Abstract

We demonstrate different dressed processes of four-wave mixing (FWM), as changing the powers of the probe, pump, and dressing fields, respectively, in ladder-type three-level system. It is demonstrated that scanning detuning of the dressing field can lead to the direct detection of the dressing effects and the interaction between the dressing fields, compared with scanning that of the probe field. Moreover, by respectively controlling the powers of the dressing, pump, and probe fields, the enhancement and suppression of FWM signals can be switched sensitively. Meanwhile, the spatial splitting in y direction of FWM signal due to the cross-phase modulation and electromagnetically induced gratings is observed, respectively. Such nonlinear signal with switchable enhancement has potential applications in optical switching, optical communication, and quantum information processing.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. J. G. Banacloche, Y. Li, S. Jin, and M. Xiao, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in ladder-type inhomogeneously broadened media: Theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 576–584(1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Imamoglu and S. E. Harris, “Lasers without inversion: interference of dressed lifetime-broadened states,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1344–1346 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397, 594–598 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409, 490–493 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Nature 414, 413–418 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. D. Lukin, A. B. Matsko, M. Fleischhauer, and M. O. Scully, “Quantum noise and correlations in resonantly enhanced wave mixing based on atomic coherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1847–1850 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. R. Moseley, S. Shepherd, D. J. Fulton, B. D. Sinclair, and H. D. Malcolm, “Electromagnetically-induced focusing,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 408–415 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. E. Harris and Y. Yamamoto, “Photon switching by quantum interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3611–3614 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Wang, D. Goorskey, and M. Xiao, “Enhanced Kerr nonlinearity via atomic coherence in a three-level atomic system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 073601 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. Wang, Y. Han, Y. J. Xiao, X. Yang, C. Xie, H. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Multi-dark-state resonances in cold multi-Zeeman-sublevel atoms,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3647–3649 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. D. Lukin, S. F. Yelin, M. Fleischhauer, and M. O. Scully, “Quantum interference effects induced by interacting dark resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 3225–3228 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Yan, E. G. Rickey, and Y. F. Zhu, “Observation of doubly dressed states in cold atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 013412 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. P. Agrawal, “Induced focusing of optical beams in self-defocusing nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2487–2490 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Y. Ling, Y.-Q. Li, and M. Xiao, “Electromagnetically induced grating: Homogeneously broadened medium,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 1338–1344 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Z. Q. Nie, H. B. Zheng, P. Z. Li, Y. M. Yang, Y. P. Zhang, and M. Xiao, “Interacting multiwave mixing in a five-level atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 063829 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. P. Zhang and M. Xiao, “Generalized dressed and doubly-dressed multi-wave mixing,” Opt. Express 15, 7182–7189 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y. P. Zhang, B. Anderson, and M. Xiao, “Coexistence of four-wave, six-wave and eight-wave mixing processes in multi-dressed atomic systems,” J. Phys. B 40, 045502 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. B. Li, Y. P. Zhang, Z. Q. Nie, H. B. Zheng, C. C. Zuo, Y. G. Du, J. P. Song, K. Q. Lu, and C. L. Gan, “Controlled multi-wave mixing via interacting dark states in a five-level system,” Opt. Commun. 283, 2918–2928 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. B. Li, H. B. Zheng, Y. P. Zhang, Z. Q. Nie, J. P. Song, and M. Xiao, “Observation of enhancement and suppression in four-wave mixing processes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 041103 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. Wang, Y. F. Zhu, K. J. Jiang, and M. S. Zhan, “Bichromatic electromagnetically induced transparency in cold rubidium atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 063810 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Y. P. Zhang, Z. G. Wang, H. B. Zheng, C. Z. Yuan, C. B. Li, K. Q. Lu, and M. Xiao, “Four-wave-mixing gap solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053837 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (2)

C. B. Li, Y. P. Zhang, Z. Q. Nie, H. B. Zheng, C. C. Zuo, Y. G. Du, J. P. Song, K. Q. Lu, and C. L. Gan, “Controlled multi-wave mixing via interacting dark states in a five-level system,” Opt. Commun. 283, 2918–2928 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Zhang, Z. G. Wang, H. B. Zheng, C. Z. Yuan, C. B. Li, K. Q. Lu, and M. Xiao, “Four-wave-mixing gap solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053837 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

C. B. Li, H. B. Zheng, Y. P. Zhang, Z. Q. Nie, J. P. Song, and M. Xiao, “Observation of enhancement and suppression in four-wave mixing processes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 041103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

Y. P. Zhang, B. Anderson, and M. Xiao, “Coexistence of four-wave, six-wave and eight-wave mixing processes in multi-dressed atomic systems,” J. Phys. B 40, 045502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Q. Nie, H. B. Zheng, P. Z. Li, Y. M. Yang, Y. P. Zhang, and M. Xiao, “Interacting multiwave mixing in a five-level atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 063829 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2003 (1)

J. Wang, Y. F. Zhu, K. J. Jiang, and M. S. Zhan, “Bichromatic electromagnetically induced transparency in cold rubidium atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 063810 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

M. Yan, E. G. Rickey, and Y. F. Zhu, “Observation of doubly dressed states in cold atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 013412 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, D. Goorskey, and M. Xiao, “Enhanced Kerr nonlinearity via atomic coherence in a three-level atomic system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 073601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409, 490–493 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Nature 414, 413–418 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

M. D. Lukin, A. B. Matsko, M. Fleischhauer, and M. O. Scully, “Quantum noise and correlations in resonantly enhanced wave mixing based on atomic coherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1847–1850 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397, 594–598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Lukin, S. F. Yelin, M. Fleischhauer, and M. O. Scully, “Quantum interference effects induced by interacting dark resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 3225–3228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

H. Y. Ling, Y.-Q. Li, and M. Xiao, “Electromagnetically induced grating: Homogeneously broadened medium,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 1338–1344 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris and Y. Yamamoto, “Photon switching by quantum interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3611–3614 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Today 50, 36 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

R. R. Moseley, S. Shepherd, D. J. Fulton, B. D. Sinclair, and H. D. Malcolm, “Electromagnetically-induced focusing,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 408–415 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

J. G. Banacloche, Y. Li, S. Jin, and M. Xiao, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in ladder-type inhomogeneously broadened media: Theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 576–584(1995).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

G. P. Agrawal, “Induced focusing of optical beams in self-defocusing nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2487–2490 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, “Induced focusing of optical beams in self-defocusing nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2487–2490 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, B.

Y. P. Zhang, B. Anderson, and M. Xiao, “Coexistence of four-wave, six-wave and eight-wave mixing processes in multi-dressed atomic systems,” J. Phys. B 40, 045502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Banacloche, J. G.

J. G. Banacloche, Y. Li, S. Jin, and M. Xiao, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in ladder-type inhomogeneously broadened media: Theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 576–584(1995).
[CrossRef]

Behroozi, C. H.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409, 490–493 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397, 594–598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cirac, J. I.

L. M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Nature 414, 413–418 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Du, Y. G.

C. B. Li, Y. P. Zhang, Z. Q. Nie, H. B. Zheng, C. C. Zuo, Y. G. Du, J. P. Song, K. Q. Lu, and C. L. Gan, “Controlled multi-wave mixing via interacting dark states in a five-level system,” Opt. Commun. 283, 2918–2928 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Duan, L. M.

L. M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Nature 414, 413–418 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dutton, Z.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409, 490–493 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397, 594–598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fleischhauer, M.

M. D. Lukin, A. B. Matsko, M. Fleischhauer, and M. O. Scully, “Quantum noise and correlations in resonantly enhanced wave mixing based on atomic coherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1847–1850 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Lukin, S. F. Yelin, M. Fleischhauer, and M. O. Scully, “Quantum interference effects induced by interacting dark resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 3225–3228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fulton, D. J.

R. R. Moseley, S. Shepherd, D. J. Fulton, B. D. Sinclair, and H. D. Malcolm, “Electromagnetically-induced focusing,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 408–415 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gan, C. L.

C. B. Li, Y. P. Zhang, Z. Q. Nie, H. B. Zheng, C. C. Zuo, Y. G. Du, J. P. Song, K. Q. Lu, and C. L. Gan, “Controlled multi-wave mixing via interacting dark states in a five-level system,” Opt. Commun. 283, 2918–2928 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Goorskey, D.

H. Wang, D. Goorskey, and M. Xiao, “Enhanced Kerr nonlinearity via atomic coherence in a three-level atomic system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 073601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Han, Y.

Harris, S. E.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397, 594–598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris and Y. Yamamoto, “Photon switching by quantum interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3611–3614 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Today 50, 36 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Imamoglu and S. E. Harris, “Lasers without inversion: interference of dressed lifetime-broadened states,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1344–1346 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hau, L. V.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409, 490–493 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397, 594–598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Imamoglu, A.

Jiang, K. J.

J. Wang, Y. F. Zhu, K. J. Jiang, and M. S. Zhan, “Bichromatic electromagnetically induced transparency in cold rubidium atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 063810 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jin, S.

J. G. Banacloche, Y. Li, S. Jin, and M. Xiao, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in ladder-type inhomogeneously broadened media: Theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 576–584(1995).
[CrossRef]

Li, C. B.

C. B. Li, Y. P. Zhang, Z. Q. Nie, H. B. Zheng, C. C. Zuo, Y. G. Du, J. P. Song, K. Q. Lu, and C. L. Gan, “Controlled multi-wave mixing via interacting dark states in a five-level system,” Opt. Commun. 283, 2918–2928 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Zhang, Z. G. Wang, H. B. Zheng, C. Z. Yuan, C. B. Li, K. Q. Lu, and M. Xiao, “Four-wave-mixing gap solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053837 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Li, H. B. Zheng, Y. P. Zhang, Z. Q. Nie, J. P. Song, and M. Xiao, “Observation of enhancement and suppression in four-wave mixing processes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 041103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, P. Z.

Z. Q. Nie, H. B. Zheng, P. Z. Li, Y. M. Yang, Y. P. Zhang, and M. Xiao, “Interacting multiwave mixing in a five-level atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 063829 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

J. G. Banacloche, Y. Li, S. Jin, and M. Xiao, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in ladder-type inhomogeneously broadened media: Theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 576–584(1995).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.-Q.

H. Y. Ling, Y.-Q. Li, and M. Xiao, “Electromagnetically induced grating: Homogeneously broadened medium,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 1338–1344 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ling, H. Y.

H. Y. Ling, Y.-Q. Li, and M. Xiao, “Electromagnetically induced grating: Homogeneously broadened medium,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 1338–1344 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409, 490–493 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lu, K. Q.

C. B. Li, Y. P. Zhang, Z. Q. Nie, H. B. Zheng, C. C. Zuo, Y. G. Du, J. P. Song, K. Q. Lu, and C. L. Gan, “Controlled multi-wave mixing via interacting dark states in a five-level system,” Opt. Commun. 283, 2918–2928 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Zhang, Z. G. Wang, H. B. Zheng, C. Z. Yuan, C. B. Li, K. Q. Lu, and M. Xiao, “Four-wave-mixing gap solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053837 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lukin, M. D.

L. M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Nature 414, 413–418 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Lukin, A. B. Matsko, M. Fleischhauer, and M. O. Scully, “Quantum noise and correlations in resonantly enhanced wave mixing based on atomic coherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1847–1850 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Lukin, S. F. Yelin, M. Fleischhauer, and M. O. Scully, “Quantum interference effects induced by interacting dark resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 3225–3228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Malcolm, H. D.

R. R. Moseley, S. Shepherd, D. J. Fulton, B. D. Sinclair, and H. D. Malcolm, “Electromagnetically-induced focusing,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 408–415 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Matsko, A. B.

M. D. Lukin, A. B. Matsko, M. Fleischhauer, and M. O. Scully, “Quantum noise and correlations in resonantly enhanced wave mixing based on atomic coherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1847–1850 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moseley, R. R.

R. R. Moseley, S. Shepherd, D. J. Fulton, B. D. Sinclair, and H. D. Malcolm, “Electromagnetically-induced focusing,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 408–415 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nie, Z. Q.

C. B. Li, Y. P. Zhang, Z. Q. Nie, H. B. Zheng, C. C. Zuo, Y. G. Du, J. P. Song, K. Q. Lu, and C. L. Gan, “Controlled multi-wave mixing via interacting dark states in a five-level system,” Opt. Commun. 283, 2918–2928 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Li, H. B. Zheng, Y. P. Zhang, Z. Q. Nie, J. P. Song, and M. Xiao, “Observation of enhancement and suppression in four-wave mixing processes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 041103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Q. Nie, H. B. Zheng, P. Z. Li, Y. M. Yang, Y. P. Zhang, and M. Xiao, “Interacting multiwave mixing in a five-level atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 063829 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rickey, E. G.

M. Yan, E. G. Rickey, and Y. F. Zhu, “Observation of doubly dressed states in cold atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 013412 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Scully, M. O.

M. D. Lukin, S. F. Yelin, M. Fleischhauer, and M. O. Scully, “Quantum interference effects induced by interacting dark resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 3225–3228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Lukin, A. B. Matsko, M. Fleischhauer, and M. O. Scully, “Quantum noise and correlations in resonantly enhanced wave mixing based on atomic coherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1847–1850 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, S.

R. R. Moseley, S. Shepherd, D. J. Fulton, B. D. Sinclair, and H. D. Malcolm, “Electromagnetically-induced focusing,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 408–415 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sinclair, B. D.

R. R. Moseley, S. Shepherd, D. J. Fulton, B. D. Sinclair, and H. D. Malcolm, “Electromagnetically-induced focusing,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 408–415 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Song, J. P.

C. B. Li, Y. P. Zhang, Z. Q. Nie, H. B. Zheng, C. C. Zuo, Y. G. Du, J. P. Song, K. Q. Lu, and C. L. Gan, “Controlled multi-wave mixing via interacting dark states in a five-level system,” Opt. Commun. 283, 2918–2928 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Li, H. B. Zheng, Y. P. Zhang, Z. Q. Nie, J. P. Song, and M. Xiao, “Observation of enhancement and suppression in four-wave mixing processes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 041103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, B.

Wang, H.

B. Wang, Y. Han, Y. J. Xiao, X. Yang, C. Xie, H. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Multi-dark-state resonances in cold multi-Zeeman-sublevel atoms,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3647–3649 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, D. Goorskey, and M. Xiao, “Enhanced Kerr nonlinearity via atomic coherence in a three-level atomic system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 073601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, Y. F. Zhu, K. J. Jiang, and M. S. Zhan, “Bichromatic electromagnetically induced transparency in cold rubidium atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 063810 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. G.

Y. P. Zhang, Z. G. Wang, H. B. Zheng, C. Z. Yuan, C. B. Li, K. Q. Lu, and M. Xiao, “Four-wave-mixing gap solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053837 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, M.

Y. P. Zhang, Z. G. Wang, H. B. Zheng, C. Z. Yuan, C. B. Li, K. Q. Lu, and M. Xiao, “Four-wave-mixing gap solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053837 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Li, H. B. Zheng, Y. P. Zhang, Z. Q. Nie, J. P. Song, and M. Xiao, “Observation of enhancement and suppression in four-wave mixing processes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 041103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Zhang, B. Anderson, and M. Xiao, “Coexistence of four-wave, six-wave and eight-wave mixing processes in multi-dressed atomic systems,” J. Phys. B 40, 045502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Q. Nie, H. B. Zheng, P. Z. Li, Y. M. Yang, Y. P. Zhang, and M. Xiao, “Interacting multiwave mixing in a five-level atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 063829 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Zhang and M. Xiao, “Generalized dressed and doubly-dressed multi-wave mixing,” Opt. Express 15, 7182–7189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Wang, Y. Han, Y. J. Xiao, X. Yang, C. Xie, H. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Multi-dark-state resonances in cold multi-Zeeman-sublevel atoms,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3647–3649 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, D. Goorskey, and M. Xiao, “Enhanced Kerr nonlinearity via atomic coherence in a three-level atomic system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 073601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Ling, Y.-Q. Li, and M. Xiao, “Electromagnetically induced grating: Homogeneously broadened medium,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 1338–1344 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Banacloche, Y. Li, S. Jin, and M. Xiao, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in ladder-type inhomogeneously broadened media: Theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 576–584(1995).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, Y. J.

Xie, C.

Yamamoto, Y.

S. E. Harris and Y. Yamamoto, “Photon switching by quantum interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3611–3614 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yan, M.

M. Yan, E. G. Rickey, and Y. F. Zhu, “Observation of doubly dressed states in cold atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 013412 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X.

Yang, Y. M.

Z. Q. Nie, H. B. Zheng, P. Z. Li, Y. M. Yang, Y. P. Zhang, and M. Xiao, “Interacting multiwave mixing in a five-level atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 063829 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yelin, S. F.

M. D. Lukin, S. F. Yelin, M. Fleischhauer, and M. O. Scully, “Quantum interference effects induced by interacting dark resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 3225–3228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, C. Z.

Y. P. Zhang, Z. G. Wang, H. B. Zheng, C. Z. Yuan, C. B. Li, K. Q. Lu, and M. Xiao, “Four-wave-mixing gap solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053837 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhan, M. S.

J. Wang, Y. F. Zhu, K. J. Jiang, and M. S. Zhan, “Bichromatic electromagnetically induced transparency in cold rubidium atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 063810 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y. P.

Y. P. Zhang, Z. G. Wang, H. B. Zheng, C. Z. Yuan, C. B. Li, K. Q. Lu, and M. Xiao, “Four-wave-mixing gap solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053837 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Li, Y. P. Zhang, Z. Q. Nie, H. B. Zheng, C. C. Zuo, Y. G. Du, J. P. Song, K. Q. Lu, and C. L. Gan, “Controlled multi-wave mixing via interacting dark states in a five-level system,” Opt. Commun. 283, 2918–2928 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Li, H. B. Zheng, Y. P. Zhang, Z. Q. Nie, J. P. Song, and M. Xiao, “Observation of enhancement and suppression in four-wave mixing processes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 041103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Q. Nie, H. B. Zheng, P. Z. Li, Y. M. Yang, Y. P. Zhang, and M. Xiao, “Interacting multiwave mixing in a five-level atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 063829 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Zhang, B. Anderson, and M. Xiao, “Coexistence of four-wave, six-wave and eight-wave mixing processes in multi-dressed atomic systems,” J. Phys. B 40, 045502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. B. Li, H. B. Zheng, Y. P. Zhang, Z. Q. Nie, J. P. Song, and M. Xiao, “Observation of enhancement and suppression in four-wave mixing processes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 041103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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C. B. Li, Y. P. Zhang, Z. Q. Nie, H. B. Zheng, C. C. Zuo, Y. G. Du, J. P. Song, K. Q. Lu, and C. L. Gan, “Controlled multi-wave mixing via interacting dark states in a five-level system,” Opt. Commun. 283, 2918–2928 (2010).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Diagram of the Ladder-type three-level atomic system. (b) Spatial beam geometry used in the experiment.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Experimentally measured intensities of the single-dressed DFWM EF1, versus Δ2 at different Δ1 and the involved powers are set at P1=8μW, P2=22μW and P3=8μW. (1) Δ1=60.0GHz; (2) Δ1=30.1GHz; (3) Δ1=0; (4) Δ1=32.0GHz; and (5) Δ1=55.3GHz, respectively. The background profile is the single-peak DFWM signal EF1 versus Δ1. (b) The theoretical results of the single-dressed DFWM. The condition is same as that in (a). (c1)–(c5). The dressed-state pictures of the DFWM signal. The states |G2± are dashed lines.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Experimentally measured intensities of the DFWM sequentially doubly dressed by the dressing fields and the pump fields, versus Δ2 at different Δ1 and the involved powers are set at P1=20μW, P2=25μW, and P3=10μW. Measured suppression and enhancement of DFWM signal EF1 versus Δ2 at different Δ1 values. (1) Δ1=62.0GHz; (2) Δ1=50.5GHz; (3) Δ1=31.7GHz; (4) Δ1=16.5GHz; (5) Δ1=0GHz; (6) Δ1=15.8GHz; (7) Δ1=35.5GHz; (8) Δ1=50.2GHz; and (9) Δ1=65.8GHz, respectively. The background profile is the double-peak DFWM signal EF1 versus Δ1. (b) The theoretical results of the sequential doubly dressed DFWM. The condition is the same as that in (a). (c1)–(c9) The dressed-state energy level diagrams of the DFWM signal. The states |± are dashed lines and the states |+G2± or |G2± are dot-dashed lines, respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Experimentally measured intensities of the DFWM doubly dressed in nesting scheme by the dressing fields and probe field, versus Δ2 at different Δ1 value with the powers P1=10μW, P2=25μW, and P3=20μW. (1) Δ1=63.3GHz; (2) Δ1=50.7GHz; (3) Δ1=32.5GHz; (4) Δ1=17.8GHz; (5) Δ1=0GHz; (6) Δ1=16.4GHz; (7) Δ1=35.2GHz; (8) Δ1=50.5GHz; and (9) Δ1=62.8GHz, respectively. The background profile is the double-peak DFWM signal EF1 versus Δ1. (b) The theoretical results of the nesting doubly dressed DFWM in (a). The condition is the same as that in (a). (c) The DFWM signal images when E1 and E1 are set in the middle of the heat-pipe oven. The condition is the same as that in (a).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Experimentally measured intensities of the DFWM multidressed by the pump fields and dressing fields, versus Δ2 at different Δ1 values of Δ1=63.4GHz, 50.5GHz, 31.7GHz, 16.5GHz, 0 GHz, 15.8 GHz, 35.5 GHz, 50.2 GHz, and 65.8 GHz, from the left to right side, respectively. The involved powers are set at P1=22μW, P2=25μW, and P3=8μW. The background profile is the double-peak DFWM signal EF1 versus Δ1. (b1)–(b2) The dressed-state energy level diagrams of the DFWM signal multidressed by the pump fields and dressing fields. The first order dressed states are dashed lines, the second order dressed states are dot-dashed lines, and the third order dressed states are short-dashed lines, respectively. (c) The experimentally measured intensities of the DFWM multidressed by the probe field and dressing fields, versus Δ2 at different Δ1 values of Δ1=65.4GHz, 50.5GHz, 31.7GHz, 16.5GHz, 0, 15.8 GHz, 35.5 GHz, 50.2 GHz, and 64.8, from the left to right side, respectively. The involved powers are set at P1=8μW, P2=25μW, and P3=30μW. The background profile is the double-peak DFWM signal EF1 versus Δ1. (d1)–(d2) The dressed-state energy level diagrams of the DFWM signal multidressed by the probe field and dressing fields. The first order dressed states are dashed lines; the second order dressed states are dot-dashed lines and the third order dressed states are short-dashed lines, respectively.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Experimentally measured intensities of the DFWM multidressed by the probe field, pump fields, and dressing fields, versus Δ2 at different Δ1 with the powers P1=22μW, P2=25μW and P3=25μW. (1) Δ1=68.8GHz; (2) Δ1=60.2GHz; (3) Δ1=50.7GHz; (4) Δ1=42.8GHz; (5) Δ1=36.5GHz; (6) Δ1=31.7GHz; (7) Δ1=20.3GHz; (8) Δ1=16.5GHz; (9) Δ1=0GHz; (10) Δ1=15.8GHz; (11) Δ1=35.5GHz; (12) Δ1=50.2GHz; and (13) Δ1=65.8GHz, respectively. The background profile is three-peak DFWM signal EF1 versus Δ1. (b1)–(b13) The dressed-state energy level diagrams of the DFWM signal. The first, second, and third order dressed state are the dashed, dot-dashed, and short-dashed lines, respectively.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Enhancement and suppression of the DFWM signals versus Δ2 at the point Δ1=58.8GHz when the probe power P3 is set at (a1) 5.99 μW; (a2) 13.51 μW; (a3) 17.27 μW; (a4) 21.03 μW; (a5) 24.79 μW; (a6) 28.55 μW; (a7) 32.31 μW; (a8) 36.07 μW; (a9) 43 μW. The other parameters are P1=10μW, P2=25μW. (b) Enhancement and suppression of the DFWM signals versus Δ2 at Δ1=40.5GHz when the dressing fields power P2 is (b1) 3.03 μW; (b2) 5.78 μW; (b3) 8.53 μW; (b4) 11.28 μW; (b5) 14.03 μW; (b6) 16.78 μW; (b7) 19.53 μW; (b8) 22.28 μW; (b9) 25.00 μW. The other parameters are P1=20μW, P3=10μW. (c1)–(c3) The dressed-state energy level diagrams of the DFWM signal. The first and second order dressed states switches controlled by the power of the dressing fields E2(E2) are expressed by the dashed and dot-dashed lines, respectively. (d) Enhancement and suppression of the DFWM signals versus Δ2 at the point Δ1=60.3GHz when the pump fields power P1 is (d1) 3.48 μW; (d2) 7.78 μW; (d3) 9.93 μW; (d4) 12.09 μW; (d5) 14.24 μW; (d6) 16.39 μW; (d7) 18.54 μW; (d8) 22.85 μW; (d9) 25.00 μW. The other parameters are P3=10μW, P2=25μW. (e) The DFWM signal images when E1 and E1 are set in the middle of the heat-pipe oven. The condition is same as that in (b).

Equations (1)

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ρ10(n=3,m=2)=(g/((d1d4+|G2|2/d2)(Γ00d3+|G1|2/(Γ00d4))))·(1/(d1+|G1|2/(Γ00d3+|G2|2/(Γ00d4))+|G1|2/(Γ00+d3+|G1|2/(Γ00+d4))+|G2|2/d2)),

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