,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1274–1276 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. II’ichev, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. G. Ostroumov, P. P. Pashinin, A. S. Pimenov, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectral, luminescence, and lasing properties of gadolinium scandium gallium garnet crystals activated with neodymium and chromium ions,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 82–85 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. II’ichev, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. G. Ostroumov, P. P. Pashinin, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Sensitization of neodymium ion luminescence by chromium ions in a Gd3Ga5O12crystal,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 338–341 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Pashkov, V. A.

E. V. Zharikov, M. B. Zhitkova, G. M. Zverev, M. P. Isaev, S. P. Kalitin, I. I. Kuratev, V. R. Kushnir, V. V. Laptev, V. V. Osiko, V. A. Pashkov, A. S. Pimenov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Smirnov, M. F. Stel’makh, A. M. Shestakov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Output characteristics of a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet laser operating in the pulse-periodic regime,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1306–1307 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, V. A. Zhitnyuk, G. M. Zverev, S. P. Kalitin, I. I. Kuratev, V. V. Laptev, A. M. Onishchenko, V. V. Osiko, V. A. Pashkov, A. S. Pimenov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Smirnov, M. F. Stel’makh, A. V. Shestakov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Active media for high-efficiency neodymium lasers with nonselective pumping,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1652–1653 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Petermann, K.

G. Huber, K. Petermann, in Tunable Solid State Lasers, P. Hammerling, A. B. Budgor, A. Pinto, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1985), Vol. 47, pp. 11–19.
[CrossRef]

Pimenov, A. S.

E. V. Zharikov, M. B. Zhitkova, G. M. Zverev, M. P. Isaev, S. P. Kalitin, I. I. Kuratev, V. R. Kushnir, V. V. Laptev, V. V. Osiko, V. A. Pashkov, A. S. Pimenov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Smirnov, M. F. Stel’makh, A. M. Shestakov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Output characteristics of a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet laser operating in the pulse-periodic regime,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1306–1307 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. II’ichev, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. G. Ostroumov, P. P. Pashinin, A. S. Pimenov, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectral, luminescence, and lasing properties of gadolinium scandium gallium garnet crystals activated with neodymium and chromium ions,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 82–85 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, V. A. Zhitnyuk, G. M. Zverev, S. P. Kalitin, I. I. Kuratev, V. V. Laptev, A. M. Onishchenko, V. V. Osiko, V. A. Pashkov, A. S. Pimenov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Smirnov, M. F. Stel’makh, A. V. Shestakov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Active media for high-efficiency neodymium lasers with nonselective pumping,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1652–1653 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Powell, R. C.

R. C. Powell, G. Blasse, in Structure and Bonding, J. D. Dunitz, J. B. Goodenough, P. Hemmerlich, J. A. Ibers, C. K. Jorgensen, J. B. Neilands, D. Reinen, R. P. J. Williams, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1980), Vol. 42, pp. 43–96.
[CrossRef]

Privis, Yu. S.

E. V. Zharikov, V. V. Laptev, V. G. Ostroumov, Yu. S. Privis, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Investigation of a new laser active medium in the form of gadolinium scandium gallium garnet crystals activated with chromium and neodymium,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 1056–1062 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, V. G. Ostroumov, Yu. S. Privis, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Determining optimum neodymium concentrations in gadolinium-scandium-gallium-garnet crystals,” Sov. J. Appl. Spectrosc. 41, 1075–1078 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Prokhorov, A. M.

E. V. Zharikov, M. B. Zhitkova, G. M. Zverev, M. P. Isaev, S. P. Kalitin, I. I. Kuratev, V. R. Kushnir, V. V. Laptev, V. V. Osiko, V. A. Pashkov, A. S. Pimenov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Smirnov, M. F. Stel’makh, A. M. Shestakov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Output characteristics of a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet laser operating in the pulse-periodic regime,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1306–1307 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. II’ichev, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. V. Osiko, V. G. Ostroumov, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Smirnov, A. F. Umyskov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Tunable laser utilizing an electronic-vibrational transition in chromium in a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet crystal,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1274–1276 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, V. A. Zhitnyuk, G. M. Zverev, S. P. Kalitin, I. I. Kuratev, V. V. Laptev, A. M. Onishchenko, V. V. Osiko, V. A. Pashkov, A. S. Pimenov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Smirnov, M. F. Stel’makh, A. V. Shestakov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Active media for high-efficiency neodymium lasers with nonselective pumping,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1652–1653 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Voron’ko, T. G. Mamedov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, V. P. Sakun, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Nature of nonradiative excitation energy relation in condensed media with high activator concentrations,” Sov. Phys. JETP 44, 251–261 (1976).

Pruss, D.

D. Pruss, G. Huber, A. Beimowski, V. V. Laptev, I. A. Shcherbakov, Y. V. Zharikov, “Efficient Cr3+ sensitized Nd3+:GdScGa–garnet laser at 1.06 μ m,” Appl. Phys. B 28, 355–358 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. Beimowski, G. Huber, D. Pruss, V. V. Laptev, I. A. Shcherbakov, Y. V. Zharikov, “Efficient Cr3+ Sensitized Nd3+:GdScGa–garnet laser at 1.06 μ m,” Appl. Phys. B 28, 234–235 (1982).

Riseberg, L. A.

L. A. Riseberg, M. J. Weber, “Relaxation phenomena in rare earth luminescence,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, New York, 1976), Vol. 14, pp. 89–159.
[CrossRef]

Rustamov, I. R.

E. V. Zharikov, V. F. Kitaeva, V. V. Osiko, I. R. Rustamov, N. N. Sobolev, “Elastic, photoelastic, and thermo-physical properties of gadolinium-scandium-gallium-garnet,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 26, 922–923 (1984).

Saidov, Z. S.

E. V. Zharikov, S. V. Lavrishchev, V. V. Laptev, V. G. Ostroumov, Z. S. Saidov, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “New possibilities for Cr3+ ions as activators of the active media of solid-state lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 332–336 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Sakun, V. P.

A. G. Avanesov, B. I. Denker, V. V. Osiko, V. G. Ostroumov, V. P. Sakun, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Luminescence sensitization and its application to enhance the efficiency of solid-state laser active media,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 421–425 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Voron’ko, T. G. Mamedov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, V. P. Sakun, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Nature of nonradiative excitation energy relation in condensed media with high activator concentrations,” Sov. Phys. JETP 44, 251–261 (1976).

Sarkisov, S. E.

A. A. Kaminskii, Kh. S. Bagdasarov, G. A. Bogomolova, M. M. Gritsenko, A. M. Kevorkov, S. E. Sarkisov, “Luminescence and stimulated emission of Nd3+ions in Gd3Sc2Ga3O12crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi (a) 34, K109–K114 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Schulman, J.

D. L. Dexter, J. Schulman, “Theory of concentration quenching in inorganic phosphors,” J. Chem. Phys. 22, 1063–1070 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Shcherbakov, I. A.

E. V. Zharikov, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, V. G. Ostroumov, Yu. S. Privis, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Determining optimum neodymium concentrations in gadolinium-scandium-gallium-garnet crystals,” Sov. J. Appl. Spectrosc. 41, 1075–1078 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, V. V. Laptev, V. G. Ostroumov, Yu. S. Privis, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Investigation of a new laser active medium in the form of gadolinium scandium gallium garnet crystals activated with chromium and neodymium,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 1056–1062 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, S. V. Lavrishchev, V. V. Laptev, V. G. Ostroumov, Z. S. Saidov, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “New possibilities for Cr3+ ions as activators of the active media of solid-state lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 332–336 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, M. B. Zhitkova, G. M. Zverev, M. P. Isaev, S. P. Kalitin, I. I. Kuratev, V. R. Kushnir, V. V. Laptev, V. V. Osiko, V. A. Pashkov, A. S. Pimenov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Smirnov, M. F. Stel’makh, A. M. Shestakov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Output characteristics of a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet laser operating in the pulse-periodic regime,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1306–1307 (1983).
[CrossRef]

B. Struve, G. Huber, V. V. Laptev, I. A. Shcherbakov, E. V. Zharikov, “Tunable room-temperature cw laser action in Cr3+:GdScGa–garnet,” Appl. Phys. B 30, 117–120 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. II’ichev, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. V. Osiko, V. G. Ostroumov, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Smirnov, A. F. Umyskov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Tunable laser utilizing an electronic-vibrational transition in chromium in a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet crystal,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1274–1276 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. II’ichev, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. G. Ostroumov, P. P. Pashinin, A. S. Pimenov, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectral, luminescence, and lasing properties of gadolinium scandium gallium garnet crystals activated with neodymium and chromium ions,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 82–85 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. Pruss, G. Huber, A. Beimowski, V. V. Laptev, I. A. Shcherbakov, Y. V. Zharikov, “Efficient Cr3+ sensitized Nd3+:GdScGa–garnet laser at 1.06 μ m,” Appl. Phys. B 28, 355–358 (1982).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, V. A. Zhitnyuk, G. M. Zverev, S. P. Kalitin, I. I. Kuratev, V. V. Laptev, A. M. Onishchenko, V. V. Osiko, V. A. Pashkov, A. S. Pimenov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Smirnov, M. F. Stel’makh, A. V. Shestakov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Active media for high-efficiency neodymium lasers with nonselective pumping,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1652–1653 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. Beimowski, G. Huber, D. Pruss, V. V. Laptev, I. A. Shcherbakov, Y. V. Zharikov, “Efficient Cr3+ Sensitized Nd3+:GdScGa–garnet laser at 1.06 μ m,” Appl. Phys. B 28, 234–235 (1982).

B. Struve, G. Huber, V. V. Laptev, I. A. Shcherbakov, Y. V. Zharikov, “Laser action and broad band fluorescence in Cr3+:GdScGa–garnet,” Appl. Phys. B 28, 235–236 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Avanesov, B. I. Denker, V. V. Osiko, V. G. Ostroumov, V. P. Sakun, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Luminescence sensitization and its application to enhance the efficiency of solid-state laser active media,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 421–425 (1982).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. II’ichev, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. G. Ostroumov, P. P. Pashinin, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Sensitization of neodymium ion luminescence by chromium ions in a Gd3Ga5O12crystal,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 338–341 (1982).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, V. V. Laptev, E. I. Sidorova, Yu. P. Timofeev, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Absolute quantum efficiency of luminescence of Cr3+ions in gadolinium-gallium and gadolinium-scandium-gallium-garnet crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1124–1125 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Voron’ko, T. G. Mamedov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, V. P. Sakun, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Nature of nonradiative excitation energy relation in condensed media with high activator concentrations,” Sov. Phys. JETP 44, 251–261 (1976).

B. I. Denker, V. V. Osiko, B. P. Starikov, M. I. Timoshechkin, I. A. Shcherbakov, A. Ya. Yablonskii, “Spectroscopic properties of neodymium-activated scandium garnets,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 334–336 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Shestakov, A. M.

E. V. Zharikov, M. B. Zhitkova, G. M. Zverev, M. P. Isaev, S. P. Kalitin, I. I. Kuratev, V. R. Kushnir, V. V. Laptev, V. V. Osiko, V. A. Pashkov, A. S. Pimenov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Smirnov, M. F. Stel’makh, A. M. Shestakov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Output characteristics of a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet laser operating in the pulse-periodic regime,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1306–1307 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Shestakov, A. V.

E. V. Zharikov, V. A. Zhitnyuk, G. M. Zverev, S. P. Kalitin, I. I. Kuratev, V. V. Laptev, A. M. Onishchenko, V. V. Osiko, V. A. Pashkov, A. S. Pimenov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Smirnov, M. F. Stel’makh, A. V. Shestakov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Active media for high-efficiency neodymium lasers with nonselective pumping,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1652–1653 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Shigorin, V. D.

S. A. Balabonova, E. V. Zharikov, V. V. Laptev, V. D. Shigorin, “Refractive indices of rare earth gallium garnets,” Sov. Phys. Crystallog. 29, 704–705 (1984).

S. A. Balabonova, E. V. Zharikov, V. V. Laptev, V. D. Shigorin, P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute Report 231, Moscow (1983).

Shoemaker, R.L.

R. E. Taylor, H. Groot, R.L. Shoemaker, “Thermo-physical properties of a garnet,” , Lafayette, Ind. (June1985).

Shorb, A. M.

S. M. Wiederhorn, A. M. Shorb, R. L. Moses, “Critical analysis of the theory of the double cantilever method,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1569–1572 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Sidorova, E. I.

E. V. Zharikov, V. V. Laptev, E. I. Sidorova, Yu. P. Timofeev, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Absolute quantum efficiency of luminescence of Cr3+ions in gadolinium-gallium and gadolinium-scandium-gallium-garnet crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1124–1125 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Skinner, B. J.

B. J. Skinner, “Physical properties of end-members of the garnet group,” Am. Mineral 41, 428–436 (1956).

Smirnov, V. A.

E. V. Zharikov, S. V. Lavrishchev, V. V. Laptev, V. G. Ostroumov, Z. S. Saidov, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “New possibilities for Cr3+ ions as activators of the active media of solid-state lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 332–336 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, V. V. Laptev, V. G. Ostroumov, Yu. S. Privis, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Investigation of a new laser active medium in the form of gadolinium scandium gallium garnet crystals activated with chromium and neodymium,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 1056–1062 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, V. G. Ostroumov, Yu. S. Privis, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Determining optimum neodymium concentrations in gadolinium-scandium-gallium-garnet crystals,” Sov. J. Appl. Spectrosc. 41, 1075–1078 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. II’ichev, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. V. Osiko, V. G. Ostroumov, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Smirnov, A. F. Umyskov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Tunable laser utilizing an electronic-vibrational transition in chromium in a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet crystal,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1274–1276 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. II’ichev, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. G. Ostroumov, P. P. Pashinin, A. S. Pimenov, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectral, luminescence, and lasing properties of gadolinium scandium gallium garnet crystals activated with neodymium and chromium ions,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 82–85 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, M. B. Zhitkova, G. M. Zverev, M. P. Isaev, S. P. Kalitin, I. I. Kuratev, V. R. Kushnir, V. V. Laptev, V. V. Osiko, V. A. Pashkov, A. S. Pimenov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Smirnov, M. F. Stel’makh, A. M. Shestakov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Output characteristics of a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet laser operating in the pulse-periodic regime,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1306–1307 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, V. A. Zhitnyuk, G. M. Zverev, S. P. Kalitin, I. I. Kuratev, V. V. Laptev, A. M. Onishchenko, V. V. Osiko, V. A. Pashkov, A. S. Pimenov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Smirnov, M. F. Stel’makh, A. V. Shestakov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Active media for high-efficiency neodymium lasers with nonselective pumping,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1652–1653 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Avanesov, B. I. Denker, V. V. Osiko, V. G. Ostroumov, V. P. Sakun, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Luminescence sensitization and its application to enhance the efficiency of solid-state laser active media,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 421–425 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Smith, W. L.

M. J. Weber, D. Milam, W. L. Smith, “Nonlinear refractive index of glasses and crystals,” Opt. Eng. 17, 463–469 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Sobolev, N. N.

E. V. Zharikov, V. F. Kitaeva, V. V. Osiko, I. R. Rustamov, N. N. Sobolev, “Elastic, photoelastic, and thermo-physical properties of gadolinium-scandium-gallium-garnet,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 26, 922–923 (1984).

E. V. Zharikov, A. S. Zolot’ko, V. F. Kitaeva, V. V. Laptev, U. V. Osiko, N. N. Sobolev, I. A. Sychev, “Measurement of elastic and photoelastic constants of the garnet (La2Nd0.3Lu0.7)Lu2-Ga3O12,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 25, 568–571 (1983).

V. F. Kitaeva, N. N. Sobolev, I. L. Christyi, E. V. Zharikov, V. V. Osiko, M. I. Timoshechkin, A. S. Zolot’ko, “Molecular scattering of light in erbium-doped garnets,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 22, 805–807 (1980).

I. L. Chistyi, V. F. Kitaeva, V. V. Osiko, N. N. Sobolev, B. P. Starikov, M. I. Timoshechkin, “Molecular scattering of light in garnets,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 17, 922–926 (1975).

Sooy, W. R.

J. L. Emmett, W. F. Krupke, W. R. Sooy, “The potential of high power solid state lasers,” (September1984).
[CrossRef]

Starikov, B. P.

B. I. Denker, V. V. Osiko, B. P. Starikov, M. I. Timoshechkin, I. A. Shcherbakov, A. Ya. Yablonskii, “Spectroscopic properties of neodymium-activated scandium garnets,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 334–336 (1976).
[CrossRef]

I. L. Chistyi, V. F. Kitaeva, V. V. Osiko, N. N. Sobolev, B. P. Starikov, M. I. Timoshechkin, “Molecular scattering of light in garnets,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 17, 922–926 (1975).

Stel’makh, M. F.

E. V. Zharikov, M. B. Zhitkova, G. M. Zverev, M. P. Isaev, S. P. Kalitin, I. I. Kuratev, V. R. Kushnir, V. V. Laptev, V. V. Osiko, V. A. Pashkov, A. S. Pimenov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Smirnov, M. F. Stel’makh, A. M. Shestakov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Output characteristics of a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet laser operating in the pulse-periodic regime,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1306–1307 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, V. A. Zhitnyuk, G. M. Zverev, S. P. Kalitin, I. I. Kuratev, V. V. Laptev, A. M. Onishchenko, V. V. Osiko, V. A. Pashkov, A. S. Pimenov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Smirnov, M. F. Stel’makh, A. V. Shestakov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Active media for high-efficiency neodymium lasers with nonselective pumping,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1652–1653 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Struve, B.

B. Struve, G. Huber, “The effect of the crystal field strength of the optical spectra of Cr3+ in gallium garnet laser crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 36, 195–201 (1985).
[CrossRef]

B. Struve, G. Huber, V. V. Laptev, I. A. Shcherbakov, E. V. Zharikov, “Tunable room-temperature cw laser action in Cr3+:GdScGa–garnet,” Appl. Phys. B 30, 117–120 (1983).
[CrossRef]

B. Struve, G. Huber, V. V. Laptev, I. A. Shcherbakov, Y. V. Zharikov, “Laser action and broad band fluorescence in Cr3+:GdScGa–garnet,” Appl. Phys. B 28, 235–236 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sychev, I. A.

E. V. Zharikov, A. S. Zolot’ko, V. F. Kitaeva, V. V. Laptev, U. V. Osiko, N. N. Sobolev, I. A. Sychev, “Measurement of elastic and photoelastic constants of the garnet (La2Nd0.3Lu0.7)Lu2-Ga3O12,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 25, 568–571 (1983).

Takada, Y.

K. Maeda, N. Wada, M. Umino, M. Abe, Y. Takada, N. Nakano, H. Kuroda, “Concentration dependence of fluorescence lifetime of Nd3+doped Gd3Ga5O12lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, L759–L760 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, R. E.

R. E. Taylor, “Heat pulse thermal diffusivity measurements,” High Temp. High Pressures 11, 43–58 (1979).

R. E. Taylor, H. Groot, R.L. Shoemaker, “Thermo-physical properties of a garnet,” , Lafayette, Ind. (June1985).

Thomas, R. A.

L. F. Johnson, H. J. Guggenheim, R. A. Thomas, “Phonon-terminated optical masers,” Phys. Rev. 149, 179–185 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Timofeev, Yu. P.

E. V. Zharikov, V. V. Laptev, E. I. Sidorova, Yu. P. Timofeev, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Absolute quantum efficiency of luminescence of Cr3+ions in gadolinium-gallium and gadolinium-scandium-gallium-garnet crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1124–1125 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Timoshechkin, M. I.

V. F. Kitaeva, N. N. Sobolev, I. L. Christyi, E. V. Zharikov, V. V. Osiko, M. I. Timoshechkin, A. S. Zolot’ko, “Molecular scattering of light in erbium-doped garnets,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 22, 805–807 (1980).

B. I. Denker, V. V. Osiko, B. P. Starikov, M. I. Timoshechkin, I. A. Shcherbakov, A. Ya. Yablonskii, “Spectroscopic properties of neodymium-activated scandium garnets,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 334–336 (1976).
[CrossRef]

I. L. Chistyi, V. F. Kitaeva, V. V. Osiko, N. N. Sobolev, B. P. Starikov, M. I. Timoshechkin, “Molecular scattering of light in garnets,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 17, 922–926 (1975).

Trenholme, J. B.

J. L. Emmett, W. F. Krupke, J. B. Trenholme, “Future development of high-power solid state laser systems,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1–23 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Umino, M.

K. Maeda, N. Wada, M. Umino, M. Abe, Y. Takada, N. Nakano, H. Kuroda, “Concentration dependence of fluorescence lifetime of Nd3+doped Gd3Ga5O12lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, L759–L760 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Umyskov, A. F.

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. II’ichev, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. V. Osiko, V. G. Ostroumov, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Smirnov, A. F. Umyskov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Tunable laser utilizing an electronic-vibrational transition in chromium in a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet crystal,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1274–1276 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Vacher, R.

R. Vacher, L. Boyer, “Brillouin scattering: a tool for the measurement of elastic and photoelastic constants,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 639–673 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Voron’ko, Y. K.

Y. K. Voron’ko, T. G. Mamedov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, V. P. Sakun, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Nature of nonradiative excitation energy relation in condensed media with high activator concentrations,” Sov. Phys. JETP 44, 251–261 (1976).

Wada, N.

K. Maeda, N. Wada, M. Umino, M. Abe, Y. Takada, N. Nakano, H. Kuroda, “Concentration dependence of fluorescence lifetime of Nd3+doped Gd3Ga5O12lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, L759–L760 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M. J.

M. J. Weber, D. Milam, W. L. Smith, “Nonlinear refractive index of glasses and crystals,” Opt. Eng. 17, 463–469 (1978).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Riseberg, M. J. Weber, “Relaxation phenomena in rare earth luminescence,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, New York, 1976), Vol. 14, pp. 89–159.
[CrossRef]

Wiebull, W.

W. Wiebull, “A statistical theory of the strength of materials,” R. Swedish Acad. Eng. Sci. Proc. 151, 1–45 (1939).

Wiederhorn, S. M.

S. M. Wiederhorn, A. M. Shorb, R. L. Moses, “Critical analysis of the theory of the double cantilever method,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1569–1572 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Yablonskii, A. Ya.

B. I. Denker, V. V. Osiko, B. P. Starikov, M. I. Timoshechkin, I. A. Shcherbakov, A. Ya. Yablonskii, “Spectroscopic properties of neodymium-activated scandium garnets,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 334–336 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Zharikov, E. V.

E. V. Zharikov, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, V. G. Ostroumov, Yu. S. Privis, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Determining optimum neodymium concentrations in gadolinium-scandium-gallium-garnet crystals,” Sov. J. Appl. Spectrosc. 41, 1075–1078 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, V. V. Laptev, V. G. Ostroumov, Yu. S. Privis, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Investigation of a new laser active medium in the form of gadolinium scandium gallium garnet crystals activated with chromium and neodymium,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 1056–1062 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, S. V. Lavrishchev, V. V. Laptev, V. G. Ostroumov, Z. S. Saidov, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “New possibilities for Cr3+ ions as activators of the active media of solid-state lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 332–336 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, V. F. Kitaeva, V. V. Osiko, I. R. Rustamov, N. N. Sobolev, “Elastic, photoelastic, and thermo-physical properties of gadolinium-scandium-gallium-garnet,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 26, 922–923 (1984).

S. A. Balabonova, E. V. Zharikov, V. V. Laptev, V. D. Shigorin, “Refractive indices of rare earth gallium garnets,” Sov. Phys. Crystallog. 29, 704–705 (1984).

E. V. Zharikov, A. S. Zolot’ko, V. F. Kitaeva, V. V. Laptev, U. V. Osiko, N. N. Sobolev, I. A. Sychev, “Measurement of elastic and photoelastic constants of the garnet (La2Nd0.3Lu0.7)Lu2-Ga3O12,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 25, 568–571 (1983).

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. II’ichev, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. V. Osiko, V. G. Ostroumov, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Smirnov, A. F. Umyskov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Tunable laser utilizing an electronic-vibrational transition in chromium in a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet crystal,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1274–1276 (1983).
[CrossRef]

B. Struve, G. Huber, V. V. Laptev, I. A. Shcherbakov, E. V. Zharikov, “Tunable room-temperature cw laser action in Cr3+:GdScGa–garnet,” Appl. Phys. B 30, 117–120 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. II’ichev, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. G. Ostroumov, P. P. Pashinin, A. S. Pimenov, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectral, luminescence, and lasing properties of gadolinium scandium gallium garnet crystals activated with neodymium and chromium ions,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 82–85 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, M. B. Zhitkova, G. M. Zverev, M. P. Isaev, S. P. Kalitin, I. I. Kuratev, V. R. Kushnir, V. V. Laptev, V. V. Osiko, V. A. Pashkov, A. S. Pimenov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Smirnov, M. F. Stel’makh, A. M. Shestakov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Output characteristics of a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet laser operating in the pulse-periodic regime,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1306–1307 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, V. A. Zhitnyuk, G. M. Zverev, S. P. Kalitin, I. I. Kuratev, V. V. Laptev, A. M. Onishchenko, V. V. Osiko, V. A. Pashkov, A. S. Pimenov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Smirnov, M. F. Stel’makh, A. V. Shestakov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Active media for high-efficiency neodymium lasers with nonselective pumping,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1652–1653 (1982).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. II’ichev, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. G. Ostroumov, P. P. Pashinin, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Sensitization of neodymium ion luminescence by chromium ions in a Gd3Ga5O12crystal,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 338–341 (1982).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, V. V. Laptev, E. I. Sidorova, Yu. P. Timofeev, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Absolute quantum efficiency of luminescence of Cr3+ions in gadolinium-gallium and gadolinium-scandium-gallium-garnet crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1124–1125 (1982).
[CrossRef]

V. F. Kitaeva, N. N. Sobolev, I. L. Christyi, E. V. Zharikov, V. V. Osiko, M. I. Timoshechkin, A. S. Zolot’ko, “Molecular scattering of light in erbium-doped garnets,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 22, 805–807 (1980).

V. F. Kitaeva, E. V. Zharikov, I. L. Chistyi, “The Properties of Crystals with Garnet Structure,” P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute Report 146, Moscow (1984).

S. A. Balabonova, E. V. Zharikov, V. V. Laptev, V. D. Shigorin, P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute Report 231, Moscow (1983).

Zharikov, Y. V.

D. Pruss, G. Huber, A. Beimowski, V. V. Laptev, I. A. Shcherbakov, Y. V. Zharikov, “Efficient Cr3+ sensitized Nd3+:GdScGa–garnet laser at 1.06 μ m,” Appl. Phys. B 28, 355–358 (1982).
[CrossRef]

B. Struve, G. Huber, V. V. Laptev, I. A. Shcherbakov, Y. V. Zharikov, “Laser action and broad band fluorescence in Cr3+:GdScGa–garnet,” Appl. Phys. B 28, 235–236 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. Beimowski, G. Huber, D. Pruss, V. V. Laptev, I. A. Shcherbakov, Y. V. Zharikov, “Efficient Cr3+ Sensitized Nd3+:GdScGa–garnet laser at 1.06 μ m,” Appl. Phys. B 28, 234–235 (1982).

Zhitkova, M. B.

E. V. Zharikov, M. B. Zhitkova, G. M. Zverev, M. P. Isaev, S. P. Kalitin, I. I. Kuratev, V. R. Kushnir, V. V. Laptev, V. V. Osiko, V. A. Pashkov, A. S. Pimenov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Smirnov, M. F. Stel’makh, A. M. Shestakov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Output characteristics of a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet laser operating in the pulse-periodic regime,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1306–1307 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Zhitnyuk, V. A.

E. V. Zharikov, V. A. Zhitnyuk, G. M. Zverev, S. P. Kalitin, I. I. Kuratev, V. V. Laptev, A. M. Onishchenko, V. V. Osiko, V. A. Pashkov, A. S. Pimenov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Smirnov, M. F. Stel’makh, A. V. Shestakov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Active media for high-efficiency neodymium lasers with nonselective pumping,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1652–1653 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Zolot’ko, A. S.

E. V. Zharikov, A. S. Zolot’ko, V. F. Kitaeva, V. V. Laptev, U. V. Osiko, N. N. Sobolev, I. A. Sychev, “Measurement of elastic and photoelastic constants of the garnet (La2Nd0.3Lu0.7)Lu2-Ga3O12,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 25, 568–571 (1983).

V. F. Kitaeva, N. N. Sobolev, I. L. Christyi, E. V. Zharikov, V. V. Osiko, M. I. Timoshechkin, A. S. Zolot’ko, “Molecular scattering of light in erbium-doped garnets,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 22, 805–807 (1980).

Zverev, G. M.

E. V. Zharikov, M. B. Zhitkova, G. M. Zverev, M. P. Isaev, S. P. Kalitin, I. I. Kuratev, V. R. Kushnir, V. V. Laptev, V. V. Osiko, V. A. Pashkov, A. S. Pimenov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Smirnov, M. F. Stel’makh, A. M. Shestakov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Output characteristics of a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet laser operating in the pulse-periodic regime,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1306–1307 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, V. A. Zhitnyuk, G. M. Zverev, S. P. Kalitin, I. I. Kuratev, V. V. Laptev, A. M. Onishchenko, V. V. Osiko, V. A. Pashkov, A. S. Pimenov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Smirnov, M. F. Stel’makh, A. V. Shestakov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Active media for high-efficiency neodymium lasers with nonselective pumping,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1652–1653 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Am. Mineral (1)

B. J. Skinner, “Physical properties of end-members of the garnet group,” Am. Mineral 41, 428–436 (1956).

Ann. Phys. (1)

T. Förster, “Intermolecular energy-transfer and fluorescence,” Ann. Phys. 2, 55–75 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (5)

B. Struve, G. Huber, V. V. Laptev, I. A. Shcherbakov, Y. V. Zharikov, “Laser action and broad band fluorescence in Cr3+:GdScGa–garnet,” Appl. Phys. B 28, 235–236 (1982).
[CrossRef]

B. Struve, G. Huber, V. V. Laptev, I. A. Shcherbakov, E. V. Zharikov, “Tunable room-temperature cw laser action in Cr3+:GdScGa–garnet,” Appl. Phys. B 30, 117–120 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. Beimowski, G. Huber, D. Pruss, V. V. Laptev, I. A. Shcherbakov, Y. V. Zharikov, “Efficient Cr3+ Sensitized Nd3+:GdScGa–garnet laser at 1.06 μ m,” Appl. Phys. B 28, 234–235 (1982).

D. Pruss, G. Huber, A. Beimowski, V. V. Laptev, I. A. Shcherbakov, Y. V. Zharikov, “Efficient Cr3+ sensitized Nd3+:GdScGa–garnet laser at 1.06 μ m,” Appl. Phys. B 28, 355–358 (1982).
[CrossRef]

B. Struve, G. Huber, “The effect of the crystal field strength of the optical spectra of Cr3+ in gallium garnet laser crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 36, 195–201 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Z. J. Kiss, R. C. Duncan, “Cross-pumped Cr3+–Nd3+:YAG laser system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 5, 200–202 (1964).
[CrossRef]

High Temp. High Pressures (1)

R. E. Taylor, “Heat pulse thermal diffusivity measurements,” High Temp. High Pressures 11, 43–58 (1979).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. F. Krupke, “Induced emission cross-sections in neodymium laser glasses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 450–457 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (1)

E. P. Papadakis, “Absolute accuracy of the pulse-echo overlap method and the pulse-superposition method for ultrasonic velocity,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 52, 843–846 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (3)

G. R. Anstis, P. Chantikul, B. R. Lawn, D. B. Marshall, “A critical evaluation of indentation techniques for measuring fracture toughness: I, direct crack measurements,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 64, 533–538 (1981).
[CrossRef]

P. Chantikul, G. R. Anstis, B. R. Lawn, D. B. Marshall, “A critical evaluation of indentation techniques for measuring fracture toughness: II, strength method,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 64, 539–543 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Cook, B. R. Lawn, “A modified indentation toughness technique,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 66, C-200–C-201 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. M. Wiederhorn, A. M. Shorb, R. L. Moses, “Critical analysis of the theory of the double cantilever method,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1569–1572 (1968).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Dixon, “Photoelastic properties of selected materials and their relevance for applications to acoustic light modulators and scanners,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 5149–5153 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (3)

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Dexter, “Theory of sensitized liminescence in solids,” J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836–850 (1953).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Dexter, J. Schulman, “Theory of concentration quenching in inorganic phosphors,” J. Chem. Phys. 22, 1063–1070 (1954).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

F. Birch, “The velocity of compressional waves in rocks in 10 kilobars, Part 2,” J. Geophys. Res. 66, 2199–2224 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Maeda, N. Wada, M. Umino, M. Abe, Y. Takada, N. Nakano, H. Kuroda, “Concentration dependence of fluorescence lifetime of Nd3+doped Gd3Ga5O12lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, L759–L760 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Bull. (1)

S. Geller, G. P. Espinosa, L. D. Fullmer, P. B. Crandell, “Thermal expansion of some garnets,” Mater. Res. Bull. 7, 1219–1224 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

M. J. Weber, D. Milam, W. L. Smith, “Nonlinear refractive index of glasses and crystals,” Opt. Eng. 17, 463–469 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. Feldman, “Measurement of the photoelastic constants of optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 17, 453–462 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (3)

T. Kushida, H. Marcos, J. Geusic, “Laser transition cross-section and fluorescence branching ratio for Nd3+ in yttrium aluminum garnet,” Phys. Rev. 167, 289–291 (1968).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Johnson, H. J. Guggenheim, R. A. Thomas, “Phonon-terminated optical masers,” Phys. Rev. 149, 179–185 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

R. Vacher, L. Boyer, “Brillouin scattering: a tool for the measurement of elastic and photoelastic constants,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 639–673 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi (a) (1)

A. A. Kaminskii, Kh. S. Bagdasarov, G. A. Bogomolova, M. M. Gritsenko, A. M. Kevorkov, S. E. Sarkisov, “Luminescence and stimulated emission of Nd3+ions in Gd3Sc2Ga3O12crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi (a) 34, K109–K114 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. Swedish Acad. Eng. Sci. Proc. (1)

W. Wiebull, “A statistical theory of the strength of materials,” R. Swedish Acad. Eng. Sci. Proc. 151, 1–45 (1939).

Sov. J. Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

E. V. Zharikov, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, V. G. Ostroumov, Yu. S. Privis, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Determining optimum neodymium concentrations in gadolinium-scandium-gallium-garnet crystals,” Sov. J. Appl. Spectrosc. 41, 1075–1078 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (11)

J. L. Emmett, W. F. Krupke, J. B. Trenholme, “Future development of high-power solid state laser systems,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1–23 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Avanesov, B. I. Denker, V. V. Osiko, V. G. Ostroumov, V. P. Sakun, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Luminescence sensitization and its application to enhance the efficiency of solid-state laser active media,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 421–425 (1982).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. II’ichev, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. G. Ostroumov, P. P. Pashinin, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Sensitization of neodymium ion luminescence by chromium ions in a Gd3Ga5O12crystal,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 338–341 (1982).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. II’ichev, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. V. Osiko, V. G. Ostroumov, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Smirnov, A. F. Umyskov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Tunable laser utilizing an electronic-vibrational transition in chromium in a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet crystal,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1274–1276 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, V. A. Zhitnyuk, G. M. Zverev, S. P. Kalitin, I. I. Kuratev, V. V. Laptev, A. M. Onishchenko, V. V. Osiko, V. A. Pashkov, A. S. Pimenov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Smirnov, M. F. Stel’makh, A. V. Shestakov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Active media for high-efficiency neodymium lasers with nonselective pumping,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1652–1653 (1982).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. II’ichev, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. G. Ostroumov, P. P. Pashinin, A. S. Pimenov, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectral, luminescence, and lasing properties of gadolinium scandium gallium garnet crystals activated with neodymium and chromium ions,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 82–85 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, M. B. Zhitkova, G. M. Zverev, M. P. Isaev, S. P. Kalitin, I. I. Kuratev, V. R. Kushnir, V. V. Laptev, V. V. Osiko, V. A. Pashkov, A. S. Pimenov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Smirnov, M. F. Stel’makh, A. M. Shestakov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Output characteristics of a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet laser operating in the pulse-periodic regime,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1306–1307 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, S. V. Lavrishchev, V. V. Laptev, V. G. Ostroumov, Z. S. Saidov, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “New possibilities for Cr3+ ions as activators of the active media of solid-state lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 332–336 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, V. V. Laptev, V. G. Ostroumov, Yu. S. Privis, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Investigation of a new laser active medium in the form of gadolinium scandium gallium garnet crystals activated with chromium and neodymium,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 1056–1062 (1984).
[CrossRef]

B. I. Denker, V. V. Osiko, B. P. Starikov, M. I. Timoshechkin, I. A. Shcherbakov, A. Ya. Yablonskii, “Spectroscopic properties of neodymium-activated scandium garnets,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 334–336 (1976).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, V. V. Laptev, E. I. Sidorova, Yu. P. Timofeev, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Absolute quantum efficiency of luminescence of Cr3+ions in gadolinium-gallium and gadolinium-scandium-gallium-garnet crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1124–1125 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. Crystallog. (1)

S. A. Balabonova, E. V. Zharikov, V. V. Laptev, V. D. Shigorin, “Refractive indices of rare earth gallium garnets,” Sov. Phys. Crystallog. 29, 704–705 (1984).

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

Y. K. Voron’ko, T. G. Mamedov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, V. P. Sakun, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Nature of nonradiative excitation energy relation in condensed media with high activator concentrations,” Sov. Phys. JETP 44, 251–261 (1976).

Sov. Phys. Solid State (4)

V. F. Kitaeva, N. N. Sobolev, I. L. Christyi, E. V. Zharikov, V. V. Osiko, M. I. Timoshechkin, A. S. Zolot’ko, “Molecular scattering of light in erbium-doped garnets,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 22, 805–807 (1980).

E. V. Zharikov, V. F. Kitaeva, V. V. Osiko, I. R. Rustamov, N. N. Sobolev, “Elastic, photoelastic, and thermo-physical properties of gadolinium-scandium-gallium-garnet,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 26, 922–923 (1984).

E. V. Zharikov, A. S. Zolot’ko, V. F. Kitaeva, V. V. Laptev, U. V. Osiko, N. N. Sobolev, I. A. Sychev, “Measurement of elastic and photoelastic constants of the garnet (La2Nd0.3Lu0.7)Lu2-Ga3O12,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 25, 568–571 (1983).

I. L. Chistyi, V. F. Kitaeva, V. V. Osiko, N. N. Sobolev, B. P. Starikov, M. I. Timoshechkin, “Molecular scattering of light in garnets,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 17, 922–926 (1975).

Tr. Fiz. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR (1)

I. L. Chistyi, Tr. Fiz. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR 102, 129–201 (1977).

Other (22)

D. P. H. Hasselman, Virginia Polytechnic University, Blacksburg, Va. (personal communication, 1985).

R. E. Taylor, H. Groot, R.L. Shoemaker, “Thermo-physical properties of a garnet,” , Lafayette, Ind. (June1985).

O. L. Anderson, “Determination and some uses of isotropic elastic constants of polycrystalline aggregates using single crystal data,” in Physical Acoustics, B. W. B. Mason, ed. (Academic, New York, 1965), Vol. 3, Part B, pp. 43–95.

W. P. Mason, “Acoustic properties of solids,” in American Institute of Physics Handbook, 3rd ed., D. E. Gray, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1972) pp. 3-98–3-117.

S. W. Freiman, T. L. Baker, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (personal communication, 1985).

The use of the surface-area ratio is appropriate for cases in which the rupture initiating defects occur at the surfaces in both the flexure samples and the component: this appears to be the case for both our flexure tests and the large slab laser. For components in which edge or volume defects initiate failure the appropriate ratios are the edge length and the volume, respectively.

J. E. Marion, “Strengthened Solid State Laser Materials,” Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Report UCRL-92680 (May1985).

J. L. Emmett, W. F. Krupke, W. R. Sooy, “The potential of high power solid state lasers,” (September1984).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Bradt, A. G. Evans, D. P. H. Hasselman, F. F. Lange, eds., Surface Flaws Statistics and Microcracking, Vol. 5 of Fracture Mechanics of Ceramics (Plenum, New York, 1983).

A. Feldman, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (personal communication).

V. F. Kitaeva, E. V. Zharikov, I. L. Chistyi, “The Properties of Crystals with Garnet Structure,” P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute Report 146, Moscow (1984).

C. S. Hoefer, K. W. Kirby, L. G. DeShazer, “Thermo-optic properties of garnet laser crystals,” Hughes Research Laboratory, Malibu, California, to be published.

S. A. Balabonova, E. V. Zharikov, V. V. Laptev, V. D. Shigorin, P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute Report 231, Moscow (1983).

R. C. Powell, G. Blasse, in Structure and Bonding, J. D. Dunitz, J. B. Goodenough, P. Hemmerlich, J. A. Ibers, C. K. Jorgensen, J. B. Neilands, D. Reinen, R. P. J. Williams, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1980), Vol. 42, pp. 43–96.
[CrossRef]

G. Huber, K. Petermann, in Tunable Solid State Lasers, P. Hammerling, A. B. Budgor, A. Pinto, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1985), Vol. 47, pp. 11–19.
[CrossRef]

W. Koechner, in Solid State Laser Engineering (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), pp. 345–353.

A. A. Kaminskii, Laser Crystals (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1981), Vol. 14, p. 322.

L. A. Riseberg, M. J. Weber, “Relaxation phenomena in rare earth luminescence,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, New York, 1976), Vol. 14, pp. 89–159.
[CrossRef]

W. Koechner, in Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1976), Vol. 1, p. 17.
[CrossRef]

F. Bruni, “Growth of Nd:YAG and Cr:Nd:GSGG crystals,” presented at the Proc. of the Tunable Solid State Lasers for Remote Sensing Workshop, NASA, Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va.

F. J. Bruni, “Gadolinium gallium garnet,” in Crystal Growth, Properties and Applications, C. J. M. Rooijmans, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1978), Vol. 1, pp. 54–70.

W. Koechner, in Solid State Laser Engineering (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1976), Vol. 1, pp. 80–90.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectral absorption cross section of Nd3+ in GSGG at 296 K.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

4F3/24I9/2 spectral emission cross section (normalized) of Nd3+ in GSGG at 295 K.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

4F3/24I11/2 spectral emission cross section (normalized) of Nd3+ in GSGG at 295 K.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

4F3/24I13/2 spectral emission cross section (normalized) of Nd3+ in GSGG at 295 K.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Concentration dependence of the exponential fluorescence lifetime of Nd3+ in GSGG at 295 K. The solid line is a theoretical fit to the data.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Concentration dependence of the nonradiative decay rate pnr of Nd3+ in GSGG at 295 K. The solid line is a theoretical fit to the data.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Absorption cross section (—) and normalized emission cross section (- - -) of Cr3+ in GSGG at 295 K.

Tables (10)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured and Calculated Line Strengths of Nd3+ in GSGG (All Transitions Are from the 4I9/2J Manifold to the J Manifold Indicated)

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Table 2 Judd–Ofelt Parameters and Predicted Optical Properties of Nd3+ in GSGG

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Table 3 Principal Intermanifold and Inter-Stark Peak Transition Cross Sections of Nd:GSGG; Selected Peak Cross Section of Nd:YAG

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Table 4 Refractive Indices of GSGG

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Table 5 Piezo-optic Constants (10−12 Pa−1) and Elasto-Optic Constants (dimensionless) of GSGG (Measured at 632.8 nm)

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Table 6 Strength of GSGGa

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Table 7 Fracture Toughness of GSGG

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Table 8 Measured Acoustical Velocities and Their Associated Elastic Constants for GSGG at 21°C; Density Is 6.4391 g/cm3

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Table 9 Thermal Conductivity of Garnets at 20°C

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Table 10 Thermal-Stress-Resistance Values of Laser Materials

Equations (30)

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S meas = 3 c h ( 2 J + 1 ) 8 π 3 e 2 λ ¯ [ 9 n ( n 2 + 2 ) 2 ] σ ( λ ) d λ ,
τ I - 1 = K A ( I , K ) ,
β ( I , K ) = τ I A ( I , K ) .
Δ S max = ( sum of squares of deviations no . of transitions - no . of parameters ) 1 / 2 .
σ ( I , K ; ν ˜ ) = λ 2 8 π c n 2 A ( I , K ) g ( ν ˜ ) ,
g ( ν ˜ ) = I ( ν ˜ ) I I K ( ν ˜ ) d ν ˜ ,
σ ( I , K ; ν ˜ ) = λ 2 8 π c n 2 β I K τ I I ( ν ˜ ) I I K ( ν ˜ ) d ν ˜ .
σ ( F 4 3 / 2 , K ; ν ˜ ) N ( F 4 3 / 2 ) = σ ( R 1 , K ; ν ˜ ) N ( R 1 ) + σ ( R 2 , K ; ν ˜ ) N ( R 2 ) ,
N ( R 1 ) = ( 1 1 + e - Δ / k T ) N ( F 4 3 / 2 ) ; N ( R 2 ) = ( e - Δ / k T 1 + e - Δ / k T ) N ( F 4 3 / 2 ) ,
σ p ( R 2 Y 3 ) = λ p 2 4 π n 2 c Δ ν ˜ ( ln 2 π ) 1 / 2 A ( R 2 Y 3 ) ,
A ( R 2 Y 3 ) = ( 1 + e Δ / k T ) β ( R 2 Y 3 ) × β ( F 4 3 / 2 , I 4 11 / 2 ) τ ( F 4 3 / 2 ) - 1 .
σ p ( Y 3 R 2 ) = α p ( Y 3 R 2 ) N ( Y 3 ) - 1 ,
N ( Y 3 ) = ρ Z - 1 exp [ - E ( Y 3 ) / k T ] .
τ f - 1 = p r + p n r .
τ f = τ ( F 4 3 / 2 ) 1 + ( ρ / ρ 0 ) 2 ,
f = m c π e 2 ρ α ( ν ˜ ) d ν ˜
n 2 = A + C B / ( C λ 2 - 1 ) + D λ 2 / ( E λ 2 - 1 ) .
n 2 ( λ ) = 1 + S λ 2 / ( λ 2 - λ 0 2 )
Δ n r = - 1 2 n 0 3 α Q κ C r r 2 ,
Δ n ϕ = 1 2 n 0 3 α Q κ C ϕ r 2 .
Δ n r - Δ n ϕ = n 0 3 α Q κ C B r 2 ,
C r = ( 17 ν - 7 ) p 11 + ( 31 ν - 17 ) p 12 + 8 ( ν + 1 ) p 44 48 ( ν - 1 ) ,
C ϕ = ( 10 ν - 6 ) p 11 + 2 ( 11 ν - 5 ) p 12 32 ( ν - 1 ) ,
C B = 1 + ν 48 ( 1 - ν ) ( p 11 - p 12 + 4 p 44 ) ,
σ = P v t 2 α E 12 κ ( 1 - ν ) = P v t 2 σ f ( 12 R T ) - 1 ,
R T = σ f κ ( 1 - ν ) α E ,
ϕ = 1 - exp [ - A ( σ S 0 ) m ] ,
σ f = Y K c ( a ) - 1 / 2 ,
κ = λ C p ρ ,
Δ L / L 0 = I + b T + ( c / 2 ) T 2 + d T - 1 ,

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