Abstract

We report studies of the terahertz (THz) transmission through vanadium dioxide (VO2) thin films grown on c-, m-, and r-plane sapphire substrates. Our results revealed THz amplitude modulation as large as 84% for VO2 films grown on r-plane sapphire substrates upon crossing the metal–insulator phase transition temperature. Complex optical conductivity and refractive indices were determined for all investigated samples in the metallic state. Results are consistent with electrical resistivity measurements and described based on the Drude model. The real and imaginary parts of the optical conductivity and refractive index are obtained, and associations with variations in the grain morphology and crystal quality are described. We show that VO2 thin films can be used as tunable broadband THz frequency antireflecting coatings.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. C. Hoffmann, B. S. Monozon, D. Livshits, E. U. Rafailov, and D. Turchinovich, “Terahertz electro-absorption effect enabling femtosecond all-optical switching in semiconductor quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 231108–231111 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. Hendry, M. J. Lockyear, J. Gómez Rivas, and L. Kuipers, “Ultrafast optical switching of the THz transmission through metallic subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 235035–235040 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. W. L. Chan, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 213511 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. J. Morin, “Oxides which show a metal-to-insulator transition at the Neel temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 3, 34–36 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Lopez, L. A. Boatner, T. E. Haynes, R. F. Haglund, and L. C. Feldman, “Switchable reflectivity on silicon from a composite VO2-SiO2 protecting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1410–1412 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Chen, R. Wang, L. Shang, and C. Guo, “Gate-field-induced phase transitions in VO: Monoclinic metal phase separation and switchable infrared reflections,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 171101 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Okimura, N. Ezreena, Y. Sasakawa, and J. Sakai, “Electric-field-induced multistep resistance switching in planar VO2/c-Al2O3 structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 065003 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. B. Cho, J. S. Kyoung, H. S. Kim, H. R. Park, D. J. Park, B. J. Kim, Y. H. Ahn, F. Rotermund, H. T. Kim, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Nanopattern enabled terahertz all-optical switching on vanadium dioxide thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 071105 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Chen, Y. Zhu, Y. Zhao, J. H. Lee, H. Wang, A. A. Bernussi, M. Holtz, and Z. Fan, “VO2 multidomain heteroepitaxial growth and terahertz transmission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211905, (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  25. D. Brassard, S. Fourmaux, M. Jean-Jacques, J. C. Kieffer, and M. A. El Khakani, “Grain size effect on the semiconductor-metal phase transition characteristics of magnetron-sputtered VO2 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 051910 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  26. Y. Muraoka and Z. Hiroi, “Metal—insulator transition of VO2 thin films grown on TiO2 (001) and (110) substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 583 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  27. C. Chen, Y. Zhao, X. Pan, V. Kuryatkov, A. Bernussi, M. Holtz, and Z. Y. Fan, “Influence of defects on structural and electrical properties of VO2 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 023707 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. Thoman, A. Kern, H. Helm, and M. Walther, “Nanostructured gold films as broadband terahertz antireflection coatings,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 195405 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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  30. R. Lopez, L. A. Boatner, T. E. Haynes, R. F. Haglund, and L. C. Feldman, “Enhanced hysteresis in the semiconductor-to-metal phase transition of VO2 precipitates formed in SiO2 by ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3161 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  31. T. D. Manning, I. P. Parkin, M. E. Pemble, D. Sheel, and D. Vernardou, “Intelligent window coatings: atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of tungsten-doped vanadium dioxide,” Chem. Mater. 16, 744–749 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  32. P. Limelette, A. Georges, D. Jerome, P. Wzietek, P. Metcalf, and J. Honig, “Universality and critical behavior at the Mott transition,” Science 302, 89–92 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2012

Y. Zhao, J. H. Lee, Y. Zhu, M. Nazari, C. Chen, H. Wang, A. A. Bernussi, M. Holtz, and Z. Fan, “Structural, electrical, and terahertz transmission properties of VO2 thin films grown on c-, r-, and m-plane sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 053533 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

P. Mandal, A. Speck, C. Ko, and S. Ramanathan, “Terahertz spectroscopy studies on epitaxial vanadium dioxide thin films across the metal-insulator transition,” Opt. Lett. 36, 1927–1929 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Cho, J. S. Kyoung, H. S. Kim, H. R. Park, D. J. Park, B. J. Kim, Y. H. Ahn, F. Rotermund, H. T. Kim, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Nanopattern enabled terahertz all-optical switching on vanadium dioxide thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 071105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, M. Yi, B. G. Kim, and J. Ahn, “Investigation of THz birefringence measurement and calculation in Al2O3 and LiNbO3” Appl. Opt. 50, 2906–2910 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, Y. Zhao, X. Pan, V. Kuryatkov, A. Bernussi, M. Holtz, and Z. Y. Fan, “Influence of defects on structural and electrical properties of VO2 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 023707 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

C. W. Chen, Y. C. Lin, C. H. Chang, P. Yu, J. M. Shieh, and C. L. Pan, “Frequency-dependent complex conductivities and dielectric responses of indium tin oxide thin films from the visible to the far infrared,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1746–1754 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. B. Shadrin, A. V. Ilinskii, A. I. Sidorov, and S. D. Khanin, “Size effects upon phase transitions in vanadium oxide nanocomposites,” Phys. Solid State 52, 2426–2433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, Y. Zhu, Y. Zhao, J. H. Lee, H. Wang, A. A. Bernussi, M. Holtz, and Z. Fan, “VO2 multidomain heteroepitaxial growth and terahertz transmission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211905, (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, S. Fourmaux, H. C. Bandulet, D. Brassard, J. C. Kieffer, M. A. E. Khakani, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of the metal-insulator transition in a nanogranular VO2 film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 221905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hoffmann, B. S. Monozon, D. Livshits, E. U. Rafailov, and D. Turchinovich, “Terahertz electro-absorption effect enabling femtosecond all-optical switching in semiconductor quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 231108–231111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

W. L. Chan, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Okimura, N. Ezreena, Y. Sasakawa, and J. Sakai, “Electric-field-induced multistep resistance switching in planar VO2/c-Al2O3 structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 065003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

C. Chen, R. Wang, L. Shang, and C. Guo, “Gate-field-induced phase transitions in VO: Monoclinic metal phase separation and switchable infrared reflections,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 171101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chen, H. Lu, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, A. C. Gossard, S. A. Trugman, J. F. O’Hara, and A. J. Taylor, “Electronic control of extraordinary terahertz transmission through subwavelength metal hole arrays,” Opt. Express 16, 7641–7648 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Zhou, E. P. J. Parrott, D. J. Paul, and J. Axel Zeitler, “Determination of complex refractive index of thin metal films from terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 053110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Laman and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz conductivity of thin metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 051105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Yasuda and I. Hosako, “Measurement of terahertz refractive index of metal with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1632–1634 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Thoman, A. Kern, H. Helm, and M. Walther, “Nanostructured gold films as broadband terahertz antireflection coatings,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 195405 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

E. Hendry, M. J. Lockyear, J. Gómez Rivas, and L. Kuipers, “Ultrafast optical switching of the THz transmission through metallic subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 235035–235040 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhan, V. Astley, M. Hvasta, J. A. Deibel, D. M. Mittleman, and Y. S. Lim, “The metal-insulator transition in VO2 studied using terahertz apertureless near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 162110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of thin gold films at the metal-insulator percolation transition,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 125408 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, “Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 205103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

D. Brassard, S. Fourmaux, M. Jean-Jacques, J. C. Kieffer, and M. A. El Khakani, “Grain size effect on the semiconductor-metal phase transition characteristics of magnetron-sputtered VO2 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 051910 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

G. Golan, A. Axelevitch, B. Sigalov, and B. Gorenstein, “Investigation of phase transition mechanism in vanadium oxide thin films,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 6, 189–195 (2004).

T. D. Manning, I. P. Parkin, M. E. Pemble, D. Sheel, and D. Vernardou, “Intelligent window coatings: atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of tungsten-doped vanadium dioxide,” Chem. Mater. 16, 744–749 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Lopez, L. A. Boatner, T. E. Haynes, R. F. Haglund, and L. C. Feldman, “Switchable reflectivity on silicon from a composite VO2-SiO2 protecting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1410–1412 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

P. Limelette, A. Georges, D. Jerome, P. Wzietek, P. Metcalf, and J. Honig, “Universality and critical behavior at the Mott transition,” Science 302, 89–92 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

Y. Muraoka and Z. Hiroi, “Metal—insulator transition of VO2 thin films grown on TiO2 (001) and (110) substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 583 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Lopez, T. E. Haynes, L. A. Boatner, L. C. Feldman, and R. F. Haglund, “Size effects in the structural phase transition of VO2 nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 224113 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

R. Lopez, L. A. Boatner, T. E. Haynes, R. F. Haglund, and L. C. Feldman, “Enhanced hysteresis in the semiconductor-to-metal phase transition of VO2 precipitates formed in SiO2 by ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3161 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1959

F. J. Morin, “Oxides which show a metal-to-insulator transition at the Neel temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 3, 34–36 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, J.

Ahn, K. J.

S. B. Cho, J. S. Kyoung, H. S. Kim, H. R. Park, D. J. Park, B. J. Kim, Y. H. Ahn, F. Rotermund, H. T. Kim, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Nanopattern enabled terahertz all-optical switching on vanadium dioxide thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 071105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, Y. H.

S. B. Cho, J. S. Kyoung, H. S. Kim, H. R. Park, D. J. Park, B. J. Kim, Y. H. Ahn, F. Rotermund, H. T. Kim, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Nanopattern enabled terahertz all-optical switching on vanadium dioxide thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 071105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Astley, V.

H. Zhan, V. Astley, M. Hvasta, J. A. Deibel, D. M. Mittleman, and Y. S. Lim, “The metal-insulator transition in VO2 studied using terahertz apertureless near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 162110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R. D.

Axel Zeitler, J.

D. X. Zhou, E. P. J. Parrott, D. J. Paul, and J. Axel Zeitler, “Determination of complex refractive index of thin metal films from terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 053110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Axelevitch, A.

G. Golan, A. Axelevitch, B. Sigalov, and B. Gorenstein, “Investigation of phase transition mechanism in vanadium oxide thin films,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 6, 189–195 (2004).

Azad, A. K.

Bandulet, H. C.

T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, S. Fourmaux, H. C. Bandulet, D. Brassard, J. C. Kieffer, M. A. E. Khakani, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of the metal-insulator transition in a nanogranular VO2 film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 221905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bernussi, A.

C. Chen, Y. Zhao, X. Pan, V. Kuryatkov, A. Bernussi, M. Holtz, and Z. Y. Fan, “Influence of defects on structural and electrical properties of VO2 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 023707 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bernussi, A. A.

Y. Zhao, J. H. Lee, Y. Zhu, M. Nazari, C. Chen, H. Wang, A. A. Bernussi, M. Holtz, and Z. Fan, “Structural, electrical, and terahertz transmission properties of VO2 thin films grown on c-, r-, and m-plane sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 053533 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, Y. Zhu, Y. Zhao, J. H. Lee, H. Wang, A. A. Bernussi, M. Holtz, and Z. Fan, “VO2 multidomain heteroepitaxial growth and terahertz transmission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211905, (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boatner, L. A.

R. Lopez, L. A. Boatner, T. E. Haynes, R. F. Haglund, and L. C. Feldman, “Switchable reflectivity on silicon from a composite VO2-SiO2 protecting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1410–1412 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Lopez, T. E. Haynes, L. A. Boatner, L. C. Feldman, and R. F. Haglund, “Size effects in the structural phase transition of VO2 nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 224113 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Lopez, L. A. Boatner, T. E. Haynes, R. F. Haglund, and L. C. Feldman, “Enhanced hysteresis in the semiconductor-to-metal phase transition of VO2 precipitates formed in SiO2 by ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3161 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brassard, D.

T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, S. Fourmaux, H. C. Bandulet, D. Brassard, J. C. Kieffer, M. A. E. Khakani, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of the metal-insulator transition in a nanogranular VO2 film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 221905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Brassard, S. Fourmaux, M. Jean-Jacques, J. C. Kieffer, and M. A. El Khakani, “Grain size effect on the semiconductor-metal phase transition characteristics of magnetron-sputtered VO2 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 051910 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brener, I.

W. L. Chan, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chan, W. L.

W. L. Chan, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. H.

C. W. Chen, Y. C. Lin, C. H. Chang, P. Yu, J. M. Shieh, and C. L. Pan, “Frequency-dependent complex conductivities and dielectric responses of indium tin oxide thin films from the visible to the far infrared,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1746–1754 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

Y. Zhao, J. H. Lee, Y. Zhu, M. Nazari, C. Chen, H. Wang, A. A. Bernussi, M. Holtz, and Z. Fan, “Structural, electrical, and terahertz transmission properties of VO2 thin films grown on c-, r-, and m-plane sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 053533 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, Y. Zhao, X. Pan, V. Kuryatkov, A. Bernussi, M. Holtz, and Z. Y. Fan, “Influence of defects on structural and electrical properties of VO2 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 023707 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, Y. Zhu, Y. Zhao, J. H. Lee, H. Wang, A. A. Bernussi, M. Holtz, and Z. Fan, “VO2 multidomain heteroepitaxial growth and terahertz transmission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211905, (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, R. Wang, L. Shang, and C. Guo, “Gate-field-induced phase transitions in VO: Monoclinic metal phase separation and switchable infrared reflections,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 171101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. W.

C. W. Chen, Y. C. Lin, C. H. Chang, P. Yu, J. M. Shieh, and C. L. Pan, “Frequency-dependent complex conductivities and dielectric responses of indium tin oxide thin films from the visible to the far infrared,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1746–1754 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. T.

Cho, S. B.

S. B. Cho, J. S. Kyoung, H. S. Kim, H. R. Park, D. J. Park, B. J. Kim, Y. H. Ahn, F. Rotermund, H. T. Kim, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Nanopattern enabled terahertz all-optical switching on vanadium dioxide thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 071105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cich, M. J.

W. L. Chan, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cocker, T. L.

T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, S. Fourmaux, H. C. Bandulet, D. Brassard, J. C. Kieffer, M. A. E. Khakani, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of the metal-insulator transition in a nanogranular VO2 film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 221905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cooke, D. G.

M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of thin gold films at the metal-insulator percolation transition,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 125408 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Deibel, J. A.

H. Zhan, V. Astley, M. Hvasta, J. A. Deibel, D. M. Mittleman, and Y. S. Lim, “The metal-insulator transition in VO2 studied using terahertz apertureless near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 162110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

El Khakani, M. A.

D. Brassard, S. Fourmaux, M. Jean-Jacques, J. C. Kieffer, and M. A. El Khakani, “Grain size effect on the semiconductor-metal phase transition characteristics of magnetron-sputtered VO2 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 051910 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ezreena, N.

K. Okimura, N. Ezreena, Y. Sasakawa, and J. Sakai, “Electric-field-induced multistep resistance switching in planar VO2/c-Al2O3 structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 065003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Z.

Y. Zhao, J. H. Lee, Y. Zhu, M. Nazari, C. Chen, H. Wang, A. A. Bernussi, M. Holtz, and Z. Fan, “Structural, electrical, and terahertz transmission properties of VO2 thin films grown on c-, r-, and m-plane sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 053533 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, Y. Zhu, Y. Zhao, J. H. Lee, H. Wang, A. A. Bernussi, M. Holtz, and Z. Fan, “VO2 multidomain heteroepitaxial growth and terahertz transmission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211905, (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Z. Y.

C. Chen, Y. Zhao, X. Pan, V. Kuryatkov, A. Bernussi, M. Holtz, and Z. Y. Fan, “Influence of defects on structural and electrical properties of VO2 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 023707 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, L. C.

R. Lopez, L. A. Boatner, T. E. Haynes, R. F. Haglund, and L. C. Feldman, “Switchable reflectivity on silicon from a composite VO2-SiO2 protecting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1410–1412 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Lopez, T. E. Haynes, L. A. Boatner, L. C. Feldman, and R. F. Haglund, “Size effects in the structural phase transition of VO2 nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 224113 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Lopez, L. A. Boatner, T. E. Haynes, R. F. Haglund, and L. C. Feldman, “Enhanced hysteresis in the semiconductor-to-metal phase transition of VO2 precipitates formed in SiO2 by ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3161 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, B. M.

P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, “Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 205103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fourmaux, S.

T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, S. Fourmaux, H. C. Bandulet, D. Brassard, J. C. Kieffer, M. A. E. Khakani, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of the metal-insulator transition in a nanogranular VO2 film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 221905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Brassard, S. Fourmaux, M. Jean-Jacques, J. C. Kieffer, and M. A. El Khakani, “Grain size effect on the semiconductor-metal phase transition characteristics of magnetron-sputtered VO2 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 051910 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, M. R.

M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of thin gold films at the metal-insulator percolation transition,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 125408 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Georges, A.

P. Limelette, A. Georges, D. Jerome, P. Wzietek, P. Metcalf, and J. Honig, “Universality and critical behavior at the Mott transition,” Science 302, 89–92 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Golan, G.

G. Golan, A. Axelevitch, B. Sigalov, and B. Gorenstein, “Investigation of phase transition mechanism in vanadium oxide thin films,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 6, 189–195 (2004).

Gómez Rivas, J.

E. Hendry, M. J. Lockyear, J. Gómez Rivas, and L. Kuipers, “Ultrafast optical switching of the THz transmission through metallic subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 235035–235040 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gorenstein, B.

G. Golan, A. Axelevitch, B. Sigalov, and B. Gorenstein, “Investigation of phase transition mechanism in vanadium oxide thin films,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 6, 189–195 (2004).

Gossard, A. C.

Grischkowsky, D.

N. Laman and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz conductivity of thin metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 051105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guo, C.

C. Chen, R. Wang, L. Shang, and C. Guo, “Gate-field-induced phase transitions in VO: Monoclinic metal phase separation and switchable infrared reflections,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 171101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haglund, R. F.

P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, “Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 205103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Lopez, L. A. Boatner, T. E. Haynes, R. F. Haglund, and L. C. Feldman, “Switchable reflectivity on silicon from a composite VO2-SiO2 protecting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1410–1412 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Lopez, T. E. Haynes, L. A. Boatner, L. C. Feldman, and R. F. Haglund, “Size effects in the structural phase transition of VO2 nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 224113 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Lopez, L. A. Boatner, T. E. Haynes, R. F. Haglund, and L. C. Feldman, “Enhanced hysteresis in the semiconductor-to-metal phase transition of VO2 precipitates formed in SiO2 by ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3161 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hajar, M.

M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of thin gold films at the metal-insulator percolation transition,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 125408 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Haynes, T. E.

R. Lopez, L. A. Boatner, T. E. Haynes, R. F. Haglund, and L. C. Feldman, “Switchable reflectivity on silicon from a composite VO2-SiO2 protecting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1410–1412 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Lopez, T. E. Haynes, L. A. Boatner, L. C. Feldman, and R. F. Haglund, “Size effects in the structural phase transition of VO2 nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 224113 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Lopez, L. A. Boatner, T. E. Haynes, R. F. Haglund, and L. C. Feldman, “Enhanced hysteresis in the semiconductor-to-metal phase transition of VO2 precipitates formed in SiO2 by ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3161 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hegmann, F. A.

T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, S. Fourmaux, H. C. Bandulet, D. Brassard, J. C. Kieffer, M. A. E. Khakani, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of the metal-insulator transition in a nanogranular VO2 film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 221905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of thin gold films at the metal-insulator percolation transition,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 125408 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Helm, H.

A. Thoman, A. Kern, H. Helm, and M. Walther, “Nanostructured gold films as broadband terahertz antireflection coatings,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 195405 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, “Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 205103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hendry, E.

E. Hendry, M. J. Lockyear, J. Gómez Rivas, and L. Kuipers, “Ultrafast optical switching of the THz transmission through metallic subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 235035–235040 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hiroi, Z.

Y. Muraoka and Z. Hiroi, “Metal—insulator transition of VO2 thin films grown on TiO2 (001) and (110) substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 583 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, M. C.

M. C. Hoffmann, B. S. Monozon, D. Livshits, E. U. Rafailov, and D. Turchinovich, “Terahertz electro-absorption effect enabling femtosecond all-optical switching in semiconductor quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 231108–231111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Holtz, M.

Y. Zhao, J. H. Lee, Y. Zhu, M. Nazari, C. Chen, H. Wang, A. A. Bernussi, M. Holtz, and Z. Fan, “Structural, electrical, and terahertz transmission properties of VO2 thin films grown on c-, r-, and m-plane sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 053533 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, Y. Zhao, X. Pan, V. Kuryatkov, A. Bernussi, M. Holtz, and Z. Y. Fan, “Influence of defects on structural and electrical properties of VO2 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 023707 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, Y. Zhu, Y. Zhao, J. H. Lee, H. Wang, A. A. Bernussi, M. Holtz, and Z. Fan, “VO2 multidomain heteroepitaxial growth and terahertz transmission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211905, (2010).
[CrossRef]

Honig, J.

P. Limelette, A. Georges, D. Jerome, P. Wzietek, P. Metcalf, and J. Honig, “Universality and critical behavior at the Mott transition,” Science 302, 89–92 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hosako, I.

H. Yasuda and I. Hosako, “Measurement of terahertz refractive index of metal with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1632–1634 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hvasta, M.

H. Zhan, V. Astley, M. Hvasta, J. A. Deibel, D. M. Mittleman, and Y. S. Lim, “The metal-insulator transition in VO2 studied using terahertz apertureless near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 162110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ilinskii, A. V.

E. B. Shadrin, A. V. Ilinskii, A. I. Sidorov, and S. D. Khanin, “Size effects upon phase transitions in vanadium oxide nanocomposites,” Phys. Solid State 52, 2426–2433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jean-Jacques, M.

D. Brassard, S. Fourmaux, M. Jean-Jacques, J. C. Kieffer, and M. A. El Khakani, “Grain size effect on the semiconductor-metal phase transition characteristics of magnetron-sputtered VO2 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 051910 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jepsen, P. U.

P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, “Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 205103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jerome, D.

P. Limelette, A. Georges, D. Jerome, P. Wzietek, P. Metcalf, and J. Honig, “Universality and critical behavior at the Mott transition,” Science 302, 89–92 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kern, A.

A. Thoman, A. Kern, H. Helm, and M. Walther, “Nanostructured gold films as broadband terahertz antireflection coatings,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 195405 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Khakani, M. A. E.

T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, S. Fourmaux, H. C. Bandulet, D. Brassard, J. C. Kieffer, M. A. E. Khakani, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of the metal-insulator transition in a nanogranular VO2 film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 221905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Khanin, S. D.

E. B. Shadrin, A. V. Ilinskii, A. I. Sidorov, and S. D. Khanin, “Size effects upon phase transitions in vanadium oxide nanocomposites,” Phys. Solid State 52, 2426–2433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kieffer, J. C.

T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, S. Fourmaux, H. C. Bandulet, D. Brassard, J. C. Kieffer, M. A. E. Khakani, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of the metal-insulator transition in a nanogranular VO2 film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 221905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Brassard, S. Fourmaux, M. Jean-Jacques, J. C. Kieffer, and M. A. El Khakani, “Grain size effect on the semiconductor-metal phase transition characteristics of magnetron-sputtered VO2 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 051910 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. G.

Kim, B. J.

S. B. Cho, J. S. Kyoung, H. S. Kim, H. R. Park, D. J. Park, B. J. Kim, Y. H. Ahn, F. Rotermund, H. T. Kim, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Nanopattern enabled terahertz all-optical switching on vanadium dioxide thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 071105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. S.

S. B. Cho, J. S. Kyoung, H. S. Kim, H. R. Park, D. J. Park, B. J. Kim, Y. H. Ahn, F. Rotermund, H. T. Kim, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Nanopattern enabled terahertz all-optical switching on vanadium dioxide thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 071105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. S.

S. B. Cho, J. S. Kyoung, H. S. Kim, H. R. Park, D. J. Park, B. J. Kim, Y. H. Ahn, F. Rotermund, H. T. Kim, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Nanopattern enabled terahertz all-optical switching on vanadium dioxide thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 071105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. T.

S. B. Cho, J. S. Kyoung, H. S. Kim, H. R. Park, D. J. Park, B. J. Kim, Y. H. Ahn, F. Rotermund, H. T. Kim, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Nanopattern enabled terahertz all-optical switching on vanadium dioxide thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 071105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.

Ko, C.

Kuipers, L.

E. Hendry, M. J. Lockyear, J. Gómez Rivas, and L. Kuipers, “Ultrafast optical switching of the THz transmission through metallic subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 235035–235040 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuryatkov, V.

C. Chen, Y. Zhao, X. Pan, V. Kuryatkov, A. Bernussi, M. Holtz, and Z. Y. Fan, “Influence of defects on structural and electrical properties of VO2 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 023707 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kyoung, J. S.

S. B. Cho, J. S. Kyoung, H. S. Kim, H. R. Park, D. J. Park, B. J. Kim, Y. H. Ahn, F. Rotermund, H. T. Kim, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Nanopattern enabled terahertz all-optical switching on vanadium dioxide thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 071105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Laman, N.

N. Laman and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz conductivity of thin metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 051105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

Y. Zhao, J. H. Lee, Y. Zhu, M. Nazari, C. Chen, H. Wang, A. A. Bernussi, M. Holtz, and Z. Fan, “Structural, electrical, and terahertz transmission properties of VO2 thin films grown on c-, r-, and m-plane sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 053533 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, Y. Zhu, Y. Zhao, J. H. Lee, H. Wang, A. A. Bernussi, M. Holtz, and Z. Fan, “VO2 multidomain heteroepitaxial growth and terahertz transmission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211905, (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lim, Y. S.

H. Zhan, V. Astley, M. Hvasta, J. A. Deibel, D. M. Mittleman, and Y. S. Lim, “The metal-insulator transition in VO2 studied using terahertz apertureless near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 162110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Limelette, P.

P. Limelette, A. Georges, D. Jerome, P. Wzietek, P. Metcalf, and J. Honig, “Universality and critical behavior at the Mott transition,” Science 302, 89–92 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. C.

C. W. Chen, Y. C. Lin, C. H. Chang, P. Yu, J. M. Shieh, and C. L. Pan, “Frequency-dependent complex conductivities and dielectric responses of indium tin oxide thin films from the visible to the far infrared,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1746–1754 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Livshits, D.

M. C. Hoffmann, B. S. Monozon, D. Livshits, E. U. Rafailov, and D. Turchinovich, “Terahertz electro-absorption effect enabling femtosecond all-optical switching in semiconductor quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 231108–231111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lockyear, M. J.

E. Hendry, M. J. Lockyear, J. Gómez Rivas, and L. Kuipers, “Ultrafast optical switching of the THz transmission through metallic subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 235035–235040 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, R.

P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, “Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 205103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Lopez, L. A. Boatner, T. E. Haynes, R. F. Haglund, and L. C. Feldman, “Switchable reflectivity on silicon from a composite VO2-SiO2 protecting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1410–1412 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Lopez, T. E. Haynes, L. A. Boatner, L. C. Feldman, and R. F. Haglund, “Size effects in the structural phase transition of VO2 nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 224113 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Lopez, L. A. Boatner, T. E. Haynes, R. F. Haglund, and L. C. Feldman, “Enhanced hysteresis in the semiconductor-to-metal phase transition of VO2 precipitates formed in SiO2 by ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3161 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H.

Mandal, P.

Manning, T. D.

T. D. Manning, I. P. Parkin, M. E. Pemble, D. Sheel, and D. Vernardou, “Intelligent window coatings: atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of tungsten-doped vanadium dioxide,” Chem. Mater. 16, 744–749 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Metcalf, P.

P. Limelette, A. Georges, D. Jerome, P. Wzietek, P. Metcalf, and J. Honig, “Universality and critical behavior at the Mott transition,” Science 302, 89–92 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D. M.

W. L. Chan, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhan, V. Astley, M. Hvasta, J. A. Deibel, D. M. Mittleman, and Y. S. Lim, “The metal-insulator transition in VO2 studied using terahertz apertureless near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 162110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Monozon, B. S.

M. C. Hoffmann, B. S. Monozon, D. Livshits, E. U. Rafailov, and D. Turchinovich, “Terahertz electro-absorption effect enabling femtosecond all-optical switching in semiconductor quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 231108–231111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Morin, F. J.

F. J. Morin, “Oxides which show a metal-to-insulator transition at the Neel temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 3, 34–36 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Muraoka, Y.

Y. Muraoka and Z. Hiroi, “Metal—insulator transition of VO2 thin films grown on TiO2 (001) and (110) substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 583 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nazari, M.

Y. Zhao, J. H. Lee, Y. Zhu, M. Nazari, C. Chen, H. Wang, A. A. Bernussi, M. Holtz, and Z. Fan, “Structural, electrical, and terahertz transmission properties of VO2 thin films grown on c-, r-, and m-plane sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 053533 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O’Hara, J. F.

Okimura, K.

K. Okimura, N. Ezreena, Y. Sasakawa, and J. Sakai, “Electric-field-induced multistep resistance switching in planar VO2/c-Al2O3 structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 065003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pan, C. L.

C. W. Chen, Y. C. Lin, C. H. Chang, P. Yu, J. M. Shieh, and C. L. Pan, “Frequency-dependent complex conductivities and dielectric responses of indium tin oxide thin films from the visible to the far infrared,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1746–1754 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pan, X.

C. Chen, Y. Zhao, X. Pan, V. Kuryatkov, A. Bernussi, M. Holtz, and Z. Y. Fan, “Influence of defects on structural and electrical properties of VO2 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 023707 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Park, D. J.

S. B. Cho, J. S. Kyoung, H. S. Kim, H. R. Park, D. J. Park, B. J. Kim, Y. H. Ahn, F. Rotermund, H. T. Kim, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Nanopattern enabled terahertz all-optical switching on vanadium dioxide thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 071105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Park, H. R.

S. B. Cho, J. S. Kyoung, H. S. Kim, H. R. Park, D. J. Park, B. J. Kim, Y. H. Ahn, F. Rotermund, H. T. Kim, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Nanopattern enabled terahertz all-optical switching on vanadium dioxide thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 071105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Parkin, I. P.

T. D. Manning, I. P. Parkin, M. E. Pemble, D. Sheel, and D. Vernardou, “Intelligent window coatings: atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of tungsten-doped vanadium dioxide,” Chem. Mater. 16, 744–749 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Parrott, E. P. J.

D. X. Zhou, E. P. J. Parrott, D. J. Paul, and J. Axel Zeitler, “Determination of complex refractive index of thin metal films from terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 053110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Paul, D. J.

D. X. Zhou, E. P. J. Parrott, D. J. Paul, and J. Axel Zeitler, “Determination of complex refractive index of thin metal films from terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 053110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pemble, M. E.

T. D. Manning, I. P. Parkin, M. E. Pemble, D. Sheel, and D. Vernardou, “Intelligent window coatings: atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of tungsten-doped vanadium dioxide,” Chem. Mater. 16, 744–749 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rafailov, E. U.

M. C. Hoffmann, B. S. Monozon, D. Livshits, E. U. Rafailov, and D. Turchinovich, “Terahertz electro-absorption effect enabling femtosecond all-optical switching in semiconductor quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 231108–231111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ramanathan, S.

Rotermund, F.

S. B. Cho, J. S. Kyoung, H. S. Kim, H. R. Park, D. J. Park, B. J. Kim, Y. H. Ahn, F. Rotermund, H. T. Kim, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Nanopattern enabled terahertz all-optical switching on vanadium dioxide thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 071105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, J.

K. Okimura, N. Ezreena, Y. Sasakawa, and J. Sakai, “Electric-field-induced multistep resistance switching in planar VO2/c-Al2O3 structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 065003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sasakawa, Y.

K. Okimura, N. Ezreena, Y. Sasakawa, and J. Sakai, “Electric-field-induced multistep resistance switching in planar VO2/c-Al2O3 structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 065003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shadrin, E. B.

E. B. Shadrin, A. V. Ilinskii, A. I. Sidorov, and S. D. Khanin, “Size effects upon phase transitions in vanadium oxide nanocomposites,” Phys. Solid State 52, 2426–2433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shang, L.

C. Chen, R. Wang, L. Shang, and C. Guo, “Gate-field-induced phase transitions in VO: Monoclinic metal phase separation and switchable infrared reflections,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 171101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sheel, D.

T. D. Manning, I. P. Parkin, M. E. Pemble, D. Sheel, and D. Vernardou, “Intelligent window coatings: atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of tungsten-doped vanadium dioxide,” Chem. Mater. 16, 744–749 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sherstan, C.

M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of thin gold films at the metal-insulator percolation transition,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 125408 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shieh, J. M.

C. W. Chen, Y. C. Lin, C. H. Chang, P. Yu, J. M. Shieh, and C. L. Pan, “Frequency-dependent complex conductivities and dielectric responses of indium tin oxide thin films from the visible to the far infrared,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1746–1754 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sidorov, A. I.

E. B. Shadrin, A. V. Ilinskii, A. I. Sidorov, and S. D. Khanin, “Size effects upon phase transitions in vanadium oxide nanocomposites,” Phys. Solid State 52, 2426–2433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sigalov, B.

G. Golan, A. Axelevitch, B. Sigalov, and B. Gorenstein, “Investigation of phase transition mechanism in vanadium oxide thin films,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 6, 189–195 (2004).

Speck, A.

Suh, J. Y.

P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, “Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 205103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

Thoman, A.

A. Thoman, A. Kern, H. Helm, and M. Walther, “Nanostructured gold films as broadband terahertz antireflection coatings,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 195405 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, “Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 205103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Titova, L. V.

T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, S. Fourmaux, H. C. Bandulet, D. Brassard, J. C. Kieffer, M. A. E. Khakani, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of the metal-insulator transition in a nanogranular VO2 film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 221905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Trugman, S. A.

Turchinovich, D.

M. C. Hoffmann, B. S. Monozon, D. Livshits, E. U. Rafailov, and D. Turchinovich, “Terahertz electro-absorption effect enabling femtosecond all-optical switching in semiconductor quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 231108–231111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vernardou, D.

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Walther, M.

A. Thoman, A. Kern, H. Helm, and M. Walther, “Nanostructured gold films as broadband terahertz antireflection coatings,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 195405 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of thin gold films at the metal-insulator percolation transition,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 125408 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

Y. Zhao, J. H. Lee, Y. Zhu, M. Nazari, C. Chen, H. Wang, A. A. Bernussi, M. Holtz, and Z. Fan, “Structural, electrical, and terahertz transmission properties of VO2 thin films grown on c-, r-, and m-plane sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 053533 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, Y. Zhu, Y. Zhao, J. H. Lee, H. Wang, A. A. Bernussi, M. Holtz, and Z. Fan, “VO2 multidomain heteroepitaxial growth and terahertz transmission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211905, (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R.

C. Chen, R. Wang, L. Shang, and C. Guo, “Gate-field-induced phase transitions in VO: Monoclinic metal phase separation and switchable infrared reflections,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 171101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wzietek, P.

P. Limelette, A. Georges, D. Jerome, P. Wzietek, P. Metcalf, and J. Honig, “Universality and critical behavior at the Mott transition,” Science 302, 89–92 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yasuda, H.

H. Yasuda and I. Hosako, “Measurement of terahertz refractive index of metal with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1632–1634 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yi, M.

Yu, P.

C. W. Chen, Y. C. Lin, C. H. Chang, P. Yu, J. M. Shieh, and C. L. Pan, “Frequency-dependent complex conductivities and dielectric responses of indium tin oxide thin films from the visible to the far infrared,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1746–1754 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhan, H.

H. Zhan, V. Astley, M. Hvasta, J. A. Deibel, D. M. Mittleman, and Y. S. Lim, “The metal-insulator transition in VO2 studied using terahertz apertureless near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 162110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, J. H. Lee, Y. Zhu, M. Nazari, C. Chen, H. Wang, A. A. Bernussi, M. Holtz, and Z. Fan, “Structural, electrical, and terahertz transmission properties of VO2 thin films grown on c-, r-, and m-plane sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 053533 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, Y. Zhao, X. Pan, V. Kuryatkov, A. Bernussi, M. Holtz, and Z. Y. Fan, “Influence of defects on structural and electrical properties of VO2 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 023707 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, Y. Zhu, Y. Zhao, J. H. Lee, H. Wang, A. A. Bernussi, M. Holtz, and Z. Fan, “VO2 multidomain heteroepitaxial growth and terahertz transmission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211905, (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, D. X.

D. X. Zhou, E. P. J. Parrott, D. J. Paul, and J. Axel Zeitler, “Determination of complex refractive index of thin metal films from terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 053110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

Y. Zhao, J. H. Lee, Y. Zhu, M. Nazari, C. Chen, H. Wang, A. A. Bernussi, M. Holtz, and Z. Fan, “Structural, electrical, and terahertz transmission properties of VO2 thin films grown on c-, r-, and m-plane sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 053533 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, Y. Zhu, Y. Zhao, J. H. Lee, H. Wang, A. A. Bernussi, M. Holtz, and Z. Fan, “VO2 multidomain heteroepitaxial growth and terahertz transmission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211905, (2010).
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Y. Muraoka and Z. Hiroi, “Metal—insulator transition of VO2 thin films grown on TiO2 (001) and (110) substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 583 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Lopez, L. A. Boatner, T. E. Haynes, R. F. Haglund, and L. C. Feldman, “Enhanced hysteresis in the semiconductor-to-metal phase transition of VO2 precipitates formed in SiO2 by ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3161 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hoffmann, B. S. Monozon, D. Livshits, E. U. Rafailov, and D. Turchinovich, “Terahertz electro-absorption effect enabling femtosecond all-optical switching in semiconductor quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 231108–231111 (2010).
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W. L. Chan, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Lopez, L. A. Boatner, T. E. Haynes, R. F. Haglund, and L. C. Feldman, “Switchable reflectivity on silicon from a composite VO2-SiO2 protecting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1410–1412 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, R. Wang, L. Shang, and C. Guo, “Gate-field-induced phase transitions in VO: Monoclinic metal phase separation and switchable infrared reflections,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 171101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Cho, J. S. Kyoung, H. S. Kim, H. R. Park, D. J. Park, B. J. Kim, Y. H. Ahn, F. Rotermund, H. T. Kim, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Nanopattern enabled terahertz all-optical switching on vanadium dioxide thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 071105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhan, V. Astley, M. Hvasta, J. A. Deibel, D. M. Mittleman, and Y. S. Lim, “The metal-insulator transition in VO2 studied using terahertz apertureless near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 162110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, Y. Zhu, Y. Zhao, J. H. Lee, H. Wang, A. A. Bernussi, M. Holtz, and Z. Fan, “VO2 multidomain heteroepitaxial growth and terahertz transmission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211905, (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, S. Fourmaux, H. C. Bandulet, D. Brassard, J. C. Kieffer, M. A. E. Khakani, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of the metal-insulator transition in a nanogranular VO2 film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 221905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater.

T. D. Manning, I. P. Parkin, M. E. Pemble, D. Sheel, and D. Vernardou, “Intelligent window coatings: atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of tungsten-doped vanadium dioxide,” Chem. Mater. 16, 744–749 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

C. W. Chen, Y. C. Lin, C. H. Chang, P. Yu, J. M. Shieh, and C. L. Pan, “Frequency-dependent complex conductivities and dielectric responses of indium tin oxide thin films from the visible to the far infrared,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1746–1754 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

C. Chen, Y. Zhao, X. Pan, V. Kuryatkov, A. Bernussi, M. Holtz, and Z. Y. Fan, “Influence of defects on structural and electrical properties of VO2 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 023707 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Yasuda and I. Hosako, “Measurement of terahertz refractive index of metal with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1632–1634 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, J. H. Lee, Y. Zhu, M. Nazari, C. Chen, H. Wang, A. A. Bernussi, M. Holtz, and Z. Fan, “Structural, electrical, and terahertz transmission properties of VO2 thin films grown on c-, r-, and m-plane sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 053533 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Zhou, E. P. J. Parrott, D. J. Paul, and J. Axel Zeitler, “Determination of complex refractive index of thin metal films from terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 053110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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K. Okimura, N. Ezreena, Y. Sasakawa, and J. Sakai, “Electric-field-induced multistep resistance switching in planar VO2/c-Al2O3 structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 065003 (2009).
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M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of thin gold films at the metal-insulator percolation transition,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 125408 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, “Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 205103 (2006).
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[CrossRef]

A. Thoman, A. Kern, H. Helm, and M. Walther, “Nanostructured gold films as broadband terahertz antireflection coatings,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 195405 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Lopez, T. E. Haynes, L. A. Boatner, L. C. Feldman, and R. F. Haglund, “Size effects in the structural phase transition of VO2 nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 224113 (2002).
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Science

P. Limelette, A. Georges, D. Jerome, P. Wzietek, P. Metcalf, and J. Honig, “Universality and critical behavior at the Mott transition,” Science 302, 89–92 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other

E. Abreu, M. Liu, J. Lu, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, W. Yin, S. A. Wolf, and R. D. Averitt, “VO2 nanosheets: controlling the THz properties through strain engineering,” http://arxiv.org/abs/1112.1573 .

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

SEM images of VO2 films grown on (a) c-plane; (b) m-plane, and (c) r-plane sapphire substrates. The scale bars correspond to 1 μm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

THz time and frequency domain transmission responses of VO2/sapphire films at low (40 °C) and high (80 °C) temperatures. Substrate orientations are c-plane [(a) and (d)], m-plane [(b) and (e)], and r-plane [(c) and (f)]. THz transmission through air is also shown to illustrate the instrument response function (IRF) of the apparatus.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Normalized (to T=40°C) THz field amplitude transmission as a function of the temperature (symbols) for VO2 films grown on (a) c-plane; (b) r-plane, and (c) m-plane sapphire substrates. The solid curves are simulated transmission curves using Eq. (1) and the measured DC electrical conductivity.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a)–(c) Real (σr) and imaginary (σi) parts of the optical conductivity and (d)–(f) real (n) and imaginary (κ) parts of the refractive index of VO2 films grown on different substrates measured at T=80°C. The solid curves are least-square fittings using Eqs. (2) and (3).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

THz field amplitude spectra of a VO2 film deposited on a c-plane sapphire substrate at three different temperatures. The inset shows the THz time domain waveform for the same sample measured at T=70°C.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E˜f+s(ω)E˜s(ω)=1+ns1+ns+zoσ˜(ω)tf,
σ˜(ω)=iεoωp2ω+1/τ,
ε˜(ω)=[n˜(ω)]2=[n(ω)+iκ(ω)]2=1+iσ˜(ω)ωεo,
r(ω)=ns1zoσ˜(ω)tfns+1+zoσ˜(ω)tf.

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