Abstract

Nanoporous gold films are prepared using a dealloying method and form a sponge type bicontinuous network. As the structure sizes are below 50 nm, the material forms an effective medium with a negative dielectric constant for near infrared light. The dispersion relation of the propagating surface plasmons on the air/nanoporous gold interface is determined from reflection measurements in the Kretschmann configuration. A characteristic red-shift by ca. 0.85 eV compared to surface plasmons on solid gold layers is observed. The results are compared with calculated dispersion relations applying the Bruggeman effective medium theory for the nanoporous gold films.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824–830 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311, 189–193 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Wang, D. W. Brandl, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmonic nanostructures: artificial molecules,” Acc. Chem. Res. 40, 53–62 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988), Chapter 2.
  5. Z. Shi, G. Piredda, A. C. Liapis, M. A. Nelson, L. Novotny, and R. W. Boyd, “Surface-plasmon polaritons on metal-dielectric nanocomposite flims,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3535–3527 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Yu, S. Ahl, A. M. Caminade, J. P. Majoral, W. Knoll, and J. Erlebacher, “Simultaneous excitation of propagating and localized surface plasmon resonance in nanoporous gold membranes,” Anal. Chem. 78, 7346–7350 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Ding, Y. J. Kim, and J. Erlebacher, “Nanoporous gold leaf: “Ancient technology”/advanced material,” Adv. Mater. 16, 1897–1900 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. J. Forty, “Corrosion micromorphology of noble metal alloys and depletion gilding,” Nature 282, 597–598 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Erlebacher, M. J. Aziz, A. Karma, N. Dimitrov, and K. Sieradzki. “Evolution of nanoporosity in dealloying,” Nature 410, 450–453 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. Fontana and R. H. Pantell, “Characterization of multilayer rough surfaces by use of surface-plasmon spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 37, 3164–3182 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. A. G. Bruggeman, “Berechnung verschiedener physikalischer Konstanten von heterogenen Substanzen,” Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 416, 636–664 (1935).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. C. M. Garnett, “Colours in metal glasses and in metallic films,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 203, 385–420 (1904).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. J. Pollard, A. Murphy, W. R. Hendren, P. R. Evans, R. Atkinson, G. A. Wurtz, A. V. Zayats, and V. A. Podolskiy, “Optical nonlocalities and additional waves in epsilon-near-zero-metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 127405 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

R. J. Pollard, A. Murphy, W. R. Hendren, P. R. Evans, R. Atkinson, G. A. Wurtz, A. V. Zayats, and V. A. Podolskiy, “Optical nonlocalities and additional waves in epsilon-near-zero-metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 127405 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Shi, G. Piredda, A. C. Liapis, M. A. Nelson, L. Novotny, and R. W. Boyd, “Surface-plasmon polaritons on metal-dielectric nanocomposite flims,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3535–3527 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

H. Wang, D. W. Brandl, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmonic nanostructures: artificial molecules,” Acc. Chem. Res. 40, 53–62 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311, 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Yu, S. Ahl, A. M. Caminade, J. P. Majoral, W. Knoll, and J. Erlebacher, “Simultaneous excitation of propagating and localized surface plasmon resonance in nanoporous gold membranes,” Anal. Chem. 78, 7346–7350 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

Y. Ding, Y. J. Kim, and J. Erlebacher, “Nanoporous gold leaf: “Ancient technology”/advanced material,” Adv. Mater. 16, 1897–1900 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. Erlebacher, M. J. Aziz, A. Karma, N. Dimitrov, and K. Sieradzki. “Evolution of nanoporosity in dealloying,” Nature 410, 450–453 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

E. Fontana and R. H. Pantell, “Characterization of multilayer rough surfaces by use of surface-plasmon spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 37, 3164–3182 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

A. J. Forty, “Corrosion micromorphology of noble metal alloys and depletion gilding,” Nature 282, 597–598 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1935 (1)

D. A. G. Bruggeman, “Berechnung verschiedener physikalischer Konstanten von heterogenen Substanzen,” Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 416, 636–664 (1935).
[CrossRef]

1904 (1)

J. C. M. Garnett, “Colours in metal glasses and in metallic films,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 203, 385–420 (1904).
[CrossRef]

Ahl, S.

F. Yu, S. Ahl, A. M. Caminade, J. P. Majoral, W. Knoll, and J. Erlebacher, “Simultaneous excitation of propagating and localized surface plasmon resonance in nanoporous gold membranes,” Anal. Chem. 78, 7346–7350 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Atkinson, R.

R. J. Pollard, A. Murphy, W. R. Hendren, P. R. Evans, R. Atkinson, G. A. Wurtz, A. V. Zayats, and V. A. Podolskiy, “Optical nonlocalities and additional waves in epsilon-near-zero-metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 127405 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Aziz, M. J.

J. Erlebacher, M. J. Aziz, A. Karma, N. Dimitrov, and K. Sieradzki. “Evolution of nanoporosity in dealloying,” Nature 410, 450–453 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

Brandl, D. W.

H. Wang, D. W. Brandl, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmonic nanostructures: artificial molecules,” Acc. Chem. Res. 40, 53–62 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bruggeman, D. A. G.

D. A. G. Bruggeman, “Berechnung verschiedener physikalischer Konstanten von heterogenen Substanzen,” Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 416, 636–664 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Caminade, A. M.

F. Yu, S. Ahl, A. M. Caminade, J. P. Majoral, W. Knoll, and J. Erlebacher, “Simultaneous excitation of propagating and localized surface plasmon resonance in nanoporous gold membranes,” Anal. Chem. 78, 7346–7350 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dimitrov, N.

J. Erlebacher, M. J. Aziz, A. Karma, N. Dimitrov, and K. Sieradzki. “Evolution of nanoporosity in dealloying,” Nature 410, 450–453 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Y.

Y. Ding, Y. J. Kim, and J. Erlebacher, “Nanoporous gold leaf: “Ancient technology”/advanced material,” Adv. Mater. 16, 1897–1900 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Erlebacher, J.

F. Yu, S. Ahl, A. M. Caminade, J. P. Majoral, W. Knoll, and J. Erlebacher, “Simultaneous excitation of propagating and localized surface plasmon resonance in nanoporous gold membranes,” Anal. Chem. 78, 7346–7350 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ding, Y. J. Kim, and J. Erlebacher, “Nanoporous gold leaf: “Ancient technology”/advanced material,” Adv. Mater. 16, 1897–1900 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Erlebacher, M. J. Aziz, A. Karma, N. Dimitrov, and K. Sieradzki. “Evolution of nanoporosity in dealloying,” Nature 410, 450–453 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Evans, P. R.

R. J. Pollard, A. Murphy, W. R. Hendren, P. R. Evans, R. Atkinson, G. A. Wurtz, A. V. Zayats, and V. A. Podolskiy, “Optical nonlocalities and additional waves in epsilon-near-zero-metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 127405 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fontana, E.

E. Fontana and R. H. Pantell, “Characterization of multilayer rough surfaces by use of surface-plasmon spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 37, 3164–3182 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Forty, A. J.

A. J. Forty, “Corrosion micromorphology of noble metal alloys and depletion gilding,” Nature 282, 597–598 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Garnett, J. C. M.

J. C. M. Garnett, “Colours in metal glasses and in metallic films,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 203, 385–420 (1904).
[CrossRef]

Halas, N. J.

H. Wang, D. W. Brandl, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmonic nanostructures: artificial molecules,” Acc. Chem. Res. 40, 53–62 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hendren, W. R.

R. J. Pollard, A. Murphy, W. R. Hendren, P. R. Evans, R. Atkinson, G. A. Wurtz, A. V. Zayats, and V. A. Podolskiy, “Optical nonlocalities and additional waves in epsilon-near-zero-metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 127405 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Karma, A.

J. Erlebacher, M. J. Aziz, A. Karma, N. Dimitrov, and K. Sieradzki. “Evolution of nanoporosity in dealloying,” Nature 410, 450–453 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. J.

Y. Ding, Y. J. Kim, and J. Erlebacher, “Nanoporous gold leaf: “Ancient technology”/advanced material,” Adv. Mater. 16, 1897–1900 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Knoll, W.

F. Yu, S. Ahl, A. M. Caminade, J. P. Majoral, W. Knoll, and J. Erlebacher, “Simultaneous excitation of propagating and localized surface plasmon resonance in nanoporous gold membranes,” Anal. Chem. 78, 7346–7350 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liapis, A. C.

Majoral, J. P.

F. Yu, S. Ahl, A. M. Caminade, J. P. Majoral, W. Knoll, and J. Erlebacher, “Simultaneous excitation of propagating and localized surface plasmon resonance in nanoporous gold membranes,” Anal. Chem. 78, 7346–7350 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, A.

R. J. Pollard, A. Murphy, W. R. Hendren, P. R. Evans, R. Atkinson, G. A. Wurtz, A. V. Zayats, and V. A. Podolskiy, “Optical nonlocalities and additional waves in epsilon-near-zero-metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 127405 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, M. A.

Nordlander, P.

H. Wang, D. W. Brandl, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmonic nanostructures: artificial molecules,” Acc. Chem. Res. 40, 53–62 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

Ozbay, E.

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311, 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pantell, R. H.

E. Fontana and R. H. Pantell, “Characterization of multilayer rough surfaces by use of surface-plasmon spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 37, 3164–3182 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Piredda, G.

Podolskiy, V. A.

R. J. Pollard, A. Murphy, W. R. Hendren, P. R. Evans, R. Atkinson, G. A. Wurtz, A. V. Zayats, and V. A. Podolskiy, “Optical nonlocalities and additional waves in epsilon-near-zero-metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 127405 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pollard, R. J.

R. J. Pollard, A. Murphy, W. R. Hendren, P. R. Evans, R. Atkinson, G. A. Wurtz, A. V. Zayats, and V. A. Podolskiy, “Optical nonlocalities and additional waves in epsilon-near-zero-metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 127405 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988), Chapter 2.

Shi, Z.

Sieradzki, K.

J. Erlebacher, M. J. Aziz, A. Karma, N. Dimitrov, and K. Sieradzki. “Evolution of nanoporosity in dealloying,” Nature 410, 450–453 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, D. W. Brandl, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmonic nanostructures: artificial molecules,” Acc. Chem. Res. 40, 53–62 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wurtz, G. A.

R. J. Pollard, A. Murphy, W. R. Hendren, P. R. Evans, R. Atkinson, G. A. Wurtz, A. V. Zayats, and V. A. Podolskiy, “Optical nonlocalities and additional waves in epsilon-near-zero-metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 127405 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, F.

F. Yu, S. Ahl, A. M. Caminade, J. P. Majoral, W. Knoll, and J. Erlebacher, “Simultaneous excitation of propagating and localized surface plasmon resonance in nanoporous gold membranes,” Anal. Chem. 78, 7346–7350 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zayats, A. V.

R. J. Pollard, A. Murphy, W. R. Hendren, P. R. Evans, R. Atkinson, G. A. Wurtz, A. V. Zayats, and V. A. Podolskiy, “Optical nonlocalities and additional waves in epsilon-near-zero-metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 127405 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Acc. Chem. Res. (1)

H. Wang, D. W. Brandl, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmonic nanostructures: artificial molecules,” Acc. Chem. Res. 40, 53–62 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

Y. Ding, Y. J. Kim, and J. Erlebacher, “Nanoporous gold leaf: “Ancient technology”/advanced material,” Adv. Mater. 16, 1897–1900 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (1)

F. Yu, S. Ahl, A. M. Caminade, J. P. Majoral, W. Knoll, and J. Erlebacher, “Simultaneous excitation of propagating and localized surface plasmon resonance in nanoporous gold membranes,” Anal. Chem. 78, 7346–7350 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Phys. (1)

D. A. G. Bruggeman, “Berechnung verschiedener physikalischer Konstanten von heterogenen Substanzen,” Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 416, 636–664 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Forty, “Corrosion micromorphology of noble metal alloys and depletion gilding,” Nature 282, 597–598 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Erlebacher, M. J. Aziz, A. Karma, N. Dimitrov, and K. Sieradzki. “Evolution of nanoporosity in dealloying,” Nature 410, 450–453 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A (1)

J. C. M. Garnett, “Colours in metal glasses and in metallic films,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 203, 385–420 (1904).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

E. Fontana and R. H. Pantell, “Characterization of multilayer rough surfaces by use of surface-plasmon spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 37, 3164–3182 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R. J. Pollard, A. Murphy, W. R. Hendren, P. R. Evans, R. Atkinson, G. A. Wurtz, A. V. Zayats, and V. A. Podolskiy, “Optical nonlocalities and additional waves in epsilon-near-zero-metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 127405 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311, 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988), Chapter 2.

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