Abstract

A subwavelength-period grating made in an intrinsic anisotropic medium was experimentally fabricated by means of imprinting and subsequent photoinduced molecular alignment of photocrosslinkable polymer liquid crystals (PCLC). Optical properties including the total birefringence and optic axis were theoretically and experimentally investigated by varying the crossing angle between the grating vector and the polarization azimuth of linearly polarized ultraviolet light for the photoalignment of PCLC. The total birefringence and optic axis were well-controlled by both form birefringence due to the subwavelength-period grating structure and intrinsic birefringence induced by photoalignment of PCLC. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method was an effective tool for characterizing the optical properties of a subwavelength-period grating made in an intrinsic anisotropic medium.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. Z. Yu, W. Wu, L. Chen, and S. Y. Chou, “Fabrication of large area 100 nm pitch grating by spatial frequency doubling and nanoimprint lithography for subwavelength optical applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 2816–2819 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Chen, J. Tao, X. Zhao, Z. Cui, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Nanoimprint lithography for planar chiral photonic meta-materials,” Microelectron. Eng. 78–79, 612–617 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Yoshikawa, T. Konichi, M. Nakajima, H. Kikuta, H. Kawata, and Y. Hirai, “Fabrication of 1/4 wave plate by nanocasting lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 2939–2944 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Kouba, M. Kubenz, A. Mai, G. Ropers, W. Eberhardt, and B. Loechel, “Fabrication of nanoimprint stamps for photonic crystals,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 34, 897–903 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y.-P. Chen, Y.-P. Lee, J.-H. Chang, and L. A. Wang, “Fabrication of concave gratings by curved surface UV-nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 1690–1695 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. R. Nersisyan, N. V. Tabiryan, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “Characterization of optically imprinted polarization gratings,” Appl. Opt. 48, 4062–4067 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Grego, A. Huffman, M. Luech, B. R. Stoner, and J. Lannon, “Nanoimprint lithography fabrication of waveguide-integrated optical gratings with inexpensive stamps,” Microelectron. Eng. 87, 1846–1851 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. For example, M. Born and E. Wolf, Principle of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, 1980), p. 705.
  9. S. M. Rytov, “Electromagnetic preperties of a finely stratified medium,” Sov. Phys. JETP 2, 466–475 (1956).
  10. C. W. Han and R. K. Kostuk, “Enhanced phase shift in a zeroth-order beam from subwavelength grating structures formed in uniaxial birefringent materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1728–1736 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Emoto, M. Nishi, M. Okada, S. Manabe, S. Matsui, N. Kawatsuki, and H. Ono, “Form birefringence in intrinsic birefringent media possessing a subwavelength structure,” Appl. Opt. 49, 4355–4361 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. N. Kawatsuki, K. Goto, T. Kawakami, and T. Yamamoto, “Reversion of alignment direction in the thermally enhanced photoorientation of photo-cross-linkable polymer liquid crystal films,” Macromolecules 35, 706–713 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. S. Yee, “Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell’s equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 14, 302–307 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. G. Garcia, T. M. Hung-Bao, R. G. Martin, and B. G. Olmedo, “On application of finite methods in time domain to anisotropic dielectric waveguides,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 44, 2195–2206 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. P. Berenger, “A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves,” J. Comput. Phys. 114, 185–200 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (2)

S. Grego, A. Huffman, M. Luech, B. R. Stoner, and J. Lannon, “Nanoimprint lithography fabrication of waveguide-integrated optical gratings with inexpensive stamps,” Microelectron. Eng. 87, 1846–1851 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Emoto, M. Nishi, M. Okada, S. Manabe, S. Matsui, N. Kawatsuki, and H. Ono, “Form birefringence in intrinsic birefringent media possessing a subwavelength structure,” Appl. Opt. 49, 4355–4361 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

Y.-P. Chen, Y.-P. Lee, J.-H. Chang, and L. A. Wang, “Fabrication of concave gratings by curved surface UV-nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 1690–1695 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J. Kouba, M. Kubenz, A. Mai, G. Ropers, W. Eberhardt, and B. Loechel, “Fabrication of nanoimprint stamps for photonic crystals,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 34, 897–903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

Y. Chen, J. Tao, X. Zhao, Z. Cui, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Nanoimprint lithography for planar chiral photonic meta-materials,” Microelectron. Eng. 78–79, 612–617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Yoshikawa, T. Konichi, M. Nakajima, H. Kikuta, H. Kawata, and Y. Hirai, “Fabrication of 1/4 wave plate by nanocasting lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 2939–2944 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

N. Kawatsuki, K. Goto, T. Kawakami, and T. Yamamoto, “Reversion of alignment direction in the thermally enhanced photoorientation of photo-cross-linkable polymer liquid crystal films,” Macromolecules 35, 706–713 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Z. Yu, W. Wu, L. Chen, and S. Y. Chou, “Fabrication of large area 100 nm pitch grating by spatial frequency doubling and nanoimprint lithography for subwavelength optical applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 2816–2819 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

C. W. Han and R. K. Kostuk, “Enhanced phase shift in a zeroth-order beam from subwavelength grating structures formed in uniaxial birefringent materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1728–1736 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Garcia, T. M. Hung-Bao, R. G. Martin, and B. G. Olmedo, “On application of finite methods in time domain to anisotropic dielectric waveguides,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 44, 2195–2206 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. P. Berenger, “A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves,” J. Comput. Phys. 114, 185–200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

K. S. Yee, “Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell’s equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 14, 302–307 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1956 (1)

S. M. Rytov, “Electromagnetic preperties of a finely stratified medium,” Sov. Phys. JETP 2, 466–475 (1956).

Berenger, J. P.

J. P. Berenger, “A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves,” J. Comput. Phys. 114, 185–200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

For example, M. Born and E. Wolf, Principle of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, 1980), p. 705.

Chang, J.-H.

Y.-P. Chen, Y.-P. Lee, J.-H. Chang, and L. A. Wang, “Fabrication of concave gratings by curved surface UV-nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 1690–1695 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Z. Yu, W. Wu, L. Chen, and S. Y. Chou, “Fabrication of large area 100 nm pitch grating by spatial frequency doubling and nanoimprint lithography for subwavelength optical applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 2816–2819 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, J. Tao, X. Zhao, Z. Cui, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Nanoimprint lithography for planar chiral photonic meta-materials,” Microelectron. Eng. 78–79, 612–617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-P.

Y.-P. Chen, Y.-P. Lee, J.-H. Chang, and L. A. Wang, “Fabrication of concave gratings by curved surface UV-nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 1690–1695 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chou, S. Y.

Z. Yu, W. Wu, L. Chen, and S. Y. Chou, “Fabrication of large area 100 nm pitch grating by spatial frequency doubling and nanoimprint lithography for subwavelength optical applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 2816–2819 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Z.

Y. Chen, J. Tao, X. Zhao, Z. Cui, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Nanoimprint lithography for planar chiral photonic meta-materials,” Microelectron. Eng. 78–79, 612–617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eberhardt, W.

J. Kouba, M. Kubenz, A. Mai, G. Ropers, W. Eberhardt, and B. Loechel, “Fabrication of nanoimprint stamps for photonic crystals,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 34, 897–903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Emoto, A.

Garcia, S. G.

S. G. Garcia, T. M. Hung-Bao, R. G. Martin, and B. G. Olmedo, “On application of finite methods in time domain to anisotropic dielectric waveguides,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 44, 2195–2206 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Goto, K.

N. Kawatsuki, K. Goto, T. Kawakami, and T. Yamamoto, “Reversion of alignment direction in the thermally enhanced photoorientation of photo-cross-linkable polymer liquid crystal films,” Macromolecules 35, 706–713 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Grego, S.

S. Grego, A. Huffman, M. Luech, B. R. Stoner, and J. Lannon, “Nanoimprint lithography fabrication of waveguide-integrated optical gratings with inexpensive stamps,” Microelectron. Eng. 87, 1846–1851 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Han, C. W.

Hirai, Y.

T. Yoshikawa, T. Konichi, M. Nakajima, H. Kikuta, H. Kawata, and Y. Hirai, “Fabrication of 1/4 wave plate by nanocasting lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 2939–2944 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, A.

S. Grego, A. Huffman, M. Luech, B. R. Stoner, and J. Lannon, “Nanoimprint lithography fabrication of waveguide-integrated optical gratings with inexpensive stamps,” Microelectron. Eng. 87, 1846–1851 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hung-Bao, T. M.

S. G. Garcia, T. M. Hung-Bao, R. G. Martin, and B. G. Olmedo, “On application of finite methods in time domain to anisotropic dielectric waveguides,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 44, 2195–2206 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, T.

N. Kawatsuki, K. Goto, T. Kawakami, and T. Yamamoto, “Reversion of alignment direction in the thermally enhanced photoorientation of photo-cross-linkable polymer liquid crystal films,” Macromolecules 35, 706–713 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, H.

T. Yoshikawa, T. Konichi, M. Nakajima, H. Kikuta, H. Kawata, and Y. Hirai, “Fabrication of 1/4 wave plate by nanocasting lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 2939–2944 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kawatsuki, N.

A. Emoto, M. Nishi, M. Okada, S. Manabe, S. Matsui, N. Kawatsuki, and H. Ono, “Form birefringence in intrinsic birefringent media possessing a subwavelength structure,” Appl. Opt. 49, 4355–4361 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Kawatsuki, K. Goto, T. Kawakami, and T. Yamamoto, “Reversion of alignment direction in the thermally enhanced photoorientation of photo-cross-linkable polymer liquid crystal films,” Macromolecules 35, 706–713 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kikuta, H.

T. Yoshikawa, T. Konichi, M. Nakajima, H. Kikuta, H. Kawata, and Y. Hirai, “Fabrication of 1/4 wave plate by nanocasting lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 2939–2944 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kimball, B. R.

Konichi, T.

T. Yoshikawa, T. Konichi, M. Nakajima, H. Kikuta, H. Kawata, and Y. Hirai, “Fabrication of 1/4 wave plate by nanocasting lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 2939–2944 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kostuk, R. K.

Kouba, J.

J. Kouba, M. Kubenz, A. Mai, G. Ropers, W. Eberhardt, and B. Loechel, “Fabrication of nanoimprint stamps for photonic crystals,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 34, 897–903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kubenz, M.

J. Kouba, M. Kubenz, A. Mai, G. Ropers, W. Eberhardt, and B. Loechel, “Fabrication of nanoimprint stamps for photonic crystals,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 34, 897–903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lannon, J.

S. Grego, A. Huffman, M. Luech, B. R. Stoner, and J. Lannon, “Nanoimprint lithography fabrication of waveguide-integrated optical gratings with inexpensive stamps,” Microelectron. Eng. 87, 1846–1851 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-P.

Y.-P. Chen, Y.-P. Lee, J.-H. Chang, and L. A. Wang, “Fabrication of concave gratings by curved surface UV-nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 1690–1695 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Loechel, B.

J. Kouba, M. Kubenz, A. Mai, G. Ropers, W. Eberhardt, and B. Loechel, “Fabrication of nanoimprint stamps for photonic crystals,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 34, 897–903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Luech, M.

S. Grego, A. Huffman, M. Luech, B. R. Stoner, and J. Lannon, “Nanoimprint lithography fabrication of waveguide-integrated optical gratings with inexpensive stamps,” Microelectron. Eng. 87, 1846–1851 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mai, A.

J. Kouba, M. Kubenz, A. Mai, G. Ropers, W. Eberhardt, and B. Loechel, “Fabrication of nanoimprint stamps for photonic crystals,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 34, 897–903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Manabe, S.

Martin, R. G.

S. G. Garcia, T. M. Hung-Bao, R. G. Martin, and B. G. Olmedo, “On application of finite methods in time domain to anisotropic dielectric waveguides,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 44, 2195–2206 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Matsui, S.

Nakajima, M.

T. Yoshikawa, T. Konichi, M. Nakajima, H. Kikuta, H. Kawata, and Y. Hirai, “Fabrication of 1/4 wave plate by nanocasting lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 2939–2944 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nersisyan, S. R.

Nishi, M.

Okada, M.

Olmedo, B. G.

S. G. Garcia, T. M. Hung-Bao, R. G. Martin, and B. G. Olmedo, “On application of finite methods in time domain to anisotropic dielectric waveguides,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 44, 2195–2206 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ono, H.

Ropers, G.

J. Kouba, M. Kubenz, A. Mai, G. Ropers, W. Eberhardt, and B. Loechel, “Fabrication of nanoimprint stamps for photonic crystals,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 34, 897–903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rytov, S. M.

S. M. Rytov, “Electromagnetic preperties of a finely stratified medium,” Sov. Phys. JETP 2, 466–475 (1956).

Schwanecke, A. S.

Y. Chen, J. Tao, X. Zhao, Z. Cui, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Nanoimprint lithography for planar chiral photonic meta-materials,” Microelectron. Eng. 78–79, 612–617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Steeves, D. M.

Stoner, B. R.

S. Grego, A. Huffman, M. Luech, B. R. Stoner, and J. Lannon, “Nanoimprint lithography fabrication of waveguide-integrated optical gratings with inexpensive stamps,” Microelectron. Eng. 87, 1846–1851 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tabiryan, N. V.

Tao, J.

Y. Chen, J. Tao, X. Zhao, Z. Cui, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Nanoimprint lithography for planar chiral photonic meta-materials,” Microelectron. Eng. 78–79, 612–617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. A.

Y.-P. Chen, Y.-P. Lee, J.-H. Chang, and L. A. Wang, “Fabrication of concave gratings by curved surface UV-nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 1690–1695 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

For example, M. Born and E. Wolf, Principle of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, 1980), p. 705.

Wu, W.

Z. Yu, W. Wu, L. Chen, and S. Y. Chou, “Fabrication of large area 100 nm pitch grating by spatial frequency doubling and nanoimprint lithography for subwavelength optical applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 2816–2819 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, T.

N. Kawatsuki, K. Goto, T. Kawakami, and T. Yamamoto, “Reversion of alignment direction in the thermally enhanced photoorientation of photo-cross-linkable polymer liquid crystal films,” Macromolecules 35, 706–713 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yee, K. S.

K. S. Yee, “Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell’s equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 14, 302–307 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Yoshikawa, T.

T. Yoshikawa, T. Konichi, M. Nakajima, H. Kikuta, H. Kawata, and Y. Hirai, “Fabrication of 1/4 wave plate by nanocasting lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 2939–2944 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z.

Z. Yu, W. Wu, L. Chen, and S. Y. Chou, “Fabrication of large area 100 nm pitch grating by spatial frequency doubling and nanoimprint lithography for subwavelength optical applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 2816–2819 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, X.

Y. Chen, J. Tao, X. Zhao, Z. Cui, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Nanoimprint lithography for planar chiral photonic meta-materials,” Microelectron. Eng. 78–79, 612–617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zheludev, N. I.

Y. Chen, J. Tao, X. Zhao, Z. Cui, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Nanoimprint lithography for planar chiral photonic meta-materials,” Microelectron. Eng. 78–79, 612–617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

K. S. Yee, “Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell’s equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 14, 302–307 (1966).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

S. G. Garcia, T. M. Hung-Bao, R. G. Martin, and B. G. Olmedo, “On application of finite methods in time domain to anisotropic dielectric waveguides,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 44, 2195–2206 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Comput. Phys. (1)

J. P. Berenger, “A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves,” J. Comput. Phys. 114, 185–200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys. Conf. Ser. (1)

J. Kouba, M. Kubenz, A. Mai, G. Ropers, W. Eberhardt, and B. Loechel, “Fabrication of nanoimprint stamps for photonic crystals,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 34, 897–903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (3)

Y.-P. Chen, Y.-P. Lee, J.-H. Chang, and L. A. Wang, “Fabrication of concave gratings by curved surface UV-nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 1690–1695 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yu, W. Wu, L. Chen, and S. Y. Chou, “Fabrication of large area 100 nm pitch grating by spatial frequency doubling and nanoimprint lithography for subwavelength optical applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 2816–2819 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Yoshikawa, T. Konichi, M. Nakajima, H. Kikuta, H. Kawata, and Y. Hirai, “Fabrication of 1/4 wave plate by nanocasting lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 2939–2944 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules (1)

N. Kawatsuki, K. Goto, T. Kawakami, and T. Yamamoto, “Reversion of alignment direction in the thermally enhanced photoorientation of photo-cross-linkable polymer liquid crystal films,” Macromolecules 35, 706–713 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng. (2)

S. Grego, A. Huffman, M. Luech, B. R. Stoner, and J. Lannon, “Nanoimprint lithography fabrication of waveguide-integrated optical gratings with inexpensive stamps,” Microelectron. Eng. 87, 1846–1851 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, J. Tao, X. Zhao, Z. Cui, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Nanoimprint lithography for planar chiral photonic meta-materials,” Microelectron. Eng. 78–79, 612–617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

S. M. Rytov, “Electromagnetic preperties of a finely stratified medium,” Sov. Phys. JETP 2, 466–475 (1956).

Other (1)

For example, M. Born and E. Wolf, Principle of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, 1980), p. 705.

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