Abstract

We examined the electromagnetic responses of near-infrared metamaterials consisting of split-ring resonators fabricated on GaInAs semiconductor layers with different doping levels on an InP substrate. The inductance-capacitance (LC) resonances of the split-ring resonators could be controlled entirely from 52 to 63 THz by changing the carrier concentrations from 2.6×1018 to 2.7×1019cm3. Our results show the feasibility of semiconductor-based tunable metamaterials.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  26. X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608(2004).
    [CrossRef]
  27. T. Koschny, P. Markos, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 68, 065602 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

2010 (2)

Z. L. Samson, K. F. MacDonald, F. D. Angelis, B. Gholipour, K. Knight, C. C. Huang, E. D. Fabrizio, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial electro-optic switch of nanoscale thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 143105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Lu, Y. J. Huang, B. D. F. Casse, R. K. Banyal, and S. Sridhar, “Storing light in active optical waveguides with single-negative materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

E. I. Kirby, J. M. Hamm, K. L. Tsakmakidis, and O. Hess, “FDTD analysis of slow light propagation in negative-refractive-index metamaterial waveguides,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 114027 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. D. Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325, 1518–1521 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Shirao, Y. Numajiri, R. Yokoyama, N. Nishiyama, M. Asada, and S. Arai, “Preliminary experiment on direct media conversion from a 1.55 µm optical signal to a sub-terahertz wave signal using photon-generated free carriers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 090203 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Jiang, J. Zhao, and Y. Feng, “Stopping light by an air waveguide with anisotropic metamaterial cladding,” Opt. Express 17, 170–177 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilimann, B. G. Chae, S. J. Yun, H. T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tuning of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 024101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (6)

K. L. Tsakmakidis, A. D. Boardman, and O. Hess, “‘Trapped rainbow’ storage of light in metamaterials,” Nature 450, 397–401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315, 47–49 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Ishikawa, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, “Magnetic excitation of magnetic resonance in metamaterials at far-infrared frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 113118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Ishikawa, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, “Frequency dependence of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 510–515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, S. R. Bank, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Ultrafast optical switching of terahertz metamaterials fabricated on ErAs/GaAs nanoisland superlattices,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1620–1622 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

X. L. Xu, B. G. Quan, C. Z. Gu, and L. Wang, “Bianisotropic response of microfabricated metamaterials in the terahertz region,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 1174–1180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444, 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1097–1105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2004 (3)

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303, 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306, 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608(2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

T. Koschny, P. Markos, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 68, 065602 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Angelis, F. D.

Z. L. Samson, K. F. MacDonald, F. D. Angelis, B. Gholipour, K. Knight, C. C. Huang, E. D. Fabrizio, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial electro-optic switch of nanoscale thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 143105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Arai, S.

M. Shirao, Y. Numajiri, R. Yokoyama, N. Nishiyama, M. Asada, and S. Arai, “Preliminary experiment on direct media conversion from a 1.55 µm optical signal to a sub-terahertz wave signal using photon-generated free carriers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 090203 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Asada, M.

M. Shirao, Y. Numajiri, R. Yokoyama, N. Nishiyama, M. Asada, and S. Arai, “Preliminary experiment on direct media conversion from a 1.55 µm optical signal to a sub-terahertz wave signal using photon-generated free carriers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 090203 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R. D.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, S. R. Bank, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Ultrafast optical switching of terahertz metamaterials fabricated on ErAs/GaAs nanoisland superlattices,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1620–1622 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444, 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bank, S. R.

Banyal, R. K.

W. T. Lu, Y. J. Huang, B. D. F. Casse, R. K. Banyal, and S. Sridhar, “Storing light in active optical waveguides with single-negative materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Basov, D. N.

T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. D. Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325, 1518–1521 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilimann, B. G. Chae, S. J. Yun, H. T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tuning of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 024101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303, 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boardman, A. D.

K. L. Tsakmakidis, A. D. Boardman, and O. Hess, “‘Trapped rainbow’ storage of light in metamaterials,” Nature 450, 397–401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brehm, M.

T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilimann, B. G. Chae, S. J. Yun, H. T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tuning of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 024101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brueck, S. R. J.

Burger, S.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1097–1105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Casse, B. D. F.

W. T. Lu, Y. J. Huang, B. D. F. Casse, R. K. Banyal, and S. Sridhar, “Storing light in active optical waveguides with single-negative materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chae, B. G.

T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. D. Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325, 1518–1521 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilimann, B. G. Chae, S. J. Yun, H. T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tuning of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 024101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. T.

Chen, X.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608(2004).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. Y.

T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilimann, B. G. Chae, S. J. Yun, H. T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tuning of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 024101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

Dani, K. M.

Dolling, G.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1097–1105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Driscoll, T.

T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. D. Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325, 1518–1521 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilimann, B. G. Chae, S. J. Yun, H. T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tuning of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 024101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Du, B.

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Economou, E. N.

Enkrich, C.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1097–1105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306, 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fabrizio, E. D.

Z. L. Samson, K. F. MacDonald, F. D. Angelis, B. Gholipour, K. Knight, C. C. Huang, E. D. Fabrizio, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial electro-optic switch of nanoscale thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 143105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fang, N.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303, 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feng, Y.

Gholipour, B.

Z. L. Samson, K. F. MacDonald, F. D. Angelis, B. Gholipour, K. Knight, C. C. Huang, E. D. Fabrizio, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial electro-optic switch of nanoscale thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 143105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A. C.

Grzegorczyk, T. M.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608(2004).
[CrossRef]

Gu, C. Z.

Gundogdu, T. F.

Guzzon, R. S.

Hamm, J. M.

E. I. Kirby, J. M. Hamm, K. L. Tsakmakidis, and O. Hess, “FDTD analysis of slow light propagation in negative-refractive-index metamaterial waveguides,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 114027 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hess, O.

E. I. Kirby, J. M. Hamm, K. L. Tsakmakidis, and O. Hess, “FDTD analysis of slow light propagation in negative-refractive-index metamaterial waveguides,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 114027 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Tsakmakidis, A. D. Boardman, and O. Hess, “‘Trapped rainbow’ storage of light in metamaterials,” Nature 450, 397–401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hewak, D. W.

Z. L. Samson, K. F. MacDonald, F. D. Angelis, B. Gholipour, K. Knight, C. C. Huang, E. D. Fabrizio, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial electro-optic switch of nanoscale thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 143105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Highstrete, C.

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C. C.

Z. L. Samson, K. F. MacDonald, F. D. Angelis, B. Gholipour, K. Knight, C. C. Huang, E. D. Fabrizio, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial electro-optic switch of nanoscale thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 143105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. J.

W. T. Lu, Y. J. Huang, B. D. F. Casse, R. K. Banyal, and S. Sridhar, “Storing light in active optical waveguides with single-negative materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, A.

A. Ishikawa, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, “Magnetic excitation of magnetic resonance in metamaterials at far-infrared frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 113118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Ishikawa, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, “Frequency dependence of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 510–515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, T.

Johansson, L.

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Jokerst, N. M.

T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. D. Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325, 1518–1521 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilimann, B. G. Chae, S. J. Yun, H. T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tuning of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 024101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kafesaki, M.

Kang, L.

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Katsarakis, N.

Kawata, S.

A. Ishikawa, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, “Frequency dependence of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 510–515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Ishikawa, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, “Magnetic excitation of magnetic resonance in metamaterials at far-infrared frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 113118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Keilimann, F.

T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilimann, B. G. Chae, S. J. Yun, H. T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tuning of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 024101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. J.

T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. D. Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325, 1518–1521 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. T.

T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. D. Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325, 1518–1521 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilimann, B. G. Chae, S. J. Yun, H. T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tuning of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 024101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kirby, E. I.

E. I. Kirby, J. M. Hamm, K. L. Tsakmakidis, and O. Hess, “FDTD analysis of slow light propagation in negative-refractive-index metamaterial waveguides,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 114027 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Klein, M. W.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1097–1105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Knight, K.

Z. L. Samson, K. F. MacDonald, F. D. Angelis, B. Gholipour, K. Knight, C. C. Huang, E. D. Fabrizio, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial electro-optic switch of nanoscale thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 143105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kong, J. A.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608(2004).
[CrossRef]

Konstantinides, G.

Koschny, T.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1097–1105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306, 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Koschny, P. Markos, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 68, 065602 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kostopoulos, A.

Krishnamachari, U.

Ku, Z.

Lee, M.

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. W.

T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. D. Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325, 1518–1521 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, B.

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liang, X.

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315, 47–49 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1097–1105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306, 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lu, W. T.

W. T. Lu, Y. J. Huang, B. D. F. Casse, R. K. Banyal, and S. Sridhar, “Storing light in active optical waveguides with single-negative materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

MacDonald, K. F.

Z. L. Samson, K. F. MacDonald, F. D. Angelis, B. Gholipour, K. Knight, C. C. Huang, E. D. Fabrizio, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial electro-optic switch of nanoscale thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 143105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Markos, P.

T. Koschny, P. Markos, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 68, 065602 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nicholes, S. C.

Nishiyama, N.

M. Shirao, Y. Numajiri, R. Yokoyama, N. Nishiyama, M. Asada, and S. Arai, “Preliminary experiment on direct media conversion from a 1.55 µm optical signal to a sub-terahertz wave signal using photon-generated free carriers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 090203 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Norberg, E. J.

Numajiri, Y.

M. Shirao, Y. Numajiri, R. Yokoyama, N. Nishiyama, M. Asada, and S. Arai, “Preliminary experiment on direct media conversion from a 1.55 µm optical signal to a sub-terahertz wave signal using photon-generated free carriers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 090203 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pacheco, J.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608(2004).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, S. R. Bank, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Ultrafast optical switching of terahertz metamaterials fabricated on ErAs/GaAs nanoisland superlattices,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1620–1622 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444, 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303, 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Palit, S.

T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. D. Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325, 1518–1521 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilimann, B. G. Chae, S. J. Yun, H. T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tuning of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 024101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Penciu, R. S.

Pendry, J. B.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303, 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Prasankumar, R. P.

Qazilbash, M. M.

T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilimann, B. G. Chae, S. J. Yun, H. T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tuning of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 024101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Quan, B. G.

Ramakrishna, S. A.

S. A. Ramakrishna, “Physics of negative refractive index materials,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 68, 449–521 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ristic, S.

Samson, Z. L.

Z. L. Samson, K. F. MacDonald, F. D. Angelis, B. Gholipour, K. Knight, C. C. Huang, E. D. Fabrizio, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial electro-optic switch of nanoscale thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 143105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, F.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1097–1105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shirao, M.

M. Shirao, Y. Numajiri, R. Yokoyama, N. Nishiyama, M. Asada, and S. Arai, “Preliminary experiment on direct media conversion from a 1.55 µm optical signal to a sub-terahertz wave signal using photon-generated free carriers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 090203 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. D. Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325, 1518–1521 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilimann, B. G. Chae, S. J. Yun, H. T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tuning of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 024101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303, 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Koschny, P. Markos, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 68, 065602 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315, 47–49 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1097–1105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306, 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Koschny, P. Markos, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 68, 065602 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sridhar, S.

W. T. Lu, Y. J. Huang, B. D. F. Casse, R. K. Banyal, and S. Sridhar, “Storing light in active optical waveguides with single-negative materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, T.

A. Ishikawa, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, “Magnetic excitation of magnetic resonance in metamaterials at far-infrared frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 113118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Ishikawa, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, “Frequency dependence of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 510–515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tang, H.

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

K. M. Dani, Z. Ku, P. C. Upadhya, R. P. Prasankumar, A. J. Taylor, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical spectroscopy of a dual-band negative index metamaterial all-optical switching device,” Opt. Express 19, 3973–3983 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, S. R. Bank, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Ultrafast optical switching of terahertz metamaterials fabricated on ErAs/GaAs nanoisland superlattices,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1620–1622 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444, 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsakmakidis, K. L.

E. I. Kirby, J. M. Hamm, K. L. Tsakmakidis, and O. Hess, “FDTD analysis of slow light propagation in negative-refractive-index metamaterial waveguides,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 114027 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Tsakmakidis, A. D. Boardman, and O. Hess, “‘Trapped rainbow’ storage of light in metamaterials,” Nature 450, 397–401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Upadhya, P. C.

Ventra, M. D.

T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. D. Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325, 1518–1521 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vier, D. C.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303, 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

Wegener, M.

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315, 47–49 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1097–1105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306, 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B. I.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608(2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X. L.

Yen, T. J.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303, 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, R.

M. Shirao, Y. Numajiri, R. Yokoyama, N. Nishiyama, M. Asada, and S. Arai, “Preliminary experiment on direct media conversion from a 1.55 µm optical signal to a sub-terahertz wave signal using photon-generated free carriers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 090203 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yun, S. J.

T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilimann, B. G. Chae, S. J. Yun, H. T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tuning of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 024101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303, 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

Zhao, Q.

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zheludev, N. I.

Z. L. Samson, K. F. MacDonald, F. D. Angelis, B. Gholipour, K. Knight, C. C. Huang, E. D. Fabrizio, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial electro-optic switch of nanoscale thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 143105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1097–1105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306, 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zide, J. M. O.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

W. T. Lu, Y. J. Huang, B. D. F. Casse, R. K. Banyal, and S. Sridhar, “Storing light in active optical waveguides with single-negative materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Ishikawa, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, “Magnetic excitation of magnetic resonance in metamaterials at far-infrared frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 113118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilimann, B. G. Chae, S. J. Yun, H. T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tuning of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 024101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Samson, K. F. MacDonald, F. D. Angelis, B. Gholipour, K. Knight, C. C. Huang, E. D. Fabrizio, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial electro-optic switch of nanoscale thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 143105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1097–1105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

E. I. Kirby, J. M. Hamm, K. L. Tsakmakidis, and O. Hess, “FDTD analysis of slow light propagation in negative-refractive-index metamaterial waveguides,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 114027 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Shirao, Y. Numajiri, R. Yokoyama, N. Nishiyama, M. Asada, and S. Arai, “Preliminary experiment on direct media conversion from a 1.55 µm optical signal to a sub-terahertz wave signal using photon-generated free carriers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 090203 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444, 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Tsakmakidis, A. D. Boardman, and O. Hess, “‘Trapped rainbow’ storage of light in metamaterials,” Nature 450, 397–401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (2)

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608(2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Koschny, P. Markos, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 68, 065602 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

S. A. Ramakrishna, “Physics of negative refractive index materials,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 68, 449–521 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science (4)

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315, 47–49 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303, 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306, 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. D. Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325, 1518–1521 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the metamaterial sample consisting of a gold-based SRR array formed on doped-GaInAs/semi-insulating-InP.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Fabrication process: (a) initial GaInAs/InP layer, (b) spin coating of PMMA, (c) electron-beam writing of the desired structure, (d) development, (e) evaporation of titanium and gold, and (f) lift-off.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Scanning electron micrograph of a split-ring array with a total area of 100×100μm2; (b) enlarged oblique view of an individual split ring.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Normal-incidence transmittance spectra for the (a) horizontal and (b) vertical polarizations, measured with different carrier concentrations of the n-GaInAs layer.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Resonance frequency as a function of carrier concentrations of the n-GaInAs layer for the (a) LC resonance and (b) Mie resonance, measured with an incident electric field vector perpendicular to the SRR gap.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Resonance frequency as a function of carrier concentrations of the p-GaInAs layer for (a) LC resonance and (b) Mie resonance, measured with an incident electric field vector perpendicular to the SRR gap.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Real part of permittivity for (a) p-GaInAs and (b) n-GaInAs as a function of frequency. The carrier concentration N is a tuning parameter.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a) Calculated transmission spectra of device having almost the same structure as that of experimental sample 1, where the polarization direction of the excitation light is perpendicular to the gap. Measurement results are also plotted. Calculated distributions of magnetic field (z direction) in the SRR array at (b) LC and (c) Mie resonance frequencies.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Retrieved real part of relative (a) permittivity and (b) permeability as a function of frequency, calculated for device having almost the same structure as that of experimental sample 1. The carrier concentration N is a tuning parameter.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Parameters Used in Experiments

Equations (2)

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ε(f,N)=ε0εr{1[ωp(N)τ(N)]21+[2πfτ(N)]2},
σ(f,N)=σ0(N)1+[2πfτ(N)]2,

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