Abstract

A detailed comparison of the influence of pumping wavelength and crystal doping concentration on the performance of Nd:YVO4 amplifiers is developed through theoretical analysis. The effect of energy transfer upconversion and the strong temperature dependence of the emission cross section were taken into account. This study showed the interest of 808 nm pumping with low doping concentration crystals and the importance of the crystal temperature for the design of a high gain amplifier. Using these conclusions, we built a picosecond Nd:YVO4 master oscillator power amplifier reaching 10 W output power for only 50 mW of seed at 200 kHz in a single pass, single stage configuration. With a pulse duration of 22 ps, it corresponds to an output pulse energy of 50 μJ and to a peak power of 2.3 MW. With a same setup, a single pass small signal gain over 45 dB has been measured, and near 50% extraction efficiency was reached for a seed power of 3.5 W. The influence of the Nd:YVO4 amplifier temperature on the output power was also studied for different levels of gain saturation.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

J. Morikawa, C. Leong, T. Hashimoto, T. Ogawa, Y. Urata, S. Wada, M. Higuchi, and J. Takahashi, “Thermal conductivity/diffusivity of Nd3+ doped GdVO4, YVO4, LuVO4, and Y3Al5O12 by temperature wave analysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 063522 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

2004

M. Siebold, M. Hornung, J. Hein, G. Paunescu, R. Sauerbrey, T. Bergmann, and G. Hollemann, “A high-average-power diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 regenerative laser amplifier for picosecond-pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 287–290 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Chénais, S. Forget, F. Druon, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “Direct and absolute temperature mapping and heat transfer measurements in diode-end-pumped Yb:YAG,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 221–224 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

L. Meilhac, G. Pauliat, and G. Roosen, “Determination of the energy diffusion and the Auger upconversion constants in a Nd:YVO4 standing wave laser,” Opt. Commun. 203, 341–347 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

Y. F. Chen, C. C. Liao, Y. P. Lan, and S. C. Wang, “Determination of the Auger upconversion rate in fiber-coupled diode end-pumped Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 487–490(2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

1998

S. Guy, C. L. Bonner, D. P. Shepherd, D. C. Hanna, and A. C. Tropper, “High-inversion densities in Nd:YAG: upconversion and bleaching,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 900–909 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, “Optimization in scaling fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers to higher power: Influence of thermal effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1424–1429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Agnesi, A.

Andrade, A. A.

Balembois, F.

Bassi, M.

Bergmann, T.

M. Siebold, M. Hornung, J. Hein, G. Paunescu, R. Sauerbrey, T. Bergmann, and G. Hollemann, “A high-average-power diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 regenerative laser amplifier for picosecond-pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 287–290 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bonner, C. L.

S. Guy, C. L. Bonner, D. P. Shepherd, D. C. Hanna, and A. C. Tropper, “High-inversion densities in Nd:YAG: upconversion and bleaching,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 900–909 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Braggio, C.

Carr, L.

Castaing, M.

Catunda, T.

Chen, Y.

Chen, Y. F.

Y. F. Chen, C. C. Liao, Y. P. Lan, and S. C. Wang, “Determination of the Auger upconversion rate in fiber-coupled diode end-pumped Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 487–490(2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, “Optimization in scaling fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers to higher power: Influence of thermal effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1424–1429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chénais, S.

S. Chénais, S. Forget, F. Druon, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “Direct and absolute temperature mapping and heat transfer measurements in diode-end-pumped Yb:YAG,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 221–224 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Clarkson, W. A.

Cornacchia, F.

Delaigue, M.

Délen, X.

Druon, F.

S. Chénais, S. Forget, F. Druon, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “Direct and absolute temperature mapping and heat transfer measurements in diode-end-pumped Yb:YAG,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 221–224 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Papadopoulos, S. Forget, M. Delaigue, F. Druon, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “Passively mode-locked diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 oscillator operating at an ultralow repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1838–1840 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Forget, S.

S. Chénais, S. Forget, F. Druon, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “Direct and absolute temperature mapping and heat transfer measurements in diode-end-pumped Yb:YAG,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 221–224 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Papadopoulos, S. Forget, M. Delaigue, F. Druon, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “Passively mode-locked diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 oscillator operating at an ultralow repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1838–1840 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Georges, P.

Guy, S.

S. Guy, C. L. Bonner, D. P. Shepherd, D. C. Hanna, and A. C. Tropper, “High-inversion densities in Nd:YAG: upconversion and bleaching,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 900–909 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, D. C.

S. Guy, C. L. Bonner, D. P. Shepherd, D. C. Hanna, and A. C. Tropper, “High-inversion densities in Nd:YAG: upconversion and bleaching,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 900–909 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, T.

J. Morikawa, C. Leong, T. Hashimoto, T. Ogawa, Y. Urata, S. Wada, M. Higuchi, and J. Takahashi, “Thermal conductivity/diffusivity of Nd3+ doped GdVO4, YVO4, LuVO4, and Y3Al5O12 by temperature wave analysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 063522 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hein, J.

M. Siebold, M. Hornung, J. Hein, G. Paunescu, R. Sauerbrey, T. Bergmann, and G. Hollemann, “A high-average-power diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 regenerative laser amplifier for picosecond-pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 287–290 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Higuchi, M.

J. Morikawa, C. Leong, T. Hashimoto, T. Ogawa, Y. Urata, S. Wada, M. Higuchi, and J. Takahashi, “Thermal conductivity/diffusivity of Nd3+ doped GdVO4, YVO4, LuVO4, and Y3Al5O12 by temperature wave analysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 063522 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hollemann, G.

M. Siebold, M. Hornung, J. Hein, G. Paunescu, R. Sauerbrey, T. Bergmann, and G. Hollemann, “A high-average-power diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 regenerative laser amplifier for picosecond-pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 287–290 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hornung, M.

M. Siebold, M. Hornung, J. Hein, G. Paunescu, R. Sauerbrey, T. Bergmann, and G. Hollemann, “A high-average-power diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 regenerative laser amplifier for picosecond-pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 287–290 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, T. M.

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, “Optimization in scaling fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers to higher power: Influence of thermal effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1424–1429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

Huang, Z.

Jacinto, C.

Jackel, S.

Jenssen, H. P.

Kao, C. F.

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, “Optimization in scaling fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers to higher power: Influence of thermal effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1424–1429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Katz, M.

Kleinbauer, J.

J. Kleinbauer, R. Knappe, and R. Wallenstein, “13 W picoseconds Nd:GdVO4 regenerative amplifier with 200 kHz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 163–166 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Knappe, R.

L. McDonagh, R. Wallenstein, R. Knappe, and A. Nebel, “High-efficiency 60 W TEM00Nd:YVO4 oscillator pumped at 888 nm,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3297–3299 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Kleinbauer, R. Knappe, and R. Wallenstein, “13 W picoseconds Nd:GdVO4 regenerative amplifier with 200 kHz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 163–166 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L’huillier, J. A.

Lan, Y. P.

Y. F. Chen, C. C. Liao, Y. P. Lan, and S. C. Wang, “Determination of the Auger upconversion rate in fiber-coupled diode end-pumped Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 487–490(2000).
[CrossRef]

Lavi, R.

Lebiush, E.

Lederer, M. J.

Leong, C.

J. Morikawa, C. Leong, T. Hashimoto, T. Ogawa, Y. Urata, S. Wada, M. Higuchi, and J. Takahashi, “Thermal conductivity/diffusivity of Nd3+ doped GdVO4, YVO4, LuVO4, and Y3Al5O12 by temperature wave analysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 063522 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liao, C. C.

Y. F. Chen, C. C. Liao, Y. P. Lan, and S. C. Wang, “Determination of the Auger upconversion rate in fiber-coupled diode end-pumped Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 487–490(2000).
[CrossRef]

Luehrmann, M.

Luo, Z.

McDonagh, L.

Meier, J.

Meilhac, L.

L. Meilhac, G. Pauliat, and G. Roosen, “Determination of the energy diffusion and the Auger upconversion constants in a Nd:YVO4 standing wave laser,” Opt. Commun. 203, 341–347 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Morikawa, J.

J. Morikawa, C. Leong, T. Hashimoto, T. Ogawa, Y. Urata, S. Wada, M. Higuchi, and J. Takahashi, “Thermal conductivity/diffusivity of Nd3+ doped GdVO4, YVO4, LuVO4, and Y3Al5O12 by temperature wave analysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 063522 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Musset, O.

Myers, J. D.

Myers, M. J.

Nebel, A.

Nilsson, J.

Ogawa, T.

J. Morikawa, C. Leong, T. Hashimoto, T. Ogawa, Y. Urata, S. Wada, M. Higuchi, and J. Takahashi, “Thermal conductivity/diffusivity of Nd3+ doped GdVO4, YVO4, LuVO4, and Y3Al5O12 by temperature wave analysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 063522 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oliveira, S. L.

Paiss, I.

Papadopoulos, D. N.

Pauliat, G.

L. Meilhac, G. Pauliat, and G. Roosen, “Determination of the energy diffusion and the Auger upconversion constants in a Nd:YVO4 standing wave laser,” Opt. Commun. 203, 341–347 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Paunescu, G.

M. Siebold, M. Hornung, J. Hein, G. Paunescu, R. Sauerbrey, T. Bergmann, and G. Hollemann, “A high-average-power diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 regenerative laser amplifier for picosecond-pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 287–290 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pirzio, F.

Reali, G.

Richardson, D. J.

Roosen, G.

L. Meilhac, G. Pauliat, and G. Roosen, “Determination of the energy diffusion and the Auger upconversion constants in a Nd:YVO4 standing wave laser,” Opt. Commun. 203, 341–347 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sangla, D.

Sato, Y.

Sauerbrey, R.

M. Siebold, M. Hornung, J. Hein, G. Paunescu, R. Sauerbrey, T. Bergmann, and G. Hollemann, “A high-average-power diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 regenerative laser amplifier for picosecond-pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 287–290 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Scarpa, D.

Shepherd, D. P.

S. Guy, C. L. Bonner, D. P. Shepherd, D. C. Hanna, and A. C. Tropper, “High-inversion densities in Nd:YAG: upconversion and bleaching,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 900–909 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Siebold, M.

M. Siebold, M. Hornung, J. Hein, G. Paunescu, R. Sauerbrey, T. Bergmann, and G. Hollemann, “A high-average-power diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 regenerative laser amplifier for picosecond-pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 287–290 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Taira, T.

Takahashi, J.

J. Morikawa, C. Leong, T. Hashimoto, T. Ogawa, Y. Urata, S. Wada, M. Higuchi, and J. Takahashi, “Thermal conductivity/diffusivity of Nd3+ doped GdVO4, YVO4, LuVO4, and Y3Al5O12 by temperature wave analysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 063522 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Theobald, C.

Tomaselli, A.

Tonelli, M.

Tropper, A. C.

S. Guy, C. L. Bonner, D. P. Shepherd, D. C. Hanna, and A. C. Tropper, “High-inversion densities in Nd:YAG: upconversion and bleaching,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 900–909 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Turri, G.

Tzuk, Y.

Urata, Y.

J. Morikawa, C. Leong, T. Hashimoto, T. Ogawa, Y. Urata, S. Wada, M. Higuchi, and J. Takahashi, “Thermal conductivity/diffusivity of Nd3+ doped GdVO4, YVO4, LuVO4, and Y3Al5O12 by temperature wave analysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 063522 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vacchi, C.

Wada, S.

J. Morikawa, C. Leong, T. Hashimoto, T. Ogawa, Y. Urata, S. Wada, M. Higuchi, and J. Takahashi, “Thermal conductivity/diffusivity of Nd3+ doped GdVO4, YVO4, LuVO4, and Y3Al5O12 by temperature wave analysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 063522 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wallenstein, R.

Wang, C. L.

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, “Optimization in scaling fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers to higher power: Influence of thermal effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1424–1429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. C.

Y. F. Chen, C. C. Liao, Y. P. Lan, and S. C. Wang, “Determination of the Auger upconversion rate in fiber-coupled diode end-pumped Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 487–490(2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, “Optimization in scaling fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers to higher power: Influence of thermal effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1424–1429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wegner, U.

Winik, M.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

M. Siebold, M. Hornung, J. Hein, G. Paunescu, R. Sauerbrey, T. Bergmann, and G. Hollemann, “A high-average-power diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 regenerative laser amplifier for picosecond-pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 287–290 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kleinbauer, R. Knappe, and R. Wallenstein, “13 W picoseconds Nd:GdVO4 regenerative amplifier with 200 kHz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 163–166 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, C. C. Liao, Y. P. Lan, and S. C. Wang, “Determination of the Auger upconversion rate in fiber-coupled diode end-pumped Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 487–490(2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Chénais, S. Forget, F. Druon, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “Direct and absolute temperature mapping and heat transfer measurements in diode-end-pumped Yb:YAG,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 221–224 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

S. Guy, C. L. Bonner, D. P. Shepherd, D. C. Hanna, and A. C. Tropper, “High-inversion densities in Nd:YAG: upconversion and bleaching,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 900–909 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, “Optimization in scaling fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers to higher power: Influence of thermal effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1424–1429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

J. Morikawa, C. Leong, T. Hashimoto, T. Ogawa, Y. Urata, S. Wada, M. Higuchi, and J. Takahashi, “Thermal conductivity/diffusivity of Nd3+ doped GdVO4, YVO4, LuVO4, and Y3Al5O12 by temperature wave analysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 063522 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Commun.

L. Meilhac, G. Pauliat, and G. Roosen, “Determination of the energy diffusion and the Auger upconversion constants in a Nd:YVO4 standing wave laser,” Opt. Commun. 203, 341–347 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater. Express

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Effective excited state lifetime as a function of the doping concentration for different upper level population densities.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Normalized heat load density Qnorm as a function of the population inversion for different extraction efficiencies.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Small signal gain coefficient as a function of the pumping rate for 808 nm (0.1%), 880 nm (0.3%), and 888 nm (0.5%) pumping.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Small signal gain coefficient as a function of k for different pumping rates.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Experimental setup of our single stage, single pass amplifier. LD stands for laser diode. Beam profile obtained for a maximum pump power and a seed of 50 mW at 200 kHz repetition rate.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Output power as a function of the seed power for a repetition rate of 9.2 MHz and a cooling water temperature of 5 °C.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Output power as a function of the absorbed pump power for a repetition rate of 9.2 MHz and a cooling water temperature of 17 °C.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Evolution of the output power with the cooling temperature of the amplifier crystal for a repetition rate of 9.2 MHz.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Evolution of the gain with the seed power for a repetition rate of 9.2 MHz and a cooling water temperature of 5 °C.

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dndt=nτspnτnrγn2+RσI,
1τnr=1τsp(CCq)2,
1τeff=1τsp+1τnr+γn,
n%=nnt1%.
Q=hcλp(nτnr+γn2)+(hcλphcλf)nτsp+(hcλphcλl)σIn.
Qref=(hcλphcλf)nτsp+(hcλphcλl)σInwithλp=808nm,
Qnorm=QQref,
η=σInnτsp+σIn.
g0=σ(T)n0(R),
n0=12γ[1τsp1τnr+(1τsp+1τnr)2+4γR],
ΔTc=Qrp24Kc[ln(rc2rb2)+1].
k=TcTwTcTe.

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