Abstract

We present a detailed investigation of a photorefractive surface plasmon polariton system capable of coupling energy between two predefined surface plasmon modes with efficiencies up to 25%. We have investigated the dependence of the diffraction efficiency on the energy, the initial and final wavevectors of the surface plasmon modes, and the cell parameters. We have also developed numerical simulations of the system based upon the defect-free Q-tensor approach and rigorous diffraction theory, which fit the experimental data very well and have allowed us to develop a good theoretical understanding of the performance of these cells. On the basis of the experimental results and theory we discuss the prospects that a hybrid liquid crystal photorefractive system could lead to photorefractive gain for surface plasmon polaritons.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  4. H. T. Miyazaki and Y. Kurokawa, “Squeezing visible light waves into a 3 nm-thick and 55 nm-long plasmon cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 097401 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. A. Baker and D. S. Moore, “Progress in plasmonic engineering of surface-enhanced Raman-scattering substrates toward ultra-trace analysis,” Analytical Bioanalytical Chem. 382, 1751–1770 (2005).
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  30. T. Kato, T. Kutsuna, and K. Hanabusa, “Liquid-crystalline physical gels formed by the aggregation of trans-(1R,2R)-bis (dodecanoylamino) cyclohexane in a thermotropic nematic liquid crystal. Phase behavior and electro-optic properties,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol., Sect. A 332, 2887–2892 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  31. F. Y. Li, Y. L. Li, Z. X. Guo, Y. M. Mo, L. Z. Fan, F. L. Bai, and D. B. Zhu, “Photoconductivity of C_[60]fullerene derivative doped PVK,” Solid State Commun. 107, 189–192 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  32. P. Refregier, L. Solymar, H. Rajbenbach, and J. P. Huignard, “Two-beam coupling in photorefractive Bi12SiO20 crystals with moving grating: theory and experiments,” Appl. Phys. 58, 45–57 (1985).

2011

M. Abb, P. Albella, J. Aizpurua, and O. L. Muskens, “All-optical control of a Ssingle plasmonic nanoantenna-ITO hybrid,” Nano Lett. 11, 2457–2463 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Daly, S. Abbott, G. D’Alessandro, D. C. Smith, and M. Kaczmarek, “Theory of hybrid photorefractive plasmonic liquid crystal cells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1874–1881 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

K. R. Daly, G. D’Alessandro, and M. Kaczmarek, “An efficient Q-tensor-based algorithm for liquid crystal alignment away from defects,” Siam J. Appl. Math. 70, 2844–2860(2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

V. O. Kubytskyi, V. Y. Reshetnyak, T. J. Sluckin, and S. J. Cox, “Theory of surface-potential-mediated photorefractivelike effects in liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 79 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Samson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photon. 3, 55–58 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. K. S. Hsiao, Y. B. Zheng, B. K. Juluri, and T. J. Huang, “Light-driven plasmonic switches based on Au nanodisk arrays and photoresponsive liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 20, 3528 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photon. 1, 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, and H. A. Atwater, “Negative refraction at visible frequencies,” Science 316, 430–432 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

H. T. Miyazaki and Y. Kurokawa, “Squeezing visible light waves into a 3 nm-thick and 55 nm-long plasmon cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 097401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

G. A. Baker and D. S. Moore, “Progress in plasmonic engineering of surface-enhanced Raman-scattering substrates toward ultra-trace analysis,” Analytical Bioanalytical Chem. 382, 1751–1770 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Muhlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308, 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. O. S. Melville and R. J. Blaikie, “Super-resolution imaging through a planar silver layer,” Opt. Express 13, 2127–2134 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. Kaczmarek, A. Dyadyusha, S. Slussarenko, and I. C. Khoo, “The role of surface charge field in two-beam coupling in liquid crystal cells with photoconducting polymer layers,” Appl. Phys. 96, 2616–2623 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

J. Homola, “Present and future of surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Analytical Bioanalytical Chem. 377, 528–539(2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

I. I. Smolyaninov, A. V. Zayats, A. Gungor, and C. C. Davis, “Single-photon tunneling via localized surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

S. Bartkiewicz, K. Matczyszyn, A. Miniewicz, and F. Kajzar, “High gain of light in photoconducting polymer-nematic liquid crystal hybrid structures,” Opt. Commun. 187, 257–261 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

T. Kato, T. Kutsuna, and K. Hanabusa, “Liquid-crystalline physical gels formed by the aggregation of trans-(1R,2R)-bis (dodecanoylamino) cyclohexane in a thermotropic nematic liquid crystal. Phase behavior and electro-optic properties,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol., Sect. A 332, 2887–2892 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

F. Y. Li, Y. L. Li, Z. X. Guo, Y. M. Mo, L. Z. Fan, F. L. Bai, and D. B. Zhu, “Photoconductivity of C_[60]fullerene derivative doped PVK,” Solid State Commun. 107, 189–192 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1995

J. M. Simon and V. A. Presa, “Surface electromagnetic-waves at the interface with anisotropic media,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 2201–2211 (1995).

1994

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, “A photorefractive polymer with high optical gain and diffraction efficiency near 100-percent,” Nature 371, 497–500 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990

1988

1987

K. R. Welford, J. R. Sambles, and M. G. Clark, “Guided modes and surface plasmon-polaritons observed with a nematic liquid-crystal using attenuated total reflection,” Liq. Cryst. 2, 91–105 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985

P. Refregier, L. Solymar, H. Rajbenbach, and J. P. Huignard, “Two-beam coupling in photorefractive Bi12SiO20 crystals with moving grating: theory and experiments,” Appl. Phys. 58, 45–57 (1985).

1983

1981

Abb, M.

M. Abb, P. Albella, J. Aizpurua, and O. L. Muskens, “All-optical control of a Ssingle plasmonic nanoantenna-ITO hybrid,” Nano Lett. 11, 2457–2463 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Abbott, S.

K. R. Daly, S. Abbott, G. D’Alessandro, D. C. Smith, and M. Kaczmarek, “Theory of hybrid photorefractive plasmonic liquid crystal cells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1874–1881 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Aizpurua, J.

M. Abb, P. Albella, J. Aizpurua, and O. L. Muskens, “All-optical control of a Ssingle plasmonic nanoantenna-ITO hybrid,” Nano Lett. 11, 2457–2463 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Albella, P.

M. Abb, P. Albella, J. Aizpurua, and O. L. Muskens, “All-optical control of a Ssingle plasmonic nanoantenna-ITO hybrid,” Nano Lett. 11, 2457–2463 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photon. 1, 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, and H. A. Atwater, “Negative refraction at visible frequencies,” Science 316, 430–432 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bai, F. L.

F. Y. Li, Y. L. Li, Z. X. Guo, Y. M. Mo, L. Z. Fan, F. L. Bai, and D. B. Zhu, “Photoconductivity of C_[60]fullerene derivative doped PVK,” Solid State Commun. 107, 189–192 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baker, G. A.

G. A. Baker and D. S. Moore, “Progress in plasmonic engineering of surface-enhanced Raman-scattering substrates toward ultra-trace analysis,” Analytical Bioanalytical Chem. 382, 1751–1770 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bartkiewicz, S.

S. Bartkiewicz, K. Matczyszyn, A. Miniewicz, and F. Kajzar, “High gain of light in photoconducting polymer-nematic liquid crystal hybrid structures,” Opt. Commun. 187, 257–261 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Blaikie, R. J.

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics : Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light6th (corrected) ed. (Cambridge University, 1997).

Chen, P.

Clark, M. G.

K. R. Welford, J. R. Sambles, and M. G. Clark, “Guided modes and surface plasmon-polaritons observed with a nematic liquid-crystal using attenuated total reflection,” Liq. Cryst. 2, 91–105 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Cox, S. J.

V. O. Kubytskyi, V. Y. Reshetnyak, T. J. Sluckin, and S. J. Cox, “Theory of surface-potential-mediated photorefractivelike effects in liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 79 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D’Alessandro, G.

K. R. Daly, S. Abbott, G. D’Alessandro, D. C. Smith, and M. Kaczmarek, “Theory of hybrid photorefractive plasmonic liquid crystal cells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1874–1881 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Daly, G. D’Alessandro, and M. Kaczmarek, “An efficient Q-tensor-based algorithm for liquid crystal alignment away from defects,” Siam J. Appl. Math. 70, 2844–2860(2010).
[CrossRef]

Daly, K. R.

K. R. Daly, S. Abbott, G. D’Alessandro, D. C. Smith, and M. Kaczmarek, “Theory of hybrid photorefractive plasmonic liquid crystal cells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1874–1881 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Daly, G. D’Alessandro, and M. Kaczmarek, “An efficient Q-tensor-based algorithm for liquid crystal alignment away from defects,” Siam J. Appl. Math. 70, 2844–2860(2010).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Daly, “Light-matter interaction in liquid crystal cells,” Ph.D thesis (School of Mathematics, University of Southampton, 2011). http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/176449/1/PhDthesis_krd_published.pdf .

Davis, C. C.

I. I. Smolyaninov, A. V. Zayats, A. Gungor, and C. C. Davis, “Single-photon tunneling via localized surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 (2002).
[CrossRef]

de Gennes, P. G.

P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals2nd ed. (Oxford University, 1993).

Dionne, J. A.

H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, and H. A. Atwater, “Negative refraction at visible frequencies,” Science 316, 430–432 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dyadyusha, A.

M. Kaczmarek, A. Dyadyusha, S. Slussarenko, and I. C. Khoo, “The role of surface charge field in two-beam coupling in liquid crystal cells with photoconducting polymer layers,” Appl. Phys. 96, 2616–2623 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eisler, H. J.

P. Muhlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308, 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fan, L. Z.

F. Y. Li, Y. L. Li, Z. X. Guo, Y. M. Mo, L. Z. Fan, F. L. Bai, and D. B. Zhu, “Photoconductivity of C_[60]fullerene derivative doped PVK,” Solid State Commun. 107, 189–192 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K.

Glytsis, E. N.

Guenther, B. D.

Gungor, A.

I. I. Smolyaninov, A. V. Zayats, A. Gungor, and C. C. Davis, “Single-photon tunneling via localized surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Günter, P.

P. Günter and J. P. Huignard, Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications (Springer, 2006), p. 3.

Guo, Z. X.

F. Y. Li, Y. L. Li, Z. X. Guo, Y. M. Mo, L. Z. Fan, F. L. Bai, and D. B. Zhu, “Photoconductivity of C_[60]fullerene derivative doped PVK,” Solid State Commun. 107, 189–192 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hanabusa, K.

T. Kato, T. Kutsuna, and K. Hanabusa, “Liquid-crystalline physical gels formed by the aggregation of trans-(1R,2R)-bis (dodecanoylamino) cyclohexane in a thermotropic nematic liquid crystal. Phase behavior and electro-optic properties,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol., Sect. A 332, 2887–2892 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, B.

P. Muhlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308, 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Herriau, J. P.

Homola, J.

J. Homola, “Present and future of surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Analytical Bioanalytical Chem. 377, 528–539(2003).
[CrossRef]

Hsiao, V. K. S.

V. K. S. Hsiao, Y. B. Zheng, B. K. Juluri, and T. J. Huang, “Light-driven plasmonic switches based on Au nanodisk arrays and photoresponsive liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 20, 3528 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, T. J.

V. K. S. Hsiao, Y. B. Zheng, B. K. Juluri, and T. J. Huang, “Light-driven plasmonic switches based on Au nanodisk arrays and photoresponsive liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 20, 3528 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huignard, J. P.

B. Imbert, H. Rajbenbach, S. Mallick, J. P. Herriau, and J. P. Huignard, “High Photorefractive gain in 2-beam coupling with moving fringes in Gaas-Cr crystals,” Opt. Lett. 13, 327–329 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. Refregier, L. Solymar, H. Rajbenbach, and J. P. Huignard, “Two-beam coupling in photorefractive Bi12SiO20 crystals with moving grating: theory and experiments,” Appl. Phys. 58, 45–57 (1985).

P. Günter and J. P. Huignard, Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications (Springer, 2006), p. 3.

Imbert, B.

Juluri, B. K.

V. K. S. Hsiao, Y. B. Zheng, B. K. Juluri, and T. J. Huang, “Light-driven plasmonic switches based on Au nanodisk arrays and photoresponsive liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 20, 3528 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kaczmarek, M.

K. R. Daly, S. Abbott, G. D’Alessandro, D. C. Smith, and M. Kaczmarek, “Theory of hybrid photorefractive plasmonic liquid crystal cells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1874–1881 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Daly, G. D’Alessandro, and M. Kaczmarek, “An efficient Q-tensor-based algorithm for liquid crystal alignment away from defects,” Siam J. Appl. Math. 70, 2844–2860(2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Kaczmarek, A. Dyadyusha, S. Slussarenko, and I. C. Khoo, “The role of surface charge field in two-beam coupling in liquid crystal cells with photoconducting polymer layers,” Appl. Phys. 96, 2616–2623 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kajzar, F.

S. Bartkiewicz, K. Matczyszyn, A. Miniewicz, and F. Kajzar, “High gain of light in photoconducting polymer-nematic liquid crystal hybrid structures,” Opt. Commun. 187, 257–261 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kato, T.

T. Kato, T. Kutsuna, and K. Hanabusa, “Liquid-crystalline physical gels formed by the aggregation of trans-(1R,2R)-bis (dodecanoylamino) cyclohexane in a thermotropic nematic liquid crystal. Phase behavior and electro-optic properties,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol., Sect. A 332, 2887–2892 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Khoo, I. C.

M. Kaczmarek, A. Dyadyusha, S. Slussarenko, and I. C. Khoo, “The role of surface charge field in two-beam coupling in liquid crystal cells with photoconducting polymer layers,” Appl. Phys. 96, 2616–2623 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, B. D. Guenther, M. V. Wood, P. Chen, and M. Y. Shih, “Coherent beam amplification with a photorefractive liquid crystal,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1229–1231 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kippelen, B.

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, “A photorefractive polymer with high optical gain and diffraction efficiency near 100-percent,” Nature 371, 497–500 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ko, D. Y. K.

Kubytskyi, V. O.

V. O. Kubytskyi, V. Y. Reshetnyak, T. J. Sluckin, and S. J. Cox, “Theory of surface-potential-mediated photorefractivelike effects in liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 79 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kurokawa, Y.

H. T. Miyazaki and Y. Kurokawa, “Squeezing visible light waves into a 3 nm-thick and 55 nm-long plasmon cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 097401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kutsuna, T.

T. Kato, T. Kutsuna, and K. Hanabusa, “Liquid-crystalline physical gels formed by the aggregation of trans-(1R,2R)-bis (dodecanoylamino) cyclohexane in a thermotropic nematic liquid crystal. Phase behavior and electro-optic properties,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol., Sect. A 332, 2887–2892 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lezec, H. J.

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photon. 1, 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, and H. A. Atwater, “Negative refraction at visible frequencies,” Science 316, 430–432 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, F. Y.

F. Y. Li, Y. L. Li, Z. X. Guo, Y. M. Mo, L. Z. Fan, F. L. Bai, and D. B. Zhu, “Photoconductivity of C_[60]fullerene derivative doped PVK,” Solid State Commun. 107, 189–192 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. L.

F. Y. Li, Y. L. Li, Z. X. Guo, Y. M. Mo, L. Z. Fan, F. L. Bai, and D. B. Zhu, “Photoconductivity of C_[60]fullerene derivative doped PVK,” Solid State Commun. 107, 189–192 (1998).
[CrossRef]

MacDonald, K. F.

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Samson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photon. 3, 55–58 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mallick, S.

Martin, O. J. F.

P. Muhlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308, 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Matczyszyn, K.

S. Bartkiewicz, K. Matczyszyn, A. Miniewicz, and F. Kajzar, “High gain of light in photoconducting polymer-nematic liquid crystal hybrid structures,” Opt. Commun. 187, 257–261 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Meerholz, K.

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, “A photorefractive polymer with high optical gain and diffraction efficiency near 100-percent,” Nature 371, 497–500 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Melville, D. O. S.

Miniewicz, A.

S. Bartkiewicz, K. Matczyszyn, A. Miniewicz, and F. Kajzar, “High gain of light in photoconducting polymer-nematic liquid crystal hybrid structures,” Opt. Commun. 187, 257–261 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Miyazaki, H. T.

H. T. Miyazaki and Y. Kurokawa, “Squeezing visible light waves into a 3 nm-thick and 55 nm-long plasmon cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 097401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mo, Y. M.

F. Y. Li, Y. L. Li, Z. X. Guo, Y. M. Mo, L. Z. Fan, F. L. Bai, and D. B. Zhu, “Photoconductivity of C_[60]fullerene derivative doped PVK,” Solid State Commun. 107, 189–192 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moharam, M. G.

Moore, D. S.

G. A. Baker and D. S. Moore, “Progress in plasmonic engineering of surface-enhanced Raman-scattering substrates toward ultra-trace analysis,” Analytical Bioanalytical Chem. 382, 1751–1770 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Muhlschlegel, P.

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P. Refregier, L. Solymar, H. Rajbenbach, and J. P. Huignard, “Two-beam coupling in photorefractive Bi12SiO20 crystals with moving grating: theory and experiments,” Appl. Phys. 58, 45–57 (1985).

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V. O. Kubytskyi, V. Y. Reshetnyak, T. J. Sluckin, and S. J. Cox, “Theory of surface-potential-mediated photorefractivelike effects in liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 79 (2009).
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K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Samson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photon. 3, 55–58 (2008).
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M. Kaczmarek, A. Dyadyusha, S. Slussarenko, and I. C. Khoo, “The role of surface charge field in two-beam coupling in liquid crystal cells with photoconducting polymer layers,” Appl. Phys. 96, 2616–2623 (2004).
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J. Mod. Opt.

J. M. Simon and V. A. Presa, “Surface electromagnetic-waves at the interface with anisotropic media,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 2201–2211 (1995).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

K. R. Daly, S. Abbott, G. D’Alessandro, D. C. Smith, and M. Kaczmarek, “Theory of hybrid photorefractive plasmonic liquid crystal cells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1874–1881 (2011).
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M. Abb, P. Albella, J. Aizpurua, and O. L. Muskens, “All-optical control of a Ssingle plasmonic nanoantenna-ITO hybrid,” Nano Lett. 11, 2457–2463 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon.

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Samson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photon. 3, 55–58 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photon. 1, 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, “A photorefractive polymer with high optical gain and diffraction efficiency near 100-percent,” Nature 371, 497–500 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. E

V. O. Kubytskyi, V. Y. Reshetnyak, T. J. Sluckin, and S. J. Cox, “Theory of surface-potential-mediated photorefractivelike effects in liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 79 (2009).
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I. I. Smolyaninov, A. V. Zayats, A. Gungor, and C. C. Davis, “Single-photon tunneling via localized surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 (2002).
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Science

P. Muhlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308, 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, and H. A. Atwater, “Negative refraction at visible frequencies,” Science 316, 430–432 (2007).
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Solid State Commun.

F. Y. Li, Y. L. Li, Z. X. Guo, Y. M. Mo, L. Z. Fan, F. L. Bai, and D. B. Zhu, “Photoconductivity of C_[60]fullerene derivative doped PVK,” Solid State Commun. 107, 189–192 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other

K. R. Daly, “Light-matter interaction in liquid crystal cells,” Ph.D thesis (School of Mathematics, University of Southampton, 2011). http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/176449/1/PhDthesis_krd_published.pdf .

P. Günter and J. P. Huignard, Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications (Springer, 2006), p. 3.

P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals2nd ed. (Oxford University, 1993).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics : Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light6th (corrected) ed. (Cambridge University, 1997).

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