Abstract

We make a detailed investigation on guided waves propagating in asymmetric indefinite medium waveguides. The dispersion relation of such guided modes is derived by using the normalized waveguide parameters. It is shown that the fundamental guided mode does not exist, the first-order guided modes can either exist in a restricted region or coexist with high-order modes, and the double degeneracy phenomenon does not always appear. A special dispersion curve associated with even surface modes is found, which leads to four surface modes coexisting. We demonstrate that both guided and surface modes can be greatly modulated by adjusting the parameters of the indefinite medium and its structure. We also analyze the normalized energy fluxes and confirm that the double degeneracy reflected from the fact of two different directions of energy flux, namely, coexistence of forward and backward waves.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  25. B. I. Wu, T. M. Grzegorczyk, Y. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, “Guided modes with imaginary transverse wave number in a slab waveguide with negative permittivity and permeability,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9386–9388 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  28. Z. Wang and J. Dong, “Analysis of guided modes in asymmetric left-handed slab waveguides,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. 62, 203–215 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  29. Z. H. Wang, Z. Y. Xiao, and S. P. Li, “Guided modes in slab waveguides with a left handed material cover or substrate,” Opt. Commun. 281, 607–613 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  30. Q. Cheng and T. J. Cui, “Infinite guided modes in a planar waveguide with a biaxially anisotropic metamaterial,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1989–1993 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  31. G. D. Xu, T. Pan, T. C. Zang, and J. Sun, “Characteristics of guided waves in indefinite-medium waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 281, 2819–2825 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  32. L. Zhang, Q. Wang, Y. Zhao, W. Qiao, and J. Zhao, “Surface modes of the sandwich structure containing indefinite metamaterials,” in Proceedings of 2010 International Conference on Microwave and Millimeter Wave Technology (ICMMT) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1669–1672.
  33. A. L. Topa, C. R. Paiva, and A. M. Barbosa, “Frequency dispersion in indefinite media waveguides,” in Proceedings of 2010 IEEE 26th Convention of Electrical and Electronics Engineers in Israel (IEEEI) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 000973–000976.
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    [CrossRef]

2008 (4)

A. K. Iyer and G. V. Eleftheriades, “Mechanisms of subdiffraction free-space imaging using a transmission-line metamaterial superlens: an experimental verification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Vukovic, N. B. Aleksic, and D. V. Timotijevic, “Guided modes in left-handed waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1500–1509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Wang, Z. Y. Xiao, and S. P. Li, “Guided modes in slab waveguides with a left handed material cover or substrate,” Opt. Commun. 281, 607–613 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Xu, T. Pan, T. C. Zang, and J. Sun, “Characteristics of guided waves in indefinite-medium waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 281, 2819–2825 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

2005 (5)

Y. He, Z. Cao, and Q. Shen, “Guided optical modes in asymmetric left-handed waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 245, 125–135(2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Cheng and T. J. Cui, “Electronmagnetic interactions between a line source and anisotropic biaxial media with partially negative constitutive parameters,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 074903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Cui, Q. Cheng, W. B. Lu, Q. Jiang, and J. A. Kong, “Localization of electromagnetic energy using a left-handed-medium slab,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 045114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Podolskiy and E. Narimanov, “Strongly anisotropic waveguide as a nonmagnetic left-handed system,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 201101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, P. Fischer, and F. W. Wise, “Negative refraction at optical frequencies in nonmagnetic two-component molecular media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 67402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

D. R. Smith, D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, P. Kolinko, and P. Rye, “Partial focusing of radiation by a slab of indefinite media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2244–2246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, P. Kolinko, and D. Schurig, “Negative refraction in indefinite media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1032–1043 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (10)

Z. Liu, N. Fang, T. J. Yen, and X. Zhang, “Rapid growth of evanescent wave by a silver superlens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5184–5186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, “Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell’s law,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Shadrivov, A. A. Sukhorukov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Guided modes in negative-refractive-index waveguides,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 057602 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. I. Wu, T. M. Grzegorczyk, Y. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, “Guided modes with imaginary transverse wave number in a slab waveguide with negative permittivity and permeability,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9386–9388 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Cory and A. Barger, “Surface-wave propagation along a metamaterial slab,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 38, 392–395 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, L. Zhou, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Photonic band gap from a stack of positive and negative index materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 83901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Shadrivov, A. A. Sukhorukov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Beam shaping by a periodic structure with negative refraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3820–3822 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, D. Schurig, M. Rosenbluth, S. Schultz, S. A. Ramakrishna, and J. B. Pendry, “Limitations on subdiffraction imaging with a negative refractive index slab,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1506–1508(2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Marques, F. Mesa, J. Martel, and F. Medina, “Comparative analysis of edge-and broadside-coupled split ring resonators for metamaterial design-theory and experiments,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2572–2581 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Schurig and D. R. Smith, “Spatial filtering using media with indefinite permittivity and permeability tensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2215–2217(2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

R. Marques, F. Medina, and R. Rafii-El-Idrissi, “Role of bianisotropy in negative permeability and left-handed metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 144440 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Engheta, “An idea for thin subwavelength cavity resonators using metamaterials with negative permittivity and permeability,” IEEE Antennas Wireless Propagat. Lett. 1, 10–13 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu, C. Caloz, and T. Itoh, “Dominant mode leaky-wave antenna with backfire-to-endfire scanning capability,” Electron. Lett. 38, 1414–1416 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Microwave transmission through a two-dimensional, isotropic, left-handed metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 489–491 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Ruppin, “Surface polaritons of a left-handed medium,” Phys. Lett. A 277, 61–64 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

1968 (1)

V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ϵ and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509–514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Alekseyev, L. V.

Aleksic, N. B.

S. M. Vukovic, N. B. Aleksic, and D. V. Timotijevic, “Guided modes in left-handed waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1500–1509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barbosa, A. M.

A. L. Topa, C. R. Paiva, and A. M. Barbosa, “Frequency dispersion in indefinite media waveguides,” in Proceedings of 2010 IEEE 26th Convention of Electrical and Electronics Engineers in Israel (IEEEI) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 000973–000976.

Barger, A.

H. Cory and A. Barger, “Surface-wave propagation along a metamaterial slab,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 38, 392–395 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Caloz, C.

L. Liu, C. Caloz, and T. Itoh, “Dominant mode leaky-wave antenna with backfire-to-endfire scanning capability,” Electron. Lett. 38, 1414–1416 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Z.

Y. He, Z. Cao, and Q. Shen, “Guided optical modes in asymmetric left-handed waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 245, 125–135(2005).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. T.

J. Li, L. Zhou, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Photonic band gap from a stack of positive and negative index materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 83901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. F.

Y. F. Chen, P. Fischer, and F. W. Wise, “Negative refraction at optical frequencies in nonmagnetic two-component molecular media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 67402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Q.

Q. Cheng and T. J. Cui, “Infinite guided modes in a planar waveguide with a biaxially anisotropic metamaterial,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1989–1993 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Cui, Q. Cheng, W. B. Lu, Q. Jiang, and J. A. Kong, “Localization of electromagnetic energy using a left-handed-medium slab,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 045114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Cheng and T. J. Cui, “Electronmagnetic interactions between a line source and anisotropic biaxial media with partially negative constitutive parameters,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 074903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cory, H.

H. Cory and A. Barger, “Surface-wave propagation along a metamaterial slab,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 38, 392–395 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cui, T. J.

Q. Cheng and T. J. Cui, “Infinite guided modes in a planar waveguide with a biaxially anisotropic metamaterial,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1989–1993 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Cui, Q. Cheng, W. B. Lu, Q. Jiang, and J. A. Kong, “Localization of electromagnetic energy using a left-handed-medium slab,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 045114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Cheng and T. J. Cui, “Electronmagnetic interactions between a line source and anisotropic biaxial media with partially negative constitutive parameters,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 074903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dolling, G.

Dong, J.

Z. Wang and J. Dong, “Analysis of guided modes in asymmetric left-handed slab waveguides,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. 62, 203–215 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eleftheriades, G. V.

A. K. Iyer and G. V. Eleftheriades, “Mechanisms of subdiffraction free-space imaging using a transmission-line metamaterial superlens: an experimental verification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Engheta, N.

N. Engheta, “An idea for thin subwavelength cavity resonators using metamaterials with negative permittivity and permeability,” IEEE Antennas Wireless Propagat. Lett. 1, 10–13 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fang, N.

Z. Liu, N. Fang, T. J. Yen, and X. Zhang, “Rapid growth of evanescent wave by a silver superlens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5184–5186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, P.

Y. F. Chen, P. Fischer, and F. W. Wise, “Negative refraction at optical frequencies in nonmagnetic two-component molecular media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 67402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Greegor, R. B.

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, “Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell’s law,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grzegorczyk, T. M.

B. I. Wu, T. M. Grzegorczyk, Y. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, “Guided modes with imaginary transverse wave number in a slab waveguide with negative permittivity and permeability,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9386–9388 (2003).
[CrossRef]

He, Y.

Y. He, Z. Cao, and Q. Shen, “Guided optical modes in asymmetric left-handed waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 245, 125–135(2005).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, T.

L. Liu, C. Caloz, and T. Itoh, “Dominant mode leaky-wave antenna with backfire-to-endfire scanning capability,” Electron. Lett. 38, 1414–1416 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Iyer, A. K.

A. K. Iyer and G. V. Eleftheriades, “Mechanisms of subdiffraction free-space imaging using a transmission-line metamaterial superlens: an experimental verification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Q.

T. J. Cui, Q. Cheng, W. B. Lu, Q. Jiang, and J. A. Kong, “Localization of electromagnetic energy using a left-handed-medium slab,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 045114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kivshar, Y. S.

I. V. Shadrivov, A. A. Sukhorukov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Guided modes in negative-refractive-index waveguides,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 057602 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Shadrivov, A. A. Sukhorukov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Beam shaping by a periodic structure with negative refraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3820–3822 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

Kolinko, P.

D. R. Smith, P. Kolinko, and D. Schurig, “Negative refraction in indefinite media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1032–1043 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, P. Kolinko, and P. Rye, “Partial focusing of radiation by a slab of indefinite media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2244–2246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koltenbah, B.

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, “Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell’s law,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kong, J. A.

T. J. Cui, Q. Cheng, W. B. Lu, Q. Jiang, and J. A. Kong, “Localization of electromagnetic energy using a left-handed-medium slab,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 045114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. I. Wu, T. M. Grzegorczyk, Y. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, “Guided modes with imaginary transverse wave number in a slab waveguide with negative permittivity and permeability,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9386–9388 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

J. Li, L. Zhou, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Photonic band gap from a stack of positive and negative index materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 83901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, K.

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, “Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell’s law,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, S. P.

Z. H. Wang, Z. Y. Xiao, and S. P. Li, “Guided modes in slab waveguides with a left handed material cover or substrate,” Opt. Commun. 281, 607–613 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

Liu, L.

L. Liu, C. Caloz, and T. Itoh, “Dominant mode leaky-wave antenna with backfire-to-endfire scanning capability,” Electron. Lett. 38, 1414–1416 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, N. Fang, T. J. Yen, and X. Zhang, “Rapid growth of evanescent wave by a silver superlens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5184–5186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lu, W. B.

T. J. Cui, Q. Cheng, W. B. Lu, Q. Jiang, and J. A. Kong, “Localization of electromagnetic energy using a left-handed-medium slab,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 045114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Marques, R.

R. Marques, F. Mesa, J. Martel, and F. Medina, “Comparative analysis of edge-and broadside-coupled split ring resonators for metamaterial design-theory and experiments,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2572–2581 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Marques, F. Medina, and R. Rafii-El-Idrissi, “Role of bianisotropy in negative permeability and left-handed metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 144440 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Martel, J.

R. Marques, F. Mesa, J. Martel, and F. Medina, “Comparative analysis of edge-and broadside-coupled split ring resonators for metamaterial design-theory and experiments,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2572–2581 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Medina, F.

R. Marques, F. Mesa, J. Martel, and F. Medina, “Comparative analysis of edge-and broadside-coupled split ring resonators for metamaterial design-theory and experiments,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2572–2581 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Marques, F. Medina, and R. Rafii-El-Idrissi, “Role of bianisotropy in negative permeability and left-handed metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 144440 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mesa, F.

R. Marques, F. Mesa, J. Martel, and F. Medina, “Comparative analysis of edge-and broadside-coupled split ring resonators for metamaterial design-theory and experiments,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2572–2581 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mock, J. J.

D. R. Smith, D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, P. Kolinko, and P. Rye, “Partial focusing of radiation by a slab of indefinite media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2244–2246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Narimanov, E.

L. V. Alekseyev and E. Narimanov, “Slow light and 3D imaging with non-magnetic negative index systems,” Opt. Express 14, 11184–11193 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Podolskiy and E. Narimanov, “Strongly anisotropic waveguide as a nonmagnetic left-handed system,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 201101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nemat-Nasser, S. C.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Microwave transmission through a two-dimensional, isotropic, left-handed metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 489–491 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Paiva, C. R.

A. L. Topa, C. R. Paiva, and A. M. Barbosa, “Frequency dispersion in indefinite media waveguides,” in Proceedings of 2010 IEEE 26th Convention of Electrical and Electronics Engineers in Israel (IEEEI) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 000973–000976.

Pan, T.

G. D. Xu, T. Pan, T. C. Zang, and J. Sun, “Characteristics of guided waves in indefinite-medium waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 281, 2819–2825 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Parazzoli, C. G.

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, “Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell’s law,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

D. R. Smith, D. Schurig, M. Rosenbluth, S. Schultz, S. A. Ramakrishna, and J. B. Pendry, “Limitations on subdiffraction imaging with a negative refractive index slab,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1506–1508(2003).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Podolskiy, V. A.

V. A. Podolskiy and E. Narimanov, “Strongly anisotropic waveguide as a nonmagnetic left-handed system,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 201101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Qiao, W.

L. Zhang, Q. Wang, Y. Zhao, W. Qiao, and J. Zhao, “Surface modes of the sandwich structure containing indefinite metamaterials,” in Proceedings of 2010 International Conference on Microwave and Millimeter Wave Technology (ICMMT) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1669–1672.

Rafii-El-Idrissi, R.

R. Marques, F. Medina, and R. Rafii-El-Idrissi, “Role of bianisotropy in negative permeability and left-handed metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 144440 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ramakrishna, S. A.

D. R. Smith, D. Schurig, M. Rosenbluth, S. Schultz, S. A. Ramakrishna, and J. B. Pendry, “Limitations on subdiffraction imaging with a negative refractive index slab,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1506–1508(2003).
[CrossRef]

Ramaswamy, V.

Rosenbluth, M.

D. R. Smith, D. Schurig, M. Rosenbluth, S. Schultz, S. A. Ramakrishna, and J. B. Pendry, “Limitations on subdiffraction imaging with a negative refractive index slab,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1506–1508(2003).
[CrossRef]

Ruppin, R.

R. Ruppin, “Surface polaritons of a left-handed medium,” Phys. Lett. A 277, 61–64 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rye, P.

D. R. Smith, D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, P. Kolinko, and P. Rye, “Partial focusing of radiation by a slab of indefinite media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2244–2246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S.

D. R. Smith, D. Schurig, M. Rosenbluth, S. Schultz, S. A. Ramakrishna, and J. B. Pendry, “Limitations on subdiffraction imaging with a negative refractive index slab,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1506–1508(2003).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Microwave transmission through a two-dimensional, isotropic, left-handed metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 489–491 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schurig, D.

D. R. Smith, P. Kolinko, and D. Schurig, “Negative refraction in indefinite media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1032–1043 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, P. Kolinko, and P. Rye, “Partial focusing of radiation by a slab of indefinite media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2244–2246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Schurig and D. R. Smith, “Spatial filtering using media with indefinite permittivity and permeability tensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2215–2217(2003).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, D. Schurig, M. Rosenbluth, S. Schultz, S. A. Ramakrishna, and J. B. Pendry, “Limitations on subdiffraction imaging with a negative refractive index slab,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1506–1508(2003).
[CrossRef]

Shadrivov, I. V.

I. V. Shadrivov, A. A. Sukhorukov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Guided modes in negative-refractive-index waveguides,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 057602 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Shadrivov, A. A. Sukhorukov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Beam shaping by a periodic structure with negative refraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3820–3822 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Microwave transmission through a two-dimensional, isotropic, left-handed metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 489–491 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Q.

Y. He, Z. Cao, and Q. Shen, “Guided optical modes in asymmetric left-handed waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 245, 125–135(2005).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, P.

J. Li, L. Zhou, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Photonic band gap from a stack of positive and negative index materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 83901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

D. R. Smith, P. Kolinko, and D. Schurig, “Negative refraction in indefinite media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1032–1043 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, P. Kolinko, and P. Rye, “Partial focusing of radiation by a slab of indefinite media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2244–2246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Schurig and D. R. Smith, “Spatial filtering using media with indefinite permittivity and permeability tensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2215–2217(2003).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, D. Schurig, M. Rosenbluth, S. Schultz, S. A. Ramakrishna, and J. B. Pendry, “Limitations on subdiffraction imaging with a negative refractive index slab,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1506–1508(2003).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Microwave transmission through a two-dimensional, isotropic, left-handed metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 489–491 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

Sukhorukov, A. A.

I. V. Shadrivov, A. A. Sukhorukov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Beam shaping by a periodic structure with negative refraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3820–3822 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Shadrivov, A. A. Sukhorukov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Guided modes in negative-refractive-index waveguides,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 057602 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J.

G. D. Xu, T. Pan, T. C. Zang, and J. Sun, “Characteristics of guided waves in indefinite-medium waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 281, 2819–2825 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tanielian, M.

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, “Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell’s law,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Timotijevic, D. V.

S. M. Vukovic, N. B. Aleksic, and D. V. Timotijevic, “Guided modes in left-handed waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1500–1509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Topa, A. L.

A. L. Topa, C. R. Paiva, and A. M. Barbosa, “Frequency dispersion in indefinite media waveguides,” in Proceedings of 2010 IEEE 26th Convention of Electrical and Electronics Engineers in Israel (IEEEI) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 000973–000976.

Veselago, V. G.

V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ϵ and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509–514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Vukovic, S. M.

S. M. Vukovic, N. B. Aleksic, and D. V. Timotijevic, “Guided modes in left-handed waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1500–1509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

L. Zhang, Q. Wang, Y. Zhao, W. Qiao, and J. Zhao, “Surface modes of the sandwich structure containing indefinite metamaterials,” in Proceedings of 2010 International Conference on Microwave and Millimeter Wave Technology (ICMMT) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1669–1672.

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang and J. Dong, “Analysis of guided modes in asymmetric left-handed slab waveguides,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. 62, 203–215 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. H.

Z. H. Wang, Z. Y. Xiao, and S. P. Li, “Guided modes in slab waveguides with a left handed material cover or substrate,” Opt. Commun. 281, 607–613 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

Wise, F. W.

Y. F. Chen, P. Fischer, and F. W. Wise, “Negative refraction at optical frequencies in nonmagnetic two-component molecular media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 67402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B. I.

B. I. Wu, T. M. Grzegorczyk, Y. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, “Guided modes with imaginary transverse wave number in a slab waveguide with negative permittivity and permeability,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9386–9388 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, Z. Y.

Z. H. Wang, Z. Y. Xiao, and S. P. Li, “Guided modes in slab waveguides with a left handed material cover or substrate,” Opt. Commun. 281, 607–613 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, G. D.

G. D. Xu, T. Pan, T. C. Zang, and J. Sun, “Characteristics of guided waves in indefinite-medium waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 281, 2819–2825 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yen, T. J.

Z. Liu, N. Fang, T. J. Yen, and X. Zhang, “Rapid growth of evanescent wave by a silver superlens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5184–5186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zang, T. C.

G. D. Xu, T. Pan, T. C. Zang, and J. Sun, “Characteristics of guided waves in indefinite-medium waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 281, 2819–2825 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, Q. Wang, Y. Zhao, W. Qiao, and J. Zhao, “Surface modes of the sandwich structure containing indefinite metamaterials,” in Proceedings of 2010 International Conference on Microwave and Millimeter Wave Technology (ICMMT) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1669–1672.

Zhang, X.

Z. Liu, N. Fang, T. J. Yen, and X. Zhang, “Rapid growth of evanescent wave by a silver superlens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5184–5186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

B. I. Wu, T. M. Grzegorczyk, Y. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, “Guided modes with imaginary transverse wave number in a slab waveguide with negative permittivity and permeability,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9386–9388 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

L. Zhang, Q. Wang, Y. Zhao, W. Qiao, and J. Zhao, “Surface modes of the sandwich structure containing indefinite metamaterials,” in Proceedings of 2010 International Conference on Microwave and Millimeter Wave Technology (ICMMT) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1669–1672.

Zhao, Y.

L. Zhang, Q. Wang, Y. Zhao, W. Qiao, and J. Zhao, “Surface modes of the sandwich structure containing indefinite metamaterials,” in Proceedings of 2010 International Conference on Microwave and Millimeter Wave Technology (ICMMT) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1669–1672.

Zhou, L.

J. Li, L. Zhou, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Photonic band gap from a stack of positive and negative index materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 83901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

A. K. Iyer and G. V. Eleftheriades, “Mechanisms of subdiffraction free-space imaging using a transmission-line metamaterial superlens: an experimental verification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Schurig and D. R. Smith, “Spatial filtering using media with indefinite permittivity and permeability tensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2215–2217(2003).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, P. Kolinko, and P. Rye, “Partial focusing of radiation by a slab of indefinite media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2244–2246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Microwave transmission through a two-dimensional, isotropic, left-handed metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 489–491 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Shadrivov, A. A. Sukhorukov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Beam shaping by a periodic structure with negative refraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3820–3822 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, D. Schurig, M. Rosenbluth, S. Schultz, S. A. Ramakrishna, and J. B. Pendry, “Limitations on subdiffraction imaging with a negative refractive index slab,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1506–1508(2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, N. Fang, T. J. Yen, and X. Zhang, “Rapid growth of evanescent wave by a silver superlens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5184–5186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. Liu, C. Caloz, and T. Itoh, “Dominant mode leaky-wave antenna with backfire-to-endfire scanning capability,” Electron. Lett. 38, 1414–1416 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Antennas Wireless Propagat. Lett. (1)

N. Engheta, “An idea for thin subwavelength cavity resonators using metamaterials with negative permittivity and permeability,” IEEE Antennas Wireless Propagat. Lett. 1, 10–13 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

R. Marques, F. Mesa, J. Martel, and F. Medina, “Comparative analysis of edge-and broadside-coupled split ring resonators for metamaterial design-theory and experiments,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2572–2581 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

B. I. Wu, T. M. Grzegorczyk, Y. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, “Guided modes with imaginary transverse wave number in a slab waveguide with negative permittivity and permeability,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9386–9388 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Q. Cheng and T. J. Cui, “Electronmagnetic interactions between a line source and anisotropic biaxial media with partially negative constitutive parameters,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 074903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. Cory and A. Barger, “Surface-wave propagation along a metamaterial slab,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 38, 392–395 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (4)

Z. H. Wang, Z. Y. Xiao, and S. P. Li, “Guided modes in slab waveguides with a left handed material cover or substrate,” Opt. Commun. 281, 607–613 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Xu, T. Pan, T. C. Zang, and J. Sun, “Characteristics of guided waves in indefinite-medium waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 281, 2819–2825 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Vukovic, N. B. Aleksic, and D. V. Timotijevic, “Guided modes in left-handed waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1500–1509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. He, Z. Cao, and Q. Shen, “Guided optical modes in asymmetric left-handed waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 245, 125–135(2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

R. Ruppin, “Surface polaritons of a left-handed medium,” Phys. Lett. A 277, 61–64 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

T. J. Cui, Q. Cheng, W. B. Lu, Q. Jiang, and J. A. Kong, “Localization of electromagnetic energy using a left-handed-medium slab,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 045114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Podolskiy and E. Narimanov, “Strongly anisotropic waveguide as a nonmagnetic left-handed system,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 201101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Marques, F. Medina, and R. Rafii-El-Idrissi, “Role of bianisotropy in negative permeability and left-handed metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 144440 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

I. V. Shadrivov, A. A. Sukhorukov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Guided modes in negative-refractive-index waveguides,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 057602 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

J. Li, L. Zhou, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Photonic band gap from a stack of positive and negative index materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 83901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, P. Fischer, and F. W. Wise, “Negative refraction at optical frequencies in nonmagnetic two-component molecular media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 67402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, “Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell’s law,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Electromagn. Res. (1)

Z. Wang and J. Dong, “Analysis of guided modes in asymmetric left-handed slab waveguides,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. 62, 203–215 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. Usp. (1)

V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ϵ and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509–514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

L. Zhang, Q. Wang, Y. Zhao, W. Qiao, and J. Zhao, “Surface modes of the sandwich structure containing indefinite metamaterials,” in Proceedings of 2010 International Conference on Microwave and Millimeter Wave Technology (ICMMT) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1669–1672.

A. L. Topa, C. R. Paiva, and A. M. Barbosa, “Frequency dispersion in indefinite media waveguides,” in Proceedings of 2010 IEEE 26th Convention of Electrical and Electronics Engineers in Israel (IEEEI) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 000973–000976.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Geometry and notations for an asymmetric IMM waveguide.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Normalized dispersion curves of guided modes for (a) μz=1 and (b) μz=0.1, where μz/μx=0.8, μ2=μ3=1; a=1, solid lines; a=10, dashed lines. The dotted line represents the TE1-guided mode for μz=0.6.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Normalized dispersion curves of surface modes in the case of εyμx>ε2μ2. (a) Dependence of the curve on μz/μx, where μz=0.5, μ2=μ3=1, and a=1; (b) dependence of the curve on μz, where μz/μx=0.8, μ2=μ3=1, and a=1; (c) dependence of the curve on a, where μz/μx=0.8, μz=0.5, and μ2=μ3=1; (d) general case with a=1, μz/μx=0.3.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Normalized dispersion curves of surface modes in the case of εyμx<ε2μ2 with μz/μ2=μz/μ3=0.5. (a) Dependence of the curve on μz/μx, where a=1; (b) dependence of the curve on a, where μz/μx=0.2.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Normalized dispersion curves of guided modes for (a) εyμx>ε2μ2 and (b) εyμx<ε2μ2, where μz/μx=0.8, μz/μ2=μz/μ3=1; a=1, solid lines; a=10, dashed lines. The dotted line represents the TE1-guided mode for μz/μ2=μz/μ3=0.1.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Dependence of the normalized dispersion curve of surface modes on a with μz/μx=0.1 and μz/μ2=μz/μ3=0.1; (b) dependence of the normalized dispersion curve of surface modes on μz/μx with a=1 and μz/μ2=μz/μ3=0.5.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Normalized dispersion curves of guided modes with μz/μx=0.8, μz/μ2=μz/μ3=1; a=1, solid lines; a=10, dashed lines.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Normalized dispersion curves and normalized total energy flux distributions in the cut-off medium waveguide with μz/μx=1, μz/μ2=μz/μ3=1, and a=1 for (a) the first three guided modes and (b) surface TE0 mode in the case of εyμx<ε2μ2.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ϵ^=(ϵx000ϵy000ϵz),μ^=(μx000μy000μz).
Ey(x)={Cexp(α2x)(x<0)Acos(k1x)+Bsin(k1x)(0xd)Dexp[α3(xd)](x>d),
k1d=mπ+tan1(μzα2μ2k1+μzα3μ3k11μzα2μ2k1μzα3μ3k1).
{V=k0dμzμx(εyμxε2μ2)b=N2ε2μ2εyμxε2μ2a=ε2μ2ε3μ3εyμxε2μ2,
V=[mπ+tan1(μzμ2bμzμx(1b))+(μzμ3b+aμzμx(1b))]/1b.
α1d=tanh1(μzα2μ2α1+μzα3μ3α11+μzα2μ2α1μzα3μ3α1).
V=tanh1(μzμ2bμzμx(b1)+μzμ3b+aμzμx(b1)1+μzμ2bμzμx(b1)μzμ3b+aμzμx(b1))/b1.
P=P1+P2+P3|P1|+|P2|+|P3|,

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