Abstract

In this study, we report a minimal-cost and minimal-complexity Cr:LiSAF laser that is pumped only by one inexpensive single-spatial-mode diode. The pump diode, which was originally developed for DVD-writers, provides 130 mW of output power at 660 nm with an efficiency of 30%. This simple pump source enables the construction of a Cr:LiSAF laser that (i) has an estimated total material cost below US$ 5k, (ii) has a footprint of about 20×30cm, (iii) does not require active cooling, and (iv) can be driven by batteries. All of these make this system ideal for applications that require portability. In continuous-wave (cw) laser experiments, we have demonstrated lasing thresholds as low as 2 mW, slope efficiencies as high as 52%, and output powers up to 58 mW. A record cw tuning range extending from 780 to 1110 nm has also been obtained. In cw mode-locking experiments using a saturable Bragg reflector at 850 nm, the Cr:LiSAF laser produced 100 fs pulses with an average power of 38 mW at a repetition rate of 235 MHz. Using a more compact laser cavity, we have also obtained 130 fs pulses with an average power of 33 mW at a repetition rate of 757 MHz. The corresponding electrical-to-optical conversion efficiencies in cw and cw mode-locked regimes were 12.8% and 8.4%, respectively. These results show that, with the progress in laser-diode and optical mirror technology in the last decade, reasonable output powers can now be obtained from Cr:LiSAF lasers that are pumped only by one single-spatial-mode diode. We believe that this compact, low-cost, and simplistic Cr:LiSAF laser system may be an attractive source for several applications including amplifier seeding.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2012 (3)

W. Sibbett, A. A. Lagatsky, and C. T. A. Brown, “The development and application of femtosecond laser systems,” Opt. Express 20, 6989–7001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Agnesi, F. Pirzio, E. Ugolotti, S. Y. Choi, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Femtosecond single-mode diode-pumped Cr:LiSAF laser mode-locked with single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Commun. 285, 742–745 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Savitski, N. K. Metzger, S. Calvez, D. Burns, W. Sibbett, and C. T. A. Brown, “Optical trapping with “on-demand” two-photon luminescence using Cr:LiSAF laser with optically addressed saturable Bragg reflector,” Opt. Express 20, 7066–7070 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (5)

P. Purnawirman and P. B. Phua, “Femtosecond laser pumped by high-brightness coherent polarization locked diodes,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2797–2799 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Roth, A. J. Maclean, D. Burns, and A. J. Kemp, “Direct diode-laser pumping of a mode-locked Ti:Sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 36, 304–306 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Yoshida, A. Schmidt, V. Petrov, C. Fiebig, G. Erbert, J. H. Liu, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and U. Griebner, “Diode-pumped mode-locked Yb:YCOB laser generating 35 fs pulses,” Opt. Lett. 36, 4425–4427 (2011).
[CrossRef]

U. Demirbas, G. S. Petrich, D. Li, A. Sennaroglu, L. A. Kolodziejski, F. X. Kärtner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond tuning of Cr:Colquiriite lasers with AlGaAs-based saturable Bragg reflectors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 986–993 (2011).
[CrossRef]

U. Demirbas, M. Schmalz, B. Sumpf, G. Erbert, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, J. G. Fujimoto, F. X. Kärtner, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Femtosecond Cr:LiSAF and Cr:LiCAF lasers pumped by tapered diode lasers,” Opt. Express 19, 20444–20461 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (6)

C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond thin-disk laser with 141 W of average power,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2302–2304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Agnesi, A. Greborio, F. Pirzio, and G. Reali, “80 fs Nd: silicate glass laser pumped by a single-mode 200 mW diode,” Opt. Express 18, 10098–10103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Klein and J. D. Kafka, “The Ti:Sapphire laser: the flexible research tool,” Nat. Photon. 4, 289 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Li, U. Demirbas, J. R. Birge, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, A. Sennaroglu, F. X. Ka¨rtner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked GHz femtosecond Cr:LiSAF laser with kW peak power,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1446–1448 (2010).
[CrossRef]

U. Demirbas, K. H. Hong, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Sennaroglu, and F. X. Ka¨rtner, “Low-cost cavity-dumped femtosecond Cr:LiSAF laser producing >100  nJ pulses,” Opt. Lett. 35, 607–609 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L.-J. Chen, M. Y. Sander, and F. X. Kärtner, “Kerr-lens mode locking with minimum nonlinearity using gain-matched output couplers,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2916–2918 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (6)

U. Demirbas, A. Sennaroglu, F. X. Ka¨rtner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Generation of 15 nJ pulses from a highly efficient, low-cost multipass-cavity Cr3+:LiCAF laser,” Opt. Lett. 34, 497–499 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Akimov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, Y. K. Skasyrsky, and A. A. Voronov, “Pulsed broadly tunable room-temperature Cr2+:CdS laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 793–797 (2009).
[CrossRef]

U. Demirbas, A. Sennaroglu, F. X. Ka¨rtner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Comparative investigation of diode pumping for continuous-wave and mode-locked Cr3+:LiCAF lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 64–79 (2009).
[CrossRef]

U. Demirbas, D. Li, J. R. Birge, A. Sennaroglu, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, F. X. Ka¨rtner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Low-cost, single-mode diode-pumped Cr:Colquiriite lasers,” Opt. Express 17, 14374–14388 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Agnesi, F. Pirzio, and G. Reali, “Low-threshold femtosecond Nd:glass laser,” Opt. Express 17, 9171–9176 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Roth, A. J. Maclean, D. Burns, and A. J. Kemp, “Directly diode-laser-pumped Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3334–3336 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

V. A. Akimov, V. I. Kozovskii, Y. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, Y. K. Skasyrskii, and M. P. Frolov, “Efficient pulsed Cr2+:CdSe laser continuously tunable in the spectral range from 2.26 to 3.61,” Quantum Electron. 38, 205–208(2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

M. Larionov, F. Butze, D. Nickel, and A. Giesen, “High-repetition-rate regenerative thin-disk amplifier with 116 mu J pulse energy and 250 fs pulse duration,” Opt. Lett. 32, 494–496 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Hildebrandt, M. Frede, and D. Kracht, “Narrow-linewidth ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier system with 45 nm tuning range and 133 W of output power,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2345–2347 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Druon, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “New laser crystals for the generation of ultrashort pulses,” Comptes Rendus Physique 8, 153–164 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

A. Isemann, P. Wessels, and C. Fallnich, “Directly diode-pumped Colquiriite regenerative amplifiers,” Opt. Commun. 260, 211–222 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. Demirbas and A. Sennaroglu, “Intracavity-pumped Cr2+:ZnSe laser with ultrabroad tuning range between 1880 and 3100 nm,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2293–2295 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. Kernal, V. V. Fedorov, A. Gallian, S. B. Mirov, and V. V. Badikov, “3.9–4.8 μm gain-switched lasing of Fe:ZnSe at room temperature,” Opt. Express 13, 10608–10615 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

A. A. Lagatsky, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Highly efficient and low threshold diode-pumped Kerr-lens mode-locked Yb:KYW laser,” Opt. Express 12, 3928–3933 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. J. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “Diode-pumped femtosecond laser oscillator with cavity dumping,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1288–1290 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Wagenblast, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, F. X. Kaertner, and U. Morgner, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography with a diode-pumped broadband Cr3+:LiCAF laser,” Opt. Express 12, 3257–3263 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Tandon, J. T. Gopinath, H. M. Shen, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, “Large-area broadband saturable Bragg reflectors by use of oxidized AlAs,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2551–2553 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (5)

A. Sennaroglu and J. G. Fujimoto, “Design criteria for Herriott-type multi-pass cavities for ultrashort pulse lasers,” Opt. Express 11, 1106–1113 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Lagatsky, E. U. Rafailov, C. G. Leburn, C. T. A. Brown, N. Xiang, O. G. Okhotnikov, and W. Sibbett, “Highly efficient femtosecond Yb:KYW laser pumped by single narrow-stripe laser diode,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1108–1110 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Isemann and C. Fallnich, “High-power colquiriite laser with high slope efficiencies pumped by broad-area laser diodes.,” Opt. Express 11, 259–264 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Uemura and K. Torizuka, “Development of a diode-pumped kerr-lens mode-locked Cr.LiSAF Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 68–73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Prasankumar, Y. Hirakawa, A. M. J. Kowalevicz, F. X. Kärtner, J. G. Fujitimo, and W. H. Knox, “An extended cavity femtosecond Cr:LiSAF laser pumped by low cost diode lasers,” Opt. Express 11, 1265–1269 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (6)

B. Agate, A. J. Kemp, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Efficient, high repetition-rate femtosecond blue source using a compact Cr:LiSAF laser,” Opt. Express 10, 824–831 (2002).

A. Isemann, H. Hundertmark, and C. Fallnich, “Diode-pumped Cr:LiCAF fs regenerative amplifier system seeded by an Er-doped mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 299–306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, S. Mirov, V. Fedorov, V. Badikov, V. Panyutin, and K. I. Schaffers, “Broadly tunable compact continuous-wave Cr2+:ZnS laser,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1040–1042 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Makio, H. Matsumoto, A. Miyamoto, M. Sato, and T. Sasaki, “Low-noise blue light generation of intracavity frequency-doubled LD-pumped Cr:LiSAF laser by single-mode method,” Electr. Eng. Jpn. 138, 49–55 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Agate, B. Stormont, A. J. Kemp, C. T. A. Brown, U. Keller, and W. Sibbett, “Simplified cavity designs for efficient and compact femtosecond Cr:LiSAF lasers,” Opt. Commun. 205, 207–213 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hopkins, G. J. Valentine, B. Agate, A. J. Kemp, U. Keller, and W. Sibbett, “Highly compact and efficient femtosecond Cr:LiSAF lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 360–368 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

A. J. Kemp, B. Stormont, B. Agate, C. T. A. Brown, U. Keller, and W. Sibbett, “Gigahertz repetition-rate from directly diode-pumped femtosecond Cr:LiSAF laser,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1457–1458 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Ell, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, “Generation of 5 fs pulses and octave-spanning spectra directly from a Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 26, 373–375 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

S. Uemura and K. Torizuka, “Generation of 10 fs pulses from a diode-pumped Kerr-lens mode-locked Cr:LiSAF laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3472–3473 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Parsons-Karavassilis, Y. Gu, Z. Ansari, P. M. W. French, and J. R. Taylor, “Diode-pumped spatially dispersed broadband Cr:LiSGAF and Cr:LiSAF c.w. laser sources applied to short-coherence photorefractive holography,” Opt. Commun. 181, 361–367 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

S. Uemeura and K. Torizuka, “Generation of 12 fs pulses from a diode-pumped Kerr-lens mode-locked Cr:LiSAF laser,” Opt. Lett. 24, 780–782 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Honninger, R. Paschotta, M. Graf, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, M. Moser, S. Biswal, J. Nees, A. Braun, G. A. Mourou, I. Johannsen, A. Giesen, W. Seeber, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast ytterbium-doped bulk lasers and laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 3–17 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 46–56 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. McKay, K. L. Schepler, and G. C. Catella, “Efficient grating-tuned mid-infrared Cr2+:CdSe laser,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1575–1577 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

J. M. Hopkins, G. J. Valentine, W. Sibbett, J. A. der Au, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, and A. Valster, “Efficient, low-noise, SESAM-based femtosecond Cr3+: LiSrAlF6 laser,” Opt. Commun. 154, 54–58 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Eichenholz, M. Richardson, and G. Mizell, “Diode pumped, frequency doubled LiSAF microlaser,” Opt. Commun. 153, 263–266 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Robertson, R. Knappe, and R. Wallenstein, “Diode-pumped broadly tunable (809–910 nm) femtosecond Cr:LiSAF laser,” Opt. Commun. 147, 294–298 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (7)

D. Kopf, A. Prasad, G. Zhang, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Broadly tunable femtosecond Cr:LiSAF laser,” Opt. Lett. 22, 621–623 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Uemura and K. Miyazaki, “Femtosecond Cr:LiSAF laser pumped by a single diode laser,” Opt. Commun. 138, 330–332 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Kopf, K. J. Weingarten, G. Zhang, M. Moser, M. A. Emanuel, R. J. Beach, J. A. Skidmore, and U. Keller, “High-average-power diode-pumped femtosecond Cr:LiSAF lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 235–243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Valentine, J. M. Hopkins, P. Loza-Alvarez, G. T. Kennedy, W. Sibbett, D. Burns, and A. Valster, “Ultralow-pump-threshold, femtosecond Cr3+:LiSrAlF6 laser pumped by a single narrow-stripe AlGaInP laser diode,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1639–1641 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, E. Wintner, A. Cassanho, H. P. Jenssen, and R. Szipocs, “14 fs pulse generation in Kerr-lens mode-locked prismless Cr:LiSGaF and Cr:LiSAF lasers: observation of pulse self-frequency shift,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1716–1718 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Knappe, G. Bitz, K.-J. Boller, and R. Wallenstein, “Compact single-frequency diode-pumped Cr:LiSAF lasers,” Opt. Commun. 143, 42–46 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Laperle, K. J. Snell, A. Chandonnet, P. Galarneau, and R. Vallée, “Tunable diode-pumped and frequency-doubled Cr:LiSAF lasers,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5053–5057 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, S. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, “Mode-locking ultrafast solid-state lasers with saturable Bragg reflectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 454–464 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Ka¨rtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. derAu, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, and S. T. Cundiff, “High efficiency diode pumping of a saturable Bragg reflector-mode-locked Cr:LiSAF femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1538–1540 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (7)

J. F. Pinto, L. Esterowitz, and G. H. Rosenblatt, “Frequency tripling of a Q-switched Cr:LiSAF laser to the UV region,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 58–61 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Falcoz, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, and D. Rytz, “All-solid-state continuous-wave tunable blue-light source by intracavity doubling of a diode-pumped Cr:LiSAF laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1274–1276 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. X. Kärtner, L. R. Brovelli, D. Kopf, M. Kamp, I. Calasso, and U. Keller, “Control of solid-state laser dynamics by semiconductor devices,” Opt. Eng. 34, 2024–2036 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Falcoz, F. Balembois, P. Georges, and A. Brun, “Self-starting self-mode-locked femtosecond diode-pumped Cr:LiSAF laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1874–1876 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Mellish, N. P. Barry, S. C. W. Hyde, R. Jones, P. M. W. French, J. R. Taylor, C. J. v. d. Poel, and A. Valster, “Diode-pumped Cr:LiSAF all-solid-state femtosecond oscillator and regenerative amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2312–2314 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. J. P. Dymott and A. I. Ferguson, “Self-mode-locked diode-pumped Cr:LiSAF laser producing 34 fs pulses at 42 mW average power,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1157–1159 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, E. A. d. Souza, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, “Low-loss intracavity AlAs/AlGaAs saturable Bragg reflector for femtosecond mode locking in solid-state lasers,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1406–1408 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

D. Kopf, K. J. Weingarten, L. R. Brovelli, M. Kamp, and U. Keller, “Diode-pumped 100 fs passively mode-locked Cr-Lisaf laser with an antiresonant Fabry-Perot saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 19, 2143–2145 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. J. P. Dymott and A. I. Ferguson, “Self-mode-locked diode-pumped Cr:LiSAF laser,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1988–1990 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

F. Balembois, P. Georges, and A. Brun, “Quasi-continuous-wave and actively mode-locked diode-pumped Cr3+:LiSrAlF6 laser,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1730–1732 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. M. W. French, R. Mellish, J. R. Taylor, P. J. Delfyett, and L. T. Florez, “Mode-locked all-solid-state diode-pumped Cr:LiSAF Laser,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1934–1936 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (4)

R. Scheps, J. F. Myers, H. B. Serreze, A. Rosenberg, R. C. Morris, and M. Long, “Diode-pumped Cr:LiSrAlF6 laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 820–822 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Patterson, R. Gonzales, and M. D. Perry, “Compact 10-TW, 800 fs Nd:glass laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1107–1109 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Harrison, A. Finch, D. M. Rines, G. A. Rines, and P. F. Moulton, “Low-threshold, cw, all-solid-state Ti:Al2O3 laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 581–583 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Stalder, B. H. T. Chai, and M. Bass, “Flashlamp pumped Cr:LiSrAIF6 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 216–218 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “2-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248, 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and H. W. Newkirk, “Laser performance of LiSAIF6:Cr3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 1051–1056 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, H. W. Newkirk, L. K. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, “LiCaAlF6:Cr3+ a promising new solid-state laser material,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 2243–2252 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Welford and P. F. Moulton, “Romm-temperature operation of a Co:MgF2 laser,” Opt. Lett. 13, 975–977 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

P. F. Moulton, “Spectroscopic and laser characteristics of Ti:Al2O3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 125–133 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

D. Findlay and R. A. Clay, “The measurement of internal losses in 4-level lasers,” Phys. Lett. 20, 277–278 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Agate, B.

B. Agate, B. Stormont, A. J. Kemp, C. T. A. Brown, U. Keller, and W. Sibbett, “Simplified cavity designs for efficient and compact femtosecond Cr:LiSAF lasers,” Opt. Commun. 205, 207–213 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hopkins, G. J. Valentine, B. Agate, A. J. Kemp, U. Keller, and W. Sibbett, “Highly compact and efficient femtosecond Cr:LiSAF lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 360–368 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Agate, A. J. Kemp, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Efficient, high repetition-rate femtosecond blue source using a compact Cr:LiSAF laser,” Opt. Express 10, 824–831 (2002).

A. J. Kemp, B. Stormont, B. Agate, C. T. A. Brown, U. Keller, and W. Sibbett, “Gigahertz repetition-rate from directly diode-pumped femtosecond Cr:LiSAF laser,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1457–1458 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Agnesi, A.

A. Agnesi, F. Pirzio, E. Ugolotti, S. Y. Choi, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Femtosecond single-mode diode-pumped Cr:LiSAF laser mode-locked with single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Commun. 285, 742–745 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Agnesi, A. Greborio, F. Pirzio, and G. Reali, “80 fs Nd: silicate glass laser pumped by a single-mode 200 mW diode,” Opt. Express 18, 10098–10103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Agnesi, F. Pirzio, and G. Reali, “Low-threshold femtosecond Nd:glass laser,” Opt. Express 17, 9171–9176 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Akimov, V. A.

V. A. Akimov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, Y. K. Skasyrsky, and A. A. Voronov, “Pulsed broadly tunable room-temperature Cr2+:CdS laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 793–797 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Akimov, V. I. Kozovskii, Y. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, Y. K. Skasyrskii, and M. P. Frolov, “Efficient pulsed Cr2+:CdSe laser continuously tunable in the spectral range from 2.26 to 3.61,” Quantum Electron. 38, 205–208(2008).
[CrossRef]

Angelow, G.

R. Ell, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, “Generation of 5 fs pulses and octave-spanning spectra directly from a Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 26, 373–375 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ansari, Z.

D. Parsons-Karavassilis, Y. Gu, Z. Ansari, P. M. W. French, and J. R. Taylor, “Diode-pumped spatially dispersed broadband Cr:LiSGAF and Cr:LiSAF c.w. laser sources applied to short-coherence photorefractive holography,” Opt. Commun. 181, 361–367 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Badikov, V.

I. T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, S. Mirov, V. Fedorov, V. Badikov, V. Panyutin, and K. I. Schaffers, “Broadly tunable compact continuous-wave Cr2+:ZnS laser,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1040–1042 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Badikov, V. V.

J. Kernal, V. V. Fedorov, A. Gallian, S. B. Mirov, and V. V. Badikov, “3.9–4.8 μm gain-switched lasing of Fe:ZnSe at room temperature,” Opt. Express 13, 10608–10615 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baer, C. R. E.

C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond thin-disk laser with 141 W of average power,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2302–2304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Balembois, F.

F. Druon, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “New laser crystals for the generation of ultrashort pulses,” Comptes Rendus Physique 8, 153–164 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Falcoz, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, and D. Rytz, “All-solid-state continuous-wave tunable blue-light source by intracavity doubling of a diode-pumped Cr:LiSAF laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1274–1276 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Falcoz, F. Balembois, P. Georges, and A. Brun, “Self-starting self-mode-locked femtosecond diode-pumped Cr:LiSAF laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1874–1876 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Balembois, P. Georges, and A. Brun, “Quasi-continuous-wave and actively mode-locked diode-pumped Cr3+:LiSrAlF6 laser,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1730–1732 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Barry, N. P.

R. Mellish, N. P. Barry, S. C. W. Hyde, R. Jones, P. M. W. French, J. R. Taylor, C. J. v. d. Poel, and A. Valster, “Diode-pumped Cr:LiSAF all-solid-state femtosecond oscillator and regenerative amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2312–2314 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bass, M.

M. Stalder, B. H. T. Chai, and M. Bass, “Flashlamp pumped Cr:LiSrAIF6 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 216–218 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Beach, R. J.

D. Kopf, K. J. Weingarten, G. Zhang, M. Moser, M. A. Emanuel, R. J. Beach, J. A. Skidmore, and U. Keller, “High-average-power diode-pumped femtosecond Cr:LiSAF lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 235–243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Birge, J. R.

D. Li, U. Demirbas, J. R. Birge, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, A. Sennaroglu, F. X. Ka¨rtner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked GHz femtosecond Cr:LiSAF laser with kW peak power,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1446–1448 (2010).
[CrossRef]

U. Demirbas, D. Li, J. R. Birge, A. Sennaroglu, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, F. X. Ka¨rtner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Low-cost, single-mode diode-pumped Cr:Colquiriite lasers,” Opt. Express 17, 14374–14388 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Biswal, S.

C. Honninger, R. Paschotta, M. Graf, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, M. Moser, S. Biswal, J. Nees, A. Braun, G. A. Mourou, I. Johannsen, A. Giesen, W. Seeber, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast ytterbium-doped bulk lasers and laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 3–17 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bitz, G.

R. Knappe, G. Bitz, K.-J. Boller, and R. Wallenstein, “Compact single-frequency diode-pumped Cr:LiSAF lasers,” Opt. Commun. 143, 42–46 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boller, K.-J.

R. Knappe, G. Bitz, K.-J. Boller, and R. Wallenstein, “Compact single-frequency diode-pumped Cr:LiSAF lasers,” Opt. Commun. 143, 42–46 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Braun, A.

C. Honninger, R. Paschotta, M. Graf, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, M. Moser, S. Biswal, J. Nees, A. Braun, G. A. Mourou, I. Johannsen, A. Giesen, W. Seeber, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast ytterbium-doped bulk lasers and laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 3–17 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Braun, B.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Ka¨rtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. derAu, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
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S. N. Tandon, J. T. Gopinath, H. M. Shen, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, “Large-area broadband saturable Bragg reflectors by use of oxidized AlAs,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2551–2553 (2004).
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C. Honninger, R. Paschotta, M. Graf, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, M. Moser, S. Biswal, J. Nees, A. Braun, G. A. Mourou, I. Johannsen, A. Giesen, W. Seeber, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast ytterbium-doped bulk lasers and laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 3–17 (1999).
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A. Agnesi, A. Greborio, F. Pirzio, and G. Reali, “80 fs Nd: silicate glass laser pumped by a single-mode 200 mW diode,” Opt. Express 18, 10098–10103 (2010).
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A. Yoshida, A. Schmidt, V. Petrov, C. Fiebig, G. Erbert, J. H. Liu, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and U. Griebner, “Diode-pumped mode-locked Yb:YCOB laser generating 35 fs pulses,” Opt. Lett. 36, 4425–4427 (2011).
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J. Harrison, A. Finch, D. M. Rines, G. A. Rines, and P. F. Moulton, “Low-threshold, cw, all-solid-state Ti:Al2O3 laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 581–583 (1991).
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C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond thin-disk laser with 141 W of average power,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2302–2304 (2010).
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M. Hildebrandt, M. Frede, and D. Kracht, “Narrow-linewidth ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier system with 45 nm tuning range and 133 W of output power,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2345–2347 (2007).
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R. P. Prasankumar, Y. Hirakawa, A. M. J. Kowalevicz, F. X. Kärtner, J. G. Fujitimo, and W. H. Knox, “An extended cavity femtosecond Cr:LiSAF laser pumped by low cost diode lasers,” Opt. Express 11, 1265–1269 (2003).
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Hong, K. H.

U. Demirbas, K. H. Hong, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Sennaroglu, and F. X. Ka¨rtner, “Low-cost cavity-dumped femtosecond Cr:LiSAF laser producing >100  nJ pulses,” Opt. Lett. 35, 607–609 (2010).
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C. Honninger, R. Paschotta, M. Graf, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, M. Moser, S. Biswal, J. Nees, A. Braun, G. A. Mourou, I. Johannsen, A. Giesen, W. Seeber, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast ytterbium-doped bulk lasers and laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 3–17 (1999).
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U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Ka¨rtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. derAu, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
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C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 46–56 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hopkins, J. M.

J. M. Hopkins, G. J. Valentine, B. Agate, A. J. Kemp, U. Keller, and W. Sibbett, “Highly compact and efficient femtosecond Cr:LiSAF lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 360–368 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hopkins, G. J. Valentine, W. Sibbett, J. A. der Au, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, and A. Valster, “Efficient, low-noise, SESAM-based femtosecond Cr3+: LiSrAlF6 laser,” Opt. Commun. 154, 54–58 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Valentine, J. M. Hopkins, P. Loza-Alvarez, G. T. Kennedy, W. Sibbett, D. Burns, and A. Valster, “Ultralow-pump-threshold, femtosecond Cr3+:LiSrAlF6 laser pumped by a single narrow-stripe AlGaInP laser diode,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1639–1641 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond thin-disk laser with 141 W of average power,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2302–2304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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A. Isemann, H. Hundertmark, and C. Fallnich, “Diode-pumped Cr:LiCAF fs regenerative amplifier system seeded by an Er-doped mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 299–306 (2002).
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R. Mellish, N. P. Barry, S. C. W. Hyde, R. Jones, P. M. W. French, J. R. Taylor, C. J. v. d. Poel, and A. Valster, “Diode-pumped Cr:LiSAF all-solid-state femtosecond oscillator and regenerative amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2312–2314 (1995).
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S. N. Tandon, J. T. Gopinath, H. M. Shen, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, “Large-area broadband saturable Bragg reflectors by use of oxidized AlAs,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2551–2553 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Ell, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, “Generation of 5 fs pulses and octave-spanning spectra directly from a Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 26, 373–375 (2001).
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A. Isemann and C. Fallnich, “High-power colquiriite laser with high slope efficiencies pumped by broad-area laser diodes.,” Opt. Express 11, 259–264 (2003).
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A. Isemann, H. Hundertmark, and C. Fallnich, “Diode-pumped Cr:LiCAF fs regenerative amplifier system seeded by an Er-doped mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 299–306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, S. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, “Mode-locking ultrafast solid-state lasers with saturable Bragg reflectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 454–464 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, E. A. d. Souza, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, “Low-loss intracavity AlAs/AlGaAs saturable Bragg reflector for femtosecond mode locking in solid-state lasers,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1406–1408 (1995).
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I. T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, E. Wintner, A. Cassanho, H. P. Jenssen, and R. Szipocs, “14 fs pulse generation in Kerr-lens mode-locked prismless Cr:LiSGaF and Cr:LiSAF lasers: observation of pulse self-frequency shift,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1716–1718 (1997).
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C. Honninger, R. Paschotta, M. Graf, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, M. Moser, S. Biswal, J. Nees, A. Braun, G. A. Mourou, I. Johannsen, A. Giesen, W. Seeber, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast ytterbium-doped bulk lasers and laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 3–17 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

R. Mellish, N. P. Barry, S. C. W. Hyde, R. Jones, P. M. W. French, J. R. Taylor, C. J. v. d. Poel, and A. Valster, “Diode-pumped Cr:LiSAF all-solid-state femtosecond oscillator and regenerative amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2312–2314 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jung, I. D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Ka¨rtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. derAu, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ka¨rtner, F. X.

D. Li, U. Demirbas, J. R. Birge, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, A. Sennaroglu, F. X. Ka¨rtner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked GHz femtosecond Cr:LiSAF laser with kW peak power,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1446–1448 (2010).
[CrossRef]

U. Demirbas, K. H. Hong, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Sennaroglu, and F. X. Ka¨rtner, “Low-cost cavity-dumped femtosecond Cr:LiSAF laser producing >100  nJ pulses,” Opt. Lett. 35, 607–609 (2010).
[CrossRef]

U. Demirbas, A. Sennaroglu, F. X. Ka¨rtner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Generation of 15 nJ pulses from a highly efficient, low-cost multipass-cavity Cr3+:LiCAF laser,” Opt. Lett. 34, 497–499 (2009).
[CrossRef]

U. Demirbas, A. Sennaroglu, F. X. Ka¨rtner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Comparative investigation of diode pumping for continuous-wave and mode-locked Cr3+:LiCAF lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 64–79 (2009).
[CrossRef]

U. Demirbas, D. Li, J. R. Birge, A. Sennaroglu, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, F. X. Ka¨rtner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Low-cost, single-mode diode-pumped Cr:Colquiriite lasers,” Opt. Express 17, 14374–14388 (2009).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Ka¨rtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. derAu, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kaertner, F. X.

P. C. Wagenblast, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, F. X. Kaertner, and U. Morgner, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography with a diode-pumped broadband Cr3+:LiCAF laser,” Opt. Express 12, 3257–3263 (2004).
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J. Klein and J. D. Kafka, “The Ti:Sapphire laser: the flexible research tool,” Nat. Photon. 4, 289 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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F. X. Kärtner, L. R. Brovelli, D. Kopf, M. Kamp, I. Calasso, and U. Keller, “Control of solid-state laser dynamics by semiconductor devices,” Opt. Eng. 34, 2024–2036 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Kopf, K. J. Weingarten, L. R. Brovelli, M. Kamp, and U. Keller, “Diode-pumped 100 fs passively mode-locked Cr-Lisaf laser with an antiresonant Fabry-Perot saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 19, 2143–2145 (1994).
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Kangas, K. W.

L. G. DeShazer and K. W. Kangas, “Extended infrared operation of titanium sapphire laser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics (IEEE, 1987), pp. 296–298.

Kärtner, F. X.

U. Demirbas, G. S. Petrich, D. Li, A. Sennaroglu, L. A. Kolodziejski, F. X. Kärtner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond tuning of Cr:Colquiriite lasers with AlGaAs-based saturable Bragg reflectors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 986–993 (2011).
[CrossRef]

U. Demirbas, M. Schmalz, B. Sumpf, G. Erbert, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, J. G. Fujimoto, F. X. Kärtner, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Femtosecond Cr:LiSAF and Cr:LiCAF lasers pumped by tapered diode lasers,” Opt. Express 19, 20444–20461 (2011).
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L.-J. Chen, M. Y. Sander, and F. X. Kärtner, “Kerr-lens mode locking with minimum nonlinearity using gain-matched output couplers,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2916–2918 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Tandon, J. T. Gopinath, H. M. Shen, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, “Large-area broadband saturable Bragg reflectors by use of oxidized AlAs,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2551–2553 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Prasankumar, Y. Hirakawa, A. M. J. Kowalevicz, F. X. Kärtner, J. G. Fujitimo, and W. H. Knox, “An extended cavity femtosecond Cr:LiSAF laser pumped by low cost diode lasers,” Opt. Express 11, 1265–1269 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Ell, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, “Generation of 5 fs pulses and octave-spanning spectra directly from a Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 26, 373–375 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. X. Kärtner, L. R. Brovelli, D. Kopf, M. Kamp, I. Calasso, and U. Keller, “Control of solid-state laser dynamics by semiconductor devices,” Opt. Eng. 34, 2024–2036 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond thin-disk laser with 141 W of average power,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2302–2304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Agate, B. Stormont, A. J. Kemp, C. T. A. Brown, U. Keller, and W. Sibbett, “Simplified cavity designs for efficient and compact femtosecond Cr:LiSAF lasers,” Opt. Commun. 205, 207–213 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hopkins, G. J. Valentine, B. Agate, A. J. Kemp, U. Keller, and W. Sibbett, “Highly compact and efficient femtosecond Cr:LiSAF lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 360–368 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kemp, B. Stormont, B. Agate, C. T. A. Brown, U. Keller, and W. Sibbett, “Gigahertz repetition-rate from directly diode-pumped femtosecond Cr:LiSAF laser,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1457–1458 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Honninger, R. Paschotta, M. Graf, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, M. Moser, S. Biswal, J. Nees, A. Braun, G. A. Mourou, I. Johannsen, A. Giesen, W. Seeber, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast ytterbium-doped bulk lasers and laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 3–17 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 46–56 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hopkins, G. J. Valentine, W. Sibbett, J. A. der Au, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, and A. Valster, “Efficient, low-noise, SESAM-based femtosecond Cr3+: LiSrAlF6 laser,” Opt. Commun. 154, 54–58 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Kopf, K. J. Weingarten, G. Zhang, M. Moser, M. A. Emanuel, R. J. Beach, J. A. Skidmore, and U. Keller, “High-average-power diode-pumped femtosecond Cr:LiSAF lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 235–243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Kopf, A. Prasad, G. Zhang, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Broadly tunable femtosecond Cr:LiSAF laser,” Opt. Lett. 22, 621–623 (1997).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Ka¨rtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. derAu, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. X. Kärtner, L. R. Brovelli, D. Kopf, M. Kamp, I. Calasso, and U. Keller, “Control of solid-state laser dynamics by semiconductor devices,” Opt. Eng. 34, 2024–2036 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Kopf, K. J. Weingarten, L. R. Brovelli, M. Kamp, and U. Keller, “Diode-pumped 100 fs passively mode-locked Cr-Lisaf laser with an antiresonant Fabry-Perot saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 19, 2143–2145 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kemp, A. J.

P. W. Roth, A. J. Maclean, D. Burns, and A. J. Kemp, “Direct diode-laser pumping of a mode-locked Ti:Sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 36, 304–306 (2011).
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P. W. Roth, A. J. Maclean, D. Burns, and A. J. Kemp, “Directly diode-laser-pumped Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3334–3336 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Agate, A. J. Kemp, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Efficient, high repetition-rate femtosecond blue source using a compact Cr:LiSAF laser,” Opt. Express 10, 824–831 (2002).

J. M. Hopkins, G. J. Valentine, B. Agate, A. J. Kemp, U. Keller, and W. Sibbett, “Highly compact and efficient femtosecond Cr:LiSAF lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 360–368 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Agate, B. Stormont, A. J. Kemp, C. T. A. Brown, U. Keller, and W. Sibbett, “Simplified cavity designs for efficient and compact femtosecond Cr:LiSAF lasers,” Opt. Commun. 205, 207–213 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kemp, B. Stormont, B. Agate, C. T. A. Brown, U. Keller, and W. Sibbett, “Gigahertz repetition-rate from directly diode-pumped femtosecond Cr:LiSAF laser,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1457–1458 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, G. T.

G. J. Valentine, J. M. Hopkins, P. Loza-Alvarez, G. T. Kennedy, W. Sibbett, D. Burns, and A. Valster, “Ultralow-pump-threshold, femtosecond Cr3+:LiSrAlF6 laser pumped by a single narrow-stripe AlGaInP laser diode,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1639–1641 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kernal, J.

J. Kernal, V. V. Fedorov, A. Gallian, S. B. Mirov, and V. V. Badikov, “3.9–4.8 μm gain-switched lasing of Fe:ZnSe at room temperature,” Opt. Express 13, 10608–10615 (2005).
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Killi, A.

A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. J. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “Diode-pumped femtosecond laser oscillator with cavity dumping,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1288–1290 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Klein, J.

J. Klein and J. D. Kafka, “The Ti:Sapphire laser: the flexible research tool,” Nat. Photon. 4, 289 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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A. Robertson, R. Knappe, and R. Wallenstein, “Diode-pumped broadly tunable (809–910 nm) femtosecond Cr:LiSAF laser,” Opt. Commun. 147, 294–298 (1998).
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R. Knappe, G. Bitz, K.-J. Boller, and R. Wallenstein, “Compact single-frequency diode-pumped Cr:LiSAF lasers,” Opt. Commun. 143, 42–46 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Knox, W. H.

R. P. Prasankumar, Y. Hirakawa, A. M. J. Kowalevicz, F. X. Kärtner, J. G. Fujitimo, and W. H. Knox, “An extended cavity femtosecond Cr:LiSAF laser pumped by low cost diode lasers,” Opt. Express 11, 1265–1269 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, S. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, “Mode-locking ultrafast solid-state lasers with saturable Bragg reflectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 454–464 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, and S. T. Cundiff, “High efficiency diode pumping of a saturable Bragg reflector-mode-locked Cr:LiSAF femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1538–1540 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, E. A. d. Souza, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, “Low-loss intracavity AlAs/AlGaAs saturable Bragg reflector for femtosecond mode locking in solid-state lasers,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1406–1408 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ko, T. H.

P. C. Wagenblast, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, F. X. Kaertner, and U. Morgner, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography with a diode-pumped broadband Cr3+:LiCAF laser,” Opt. Express 12, 3257–3263 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kolodziejski, L. A.

U. Demirbas, M. Schmalz, B. Sumpf, G. Erbert, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, J. G. Fujimoto, F. X. Kärtner, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Femtosecond Cr:LiSAF and Cr:LiCAF lasers pumped by tapered diode lasers,” Opt. Express 19, 20444–20461 (2011).
[CrossRef]

U. Demirbas, G. S. Petrich, D. Li, A. Sennaroglu, L. A. Kolodziejski, F. X. Kärtner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond tuning of Cr:Colquiriite lasers with AlGaAs-based saturable Bragg reflectors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 986–993 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Li, U. Demirbas, J. R. Birge, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, A. Sennaroglu, F. X. Ka¨rtner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked GHz femtosecond Cr:LiSAF laser with kW peak power,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1446–1448 (2010).
[CrossRef]

U. Demirbas, D. Li, J. R. Birge, A. Sennaroglu, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, F. X. Ka¨rtner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Low-cost, single-mode diode-pumped Cr:Colquiriite lasers,” Opt. Express 17, 14374–14388 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Tandon, J. T. Gopinath, H. M. Shen, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, “Large-area broadband saturable Bragg reflectors by use of oxidized AlAs,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2551–2553 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kopf, D.

A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. J. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “Diode-pumped femtosecond laser oscillator with cavity dumping,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1288–1290 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Kopf, A. Prasad, G. Zhang, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Broadly tunable femtosecond Cr:LiSAF laser,” Opt. Lett. 22, 621–623 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Kopf, K. J. Weingarten, G. Zhang, M. Moser, M. A. Emanuel, R. J. Beach, J. A. Skidmore, and U. Keller, “High-average-power diode-pumped femtosecond Cr:LiSAF lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 235–243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Ka¨rtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. derAu, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. X. Kärtner, L. R. Brovelli, D. Kopf, M. Kamp, I. Calasso, and U. Keller, “Control of solid-state laser dynamics by semiconductor devices,” Opt. Eng. 34, 2024–2036 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Kopf, K. J. Weingarten, L. R. Brovelli, M. Kamp, and U. Keller, “Diode-pumped 100 fs passively mode-locked Cr-Lisaf laser with an antiresonant Fabry-Perot saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 19, 2143–2145 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Korostelin, Y. V.

V. A. Akimov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, Y. K. Skasyrsky, and A. A. Voronov, “Pulsed broadly tunable room-temperature Cr2+:CdS laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 793–797 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Akimov, V. I. Kozovskii, Y. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, Y. K. Skasyrskii, and M. P. Frolov, “Efficient pulsed Cr2+:CdSe laser continuously tunable in the spectral range from 2.26 to 3.61,” Quantum Electron. 38, 205–208(2008).
[CrossRef]

Kowalevicz, A. M. J.

R. P. Prasankumar, Y. Hirakawa, A. M. J. Kowalevicz, F. X. Kärtner, J. G. Fujitimo, and W. H. Knox, “An extended cavity femtosecond Cr:LiSAF laser pumped by low cost diode lasers,” Opt. Express 11, 1265–1269 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, H. W. Newkirk, L. K. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, “LiCaAlF6:Cr3+ a promising new solid-state laser material,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 2243–2252 (1988).
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C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond thin-disk laser with 141 W of average power,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2302–2304 (2010).
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U. Demirbas, G. S. Petrich, D. Li, A. Sennaroglu, L. A. Kolodziejski, F. X. Kärtner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond tuning of Cr:Colquiriite lasers with AlGaAs-based saturable Bragg reflectors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 986–993 (2011).
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V. A. Akimov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, Y. K. Skasyrsky, and A. A. Voronov, “Pulsed broadly tunable room-temperature Cr2+:CdS laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 793–797 (2009).
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R. P. Prasankumar, Y. Hirakawa, A. M. J. Kowalevicz, F. X. Kärtner, J. G. Fujitimo, and W. H. Knox, “An extended cavity femtosecond Cr:LiSAF laser pumped by low cost diode lasers,” Opt. Express 11, 1265–1269 (2003).
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P. Purnawirman and P. B. Phua, “Femtosecond laser pumped by high-brightness coherent polarization locked diodes,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2797–2799 (2011).
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A. A. Lagatsky, E. U. Rafailov, C. G. Leburn, C. T. A. Brown, N. Xiang, O. G. Okhotnikov, and W. Sibbett, “Highly efficient femtosecond Yb:KYW laser pumped by single narrow-stripe laser diode,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1108–1110 (2003).
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A. Agnesi, A. Greborio, F. Pirzio, and G. Reali, “80 fs Nd: silicate glass laser pumped by a single-mode 200 mW diode,” Opt. Express 18, 10098–10103 (2010).
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A. Agnesi, F. Pirzio, and G. Reali, “Low-threshold femtosecond Nd:glass laser,” Opt. Express 17, 9171–9176 (2009).
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J. M. Eichenholz, M. Richardson, and G. Mizell, “Diode pumped, frequency doubled LiSAF microlaser,” Opt. Commun. 153, 263–266 (1998).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the one SMD-pumped Cr:LiSAF laser. (a) Cavity that is used in cw experiments as well as in mode-locking experiments with repetition rates up to 500 MHz (dashed lines indicate the mode-locked laser cavity). (b) Cavity that is used in mode-locking experiments at the repetition rate of 750 MHz. SBR: Saturable Bragg reflector.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

CW output power versus absorbed pump power for the one SMD-pumped Cr:LiSAF laser taken at 0.1%, 1%, and 2% output coupling.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Left axis: measured variation of the pump power required to attain lasing ( P th ) as a function of OC transmission T . Solid-line is the best linear fit to the experimentally measured data. Using Findlay—Clay analysis, the round-trip passive cavity loss L was estimated to be ( 0.3 ± 0.1 ) % . Right axis: variation of cw output power of Cr:LiSAF laser with output coupling, at 125 mW of absorbed pump power.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

CW tuning curves for Cr:LiSAF (780–1110 nm) taken with different pump mirror sets and OCs. Mirror set 1 had high reflectivity in the 840–1100 nm range, and mirror set 2 had high reflectivity in the 750–850 nm range. The unpolarized emission spectrum of Cr:LiSAF is also shown for comparison. Working range of OCs: 0.015% OC partial reflectivity (PR) bandwidth, 1090–1150 nm; 0.15% OC PR bandwidth, 1000–1100 nm; 0.4% OC PR bandwidth, 990–1110 nm; 1% OC PR bandwidth, 680–1100 nm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Typical optical spectra from the tunable cw Cr:LiSAF laser for wavelengths above 900 nm. The width of the spectral lines is instrument limited.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Optical spectrum, (b) background-free intensity autocorrelation trace, and (c) microwave spectrum for the 103 fs, 162 pJ pulses centered around 872 nm from the Cr:LiSAF laser. This cavity had an OC of 0.5% and a repetition rate of 235 MHz.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Optical spectrum, (b) background-free intensity autocorrelation, and (c) microwave spectrum for the 70 fs, 35 pJ pulses centered around 874 nm from the Cr:LiSAF laser. This cavity had an OC of 0.1% and a repetition rate of 509 MHz.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a) Optical spectrum, (b) background-free intensity autocorrelation, and (c) microwave spectrum for the 130 fs, 44 pJ pulses centered around 878 nm from the Cr:LiSAF laser. This cavity featured an OC of 0.25% and a repetition rate of 757 MHz.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. List of Average Output Powers, Peak Powers, Pulse Energies, and Pulsewidths Obtained in Mode-Locked Operation from Cr:LiSAF Oscillators Pumped with Single-Transverse-Mode Laser Diodes

Tables Icon

Table 2. List of Average Output Powers, Peak Powers, Pulse Energies, and Pulsewidths Obtained in Mode-Locked Operation from Cr:LiSAF Oscillators Pumped with Multimode Laser Diodes (Broad-Stripe Single-Emitter Diodes, Tapered Diodes, and Laser Diode Arrays)

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