Abstract

We investigated the nonlinear response of Co3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) dissolved in liquid n-heptane. The third- and fifth-order susceptibilities were measured using the Z-scan technique in experiments made with the second harmonic of an Nd: YAG laser (532 nm, 80 ps, 7 Hz). The nonlinear optical response of the colloidal system and its dependence with the NPs filling fraction were measured and theoretically described. The analysis of the results using the Maxwell–Garnet model provided a value for the Co3O4 NPs susceptibility.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2012 (1)

2011 (1)

R. J. de Oliveira, P. Brown, G. B. Correia, S. E. Rogers, R. Heenan, I. Grillo, A. Galembeck, and J. Eastoe, “Photoreactive surfactants: a facile and clean route to oxide and metal nanoparticles in reverse micelles,” Langmuir 27, 9277–9284 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

X. Zhu, J. Wang, P. Lau, D. Nguyen, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Nonlinear optical performance of periodic structures made from composites of polymers and Co3O4nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 093503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Falcão-Filho, R. Barbosa-Silva, R. G. Sobral-Filho, A. M. Brito-Silva, A. Galembeck, and C. B. de Araújo, “High-order nonlinearity of silica-gold nanoshells in chloroform at 1560 nm,” Opt. Express 18, 21636–21644 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

S. Thota, A. Kumar, and J. Kumar, “Optical, electrical, and magnetic properties of Co3O4 nanocrystallites obtained by thermal decomposition of sol-gel derived oxalates,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 164, 30–37 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

2005 (2)

G. E. Buono-Core, G. Cabello, B. Torrejon, M. Tejos, and R. H. Hill, “A photochemical method for the preparation of indium oxide and indium-cobalt oxides thin films,” Mater. Res. Bull. 40, 1765–1774 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Gupta and M. Gupta, “Synthesis and surface engineering of iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications,” Biomaterials 26, 3995–4021 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

R. M. Wang, C. M. Liu, H. Z. Zhang, C. P. Chen, L. Guo, H. B. Xu, and S. H. Yang, “Porous nanotubes of Co3O4: synthesis, characterization, and magnetic properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2080–2082 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Ando, K. Kadono, K. Kamada, and K. Ohta, “Third-order nonlinear optical responses of nanoparticulate Co3O4 films,” Thin Solid Films 446, 271–276 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Xu and H. C. Zeng, “Self-generation of tiered surfactant superstructure for one-pot synthesis of Co3O4 nanocubes and their close- and non-close-packed organizations,” Langmuir 20, 9780–9790 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

D. Hradila, T. Grygara, J. Hradilová, and P. Bezdicka, “Clay and iron oxide pigments in the history of painting,” Appl. Clay Sci. 22, 223–236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Novakova, V. Y. Lanchinskayaa, A. V. Volkova, T. S. Gendlerb, T. Y. Kiselevaa, M. A. Moskvinaa, and S. B. Zezin, “Magnetic properties of polymer nanocomposites containing iron oxide nanoparticles,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 258–259, 354–357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

H. Yamamoto, S. Tanaka, T. Naito, and K. Hirao, “Nonlinear change of refractive index of Co3O4 thin films induced by semiconductor laser (λ=405  nm) irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 991001 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

S. Takada, M. Fujii, S. Kohiki, T. Babasaki, H. Deguchi, M. Mitome, and M. Oku, “Intraparticle magnetic properties of Co3O4 nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 1, 379–382 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Barreca, C. Massignan, S. Daolio, M. Fabrizio, C. Piccirillo, L. Armelao, and E. Tondello, “Composition and microstructure of cobalt oxide thin films obtained from a novel cobalt (II) precursor by chemical vapor deposition,” Chem. Mater. 13, 588–593 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, and W. Ji, “Optical nonlinearities and photo-excited lifetime in CdS at 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 190, 351–356 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. Ando, K. Kadono, M. Haruta, T. Sakagichi, and M. Miya, “Large third-order optical nonlinearities in transition-metal oxides,” Nature 374, 625–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

1991 (1)

H. Ma, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Measurements of nondegenerate optical nonlinearity using a two-color single beam method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2666–2668 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

K. M. Miedzinska, B. R. Hollebone, and J. G. Cook, “An assignment of the optical absorption spectrum of mixed valence Co3O4 spinel films,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 48, 649–656 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

I. D. Belova, Yu. E. Roginskaya, R. R. Shifrina, S. G. Gagarin, Yu. V. Plekhanov, and Yu. N. Venevtsev, “Co(III) ions high-spin configuration in nonstoichiometric Co3O4 films,” Solid State Commun. 47, 577–584 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ando, M.

M. Ando, K. Kadono, K. Kamada, and K. Ohta, “Third-order nonlinear optical responses of nanoparticulate Co3O4 films,” Thin Solid Films 446, 271–276 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Ando, K. Kadono, M. Haruta, T. Sakagichi, and M. Miya, “Large third-order optical nonlinearities in transition-metal oxides,” Nature 374, 625–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Araujo, R. E.

Armelao, L.

D. Barreca, C. Massignan, S. Daolio, M. Fabrizio, C. Piccirillo, L. Armelao, and E. Tondello, “Composition and microstructure of cobalt oxide thin films obtained from a novel cobalt (II) precursor by chemical vapor deposition,” Chem. Mater. 13, 588–593 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Asahara, Y.

M. Yamane and Y. Asahara, Glasses for Photonics (Cambridge University, 2000).

Babasaki, T.

S. Takada, M. Fujii, S. Kohiki, T. Babasaki, H. Deguchi, M. Mitome, and M. Oku, “Intraparticle magnetic properties of Co3O4 nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 1, 379–382 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barbosa-Silva, R.

Barreca, D.

D. Barreca, C. Massignan, S. Daolio, M. Fabrizio, C. Piccirillo, L. Armelao, and E. Tondello, “Composition and microstructure of cobalt oxide thin films obtained from a novel cobalt (II) precursor by chemical vapor deposition,” Chem. Mater. 13, 588–593 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Belova, I. D.

I. D. Belova, Yu. E. Roginskaya, R. R. Shifrina, S. G. Gagarin, Yu. V. Plekhanov, and Yu. N. Venevtsev, “Co(III) ions high-spin configuration in nonstoichiometric Co3O4 films,” Solid State Commun. 47, 577–584 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bezdicka, P.

D. Hradila, T. Grygara, J. Hradilová, and P. Bezdicka, “Clay and iron oxide pigments in the history of painting,” Appl. Clay Sci. 22, 223–236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

J. E. Sipe and R. W. Boyd, “Nonlinear susceptibility of composite materials in the Maxwell–Garnet model,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 1614–1629 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Brito-Silva, A. M.

Brown, P.

R. J. de Oliveira, P. Brown, G. B. Correia, S. E. Rogers, R. Heenan, I. Grillo, A. Galembeck, and J. Eastoe, “Photoreactive surfactants: a facile and clean route to oxide and metal nanoparticles in reverse micelles,” Langmuir 27, 9277–9284 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Buono-Core, G. E.

G. E. Buono-Core, G. Cabello, B. Torrejon, M. Tejos, and R. H. Hill, “A photochemical method for the preparation of indium oxide and indium-cobalt oxides thin films,” Mater. Res. Bull. 40, 1765–1774 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cabello, G.

G. E. Buono-Core, G. Cabello, B. Torrejon, M. Tejos, and R. H. Hill, “A photochemical method for the preparation of indium oxide and indium-cobalt oxides thin films,” Mater. Res. Bull. 40, 1765–1774 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. P.

R. M. Wang, C. M. Liu, H. Z. Zhang, C. P. Chen, L. Guo, H. B. Xu, and S. H. Yang, “Porous nanotubes of Co3O4: synthesis, characterization, and magnetic properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2080–2082 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cook, J. G.

K. M. Miedzinska, B. R. Hollebone, and J. G. Cook, “An assignment of the optical absorption spectrum of mixed valence Co3O4 spinel films,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 48, 649–656 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Correia, G. B.

R. J. de Oliveira, P. Brown, G. B. Correia, S. E. Rogers, R. Heenan, I. Grillo, A. Galembeck, and J. Eastoe, “Photoreactive surfactants: a facile and clean route to oxide and metal nanoparticles in reverse micelles,” Langmuir 27, 9277–9284 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Daolio, S.

D. Barreca, C. Massignan, S. Daolio, M. Fabrizio, C. Piccirillo, L. Armelao, and E. Tondello, “Composition and microstructure of cobalt oxide thin films obtained from a novel cobalt (II) precursor by chemical vapor deposition,” Chem. Mater. 13, 588–593 (2001).
[CrossRef]

de Araújo, C. B.

de Oliveira, R. J.

R. J. de Oliveira, P. Brown, G. B. Correia, S. E. Rogers, R. Heenan, I. Grillo, A. Galembeck, and J. Eastoe, “Photoreactive surfactants: a facile and clean route to oxide and metal nanoparticles in reverse micelles,” Langmuir 27, 9277–9284 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Deguchi, H.

S. Takada, M. Fujii, S. Kohiki, T. Babasaki, H. Deguchi, M. Mitome, and M. Oku, “Intraparticle magnetic properties of Co3O4 nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 1, 379–382 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Eastoe, J.

R. J. de Oliveira, P. Brown, G. B. Correia, S. E. Rogers, R. Heenan, I. Grillo, A. Galembeck, and J. Eastoe, “Photoreactive surfactants: a facile and clean route to oxide and metal nanoparticles in reverse micelles,” Langmuir 27, 9277–9284 (2011).
[CrossRef]

El-Mallawany, R. A. H.

R. A. H. El-Mallawany, Tellurite Glasses Handbook: Physical Properties and Data (CRC, 2002).

Fabrizio, M.

D. Barreca, C. Massignan, S. Daolio, M. Fabrizio, C. Piccirillo, L. Armelao, and E. Tondello, “Composition and microstructure of cobalt oxide thin films obtained from a novel cobalt (II) precursor by chemical vapor deposition,” Chem. Mater. 13, 588–593 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Falcão-Filho, E. L.

Fujii, M.

S. Takada, M. Fujii, S. Kohiki, T. Babasaki, H. Deguchi, M. Mitome, and M. Oku, “Intraparticle magnetic properties of Co3O4 nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 1, 379–382 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gagarin, S. G.

I. D. Belova, Yu. E. Roginskaya, R. R. Shifrina, S. G. Gagarin, Yu. V. Plekhanov, and Yu. N. Venevtsev, “Co(III) ions high-spin configuration in nonstoichiometric Co3O4 films,” Solid State Commun. 47, 577–584 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Galembeck, A.

R. J. de Oliveira, P. Brown, G. B. Correia, S. E. Rogers, R. Heenan, I. Grillo, A. Galembeck, and J. Eastoe, “Photoreactive surfactants: a facile and clean route to oxide and metal nanoparticles in reverse micelles,” Langmuir 27, 9277–9284 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Falcão-Filho, R. Barbosa-Silva, R. G. Sobral-Filho, A. M. Brito-Silva, A. Galembeck, and C. B. de Araújo, “High-order nonlinearity of silica-gold nanoshells in chloroform at 1560 nm,” Opt. Express 18, 21636–21644 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gendlerb, T. S.

A. A. Novakova, V. Y. Lanchinskayaa, A. V. Volkova, T. S. Gendlerb, T. Y. Kiselevaa, M. A. Moskvinaa, and S. B. Zezin, “Magnetic properties of polymer nanocomposites containing iron oxide nanoparticles,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 258–259, 354–357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, A. S. L.

D. Rativa, R. E. Araujo, and A. S. L. Gomes, “One-photon nonresonant high-order nonlinear optical properties of silver nanoparticles in aqueous solution,” Opt. Express 16, 19244–19252 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Ma, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Measurements of nondegenerate optical nonlinearity using a two-color single beam method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2666–2668 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gómez, L. A.

Grillo, I.

R. J. de Oliveira, P. Brown, G. B. Correia, S. E. Rogers, R. Heenan, I. Grillo, A. Galembeck, and J. Eastoe, “Photoreactive surfactants: a facile and clean route to oxide and metal nanoparticles in reverse micelles,” Langmuir 27, 9277–9284 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Grygara, T.

D. Hradila, T. Grygara, J. Hradilová, and P. Bezdicka, “Clay and iron oxide pigments in the history of painting,” Appl. Clay Sci. 22, 223–236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gu, F.

F. Gu, C. Li, Y. Hu, and L. Zhang, “Synthesis and optical characterization of Co3O4 nanocrystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 304, 369–373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L.

R. M. Wang, C. M. Liu, H. Z. Zhang, C. P. Chen, L. Guo, H. B. Xu, and S. H. Yang, “Porous nanotubes of Co3O4: synthesis, characterization, and magnetic properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2080–2082 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, A. K.

A. K. Gupta and M. Gupta, “Synthesis and surface engineering of iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications,” Biomaterials 26, 3995–4021 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, M.

A. K. Gupta and M. Gupta, “Synthesis and surface engineering of iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications,” Biomaterials 26, 3995–4021 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

Haruta, M.

M. Ando, K. Kadono, M. Haruta, T. Sakagichi, and M. Miya, “Large third-order optical nonlinearities in transition-metal oxides,” Nature 374, 625–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Heenan, R.

R. J. de Oliveira, P. Brown, G. B. Correia, S. E. Rogers, R. Heenan, I. Grillo, A. Galembeck, and J. Eastoe, “Photoreactive surfactants: a facile and clean route to oxide and metal nanoparticles in reverse micelles,” Langmuir 27, 9277–9284 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hill, R. H.

G. E. Buono-Core, G. Cabello, B. Torrejon, M. Tejos, and R. H. Hill, “A photochemical method for the preparation of indium oxide and indium-cobalt oxides thin films,” Mater. Res. Bull. 40, 1765–1774 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

H. Yamamoto, S. Tanaka, T. Naito, and K. Hirao, “Nonlinear change of refractive index of Co3O4 thin films induced by semiconductor laser (λ=405  nm) irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 991001 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hollebone, B. R.

K. M. Miedzinska, B. R. Hollebone, and J. G. Cook, “An assignment of the optical absorption spectrum of mixed valence Co3O4 spinel films,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 48, 649–656 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hradila, D.

D. Hradila, T. Grygara, J. Hradilová, and P. Bezdicka, “Clay and iron oxide pigments in the history of painting,” Appl. Clay Sci. 22, 223–236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hradilová, J.

D. Hradila, T. Grygara, J. Hradilová, and P. Bezdicka, “Clay and iron oxide pigments in the history of painting,” Appl. Clay Sci. 22, 223–236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

F. Gu, C. Li, Y. Hu, and L. Zhang, “Synthesis and optical characterization of Co3O4 nanocrystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 304, 369–373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jardim, R. F.

Ji, W.

H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, and W. Ji, “Optical nonlinearities and photo-excited lifetime in CdS at 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 190, 351–356 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kadono, K.

M. Ando, K. Kadono, K. Kamada, and K. Ohta, “Third-order nonlinear optical responses of nanoparticulate Co3O4 films,” Thin Solid Films 446, 271–276 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Ando, K. Kadono, M. Haruta, T. Sakagichi, and M. Miya, “Large third-order optical nonlinearities in transition-metal oxides,” Nature 374, 625–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kam, C. H.

H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, and W. Ji, “Optical nonlinearities and photo-excited lifetime in CdS at 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 190, 351–356 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kamada, K.

M. Ando, K. Kadono, K. Kamada, and K. Ohta, “Third-order nonlinear optical responses of nanoparticulate Co3O4 films,” Thin Solid Films 446, 271–276 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kiselevaa, T. Y.

A. A. Novakova, V. Y. Lanchinskayaa, A. V. Volkova, T. S. Gendlerb, T. Y. Kiselevaa, M. A. Moskvinaa, and S. B. Zezin, “Magnetic properties of polymer nanocomposites containing iron oxide nanoparticles,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 258–259, 354–357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kohiki, S.

S. Takada, M. Fujii, S. Kohiki, T. Babasaki, H. Deguchi, M. Mitome, and M. Oku, “Intraparticle magnetic properties of Co3O4 nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 1, 379–382 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, A.

S. Thota, A. Kumar, and J. Kumar, “Optical, electrical, and magnetic properties of Co3O4 nanocrystallites obtained by thermal decomposition of sol-gel derived oxalates,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 164, 30–37 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, J.

S. Thota, A. Kumar, and J. Kumar, “Optical, electrical, and magnetic properties of Co3O4 nanocrystallites obtained by thermal decomposition of sol-gel derived oxalates,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 164, 30–37 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lam, Y. L.

H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, and W. Ji, “Optical nonlinearities and photo-excited lifetime in CdS at 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 190, 351–356 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lanchinskayaa, V. Y.

A. A. Novakova, V. Y. Lanchinskayaa, A. V. Volkova, T. S. Gendlerb, T. Y. Kiselevaa, M. A. Moskvinaa, and S. B. Zezin, “Magnetic properties of polymer nanocomposites containing iron oxide nanoparticles,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 258–259, 354–357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lau, P.

X. Zhu, J. Wang, P. Lau, D. Nguyen, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Nonlinear optical performance of periodic structures made from composites of polymers and Co3O4nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 093503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

F. Gu, C. Li, Y. Hu, and L. Zhang, “Synthesis and optical characterization of Co3O4 nanocrystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 304, 369–373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, H. P.

H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, and W. Ji, “Optical nonlinearities and photo-excited lifetime in CdS at 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 190, 351–356 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. M.

R. M. Wang, C. M. Liu, H. Z. Zhang, C. P. Chen, L. Guo, H. B. Xu, and S. H. Yang, “Porous nanotubes of Co3O4: synthesis, characterization, and magnetic properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2080–2082 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ma, H.

H. Ma, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Measurements of nondegenerate optical nonlinearity using a two-color single beam method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2666–2668 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Massignan, C.

D. Barreca, C. Massignan, S. Daolio, M. Fabrizio, C. Piccirillo, L. Armelao, and E. Tondello, “Composition and microstructure of cobalt oxide thin films obtained from a novel cobalt (II) precursor by chemical vapor deposition,” Chem. Mater. 13, 588–593 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Masunaga, S. H.

Miedzinska, K. M.

K. M. Miedzinska, B. R. Hollebone, and J. G. Cook, “An assignment of the optical absorption spectrum of mixed valence Co3O4 spinel films,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 48, 649–656 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Mitome, M.

S. Takada, M. Fujii, S. Kohiki, T. Babasaki, H. Deguchi, M. Mitome, and M. Oku, “Intraparticle magnetic properties of Co3O4 nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 1, 379–382 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Miya, M.

M. Ando, K. Kadono, M. Haruta, T. Sakagichi, and M. Miya, “Large third-order optical nonlinearities in transition-metal oxides,” Nature 374, 625–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Moskvinaa, M. A.

A. A. Novakova, V. Y. Lanchinskayaa, A. V. Volkova, T. S. Gendlerb, T. Y. Kiselevaa, M. A. Moskvinaa, and S. B. Zezin, “Magnetic properties of polymer nanocomposites containing iron oxide nanoparticles,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 258–259, 354–357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Naito, T.

H. Yamamoto, S. Tanaka, T. Naito, and K. Hirao, “Nonlinear change of refractive index of Co3O4 thin films induced by semiconductor laser (λ=405  nm) irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 991001 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, D.

X. Zhu, J. Wang, D. Nguyen, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Co3O4 nanoparticle-doped polyvinyl-alcohol thin films,” Opt. Mater. Express 2, 103–110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhu, J. Wang, P. Lau, D. Nguyen, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Nonlinear optical performance of periodic structures made from composites of polymers and Co3O4nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 093503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Norwood, R. A.

X. Zhu, J. Wang, D. Nguyen, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Co3O4 nanoparticle-doped polyvinyl-alcohol thin films,” Opt. Mater. Express 2, 103–110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhu, J. Wang, P. Lau, D. Nguyen, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Nonlinear optical performance of periodic structures made from composites of polymers and Co3O4nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 093503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Novakova, A. A.

A. A. Novakova, V. Y. Lanchinskayaa, A. V. Volkova, T. S. Gendlerb, T. Y. Kiselevaa, M. A. Moskvinaa, and S. B. Zezin, “Magnetic properties of polymer nanocomposites containing iron oxide nanoparticles,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 258–259, 354–357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ohta, K.

M. Ando, K. Kadono, K. Kamada, and K. Ohta, “Third-order nonlinear optical responses of nanoparticulate Co3O4 films,” Thin Solid Films 446, 271–276 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Oku, M.

S. Takada, M. Fujii, S. Kohiki, T. Babasaki, H. Deguchi, M. Mitome, and M. Oku, “Intraparticle magnetic properties of Co3O4 nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 1, 379–382 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

X. Zhu, J. Wang, D. Nguyen, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Co3O4 nanoparticle-doped polyvinyl-alcohol thin films,” Opt. Mater. Express 2, 103–110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhu, J. Wang, P. Lau, D. Nguyen, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Nonlinear optical performance of periodic structures made from composites of polymers and Co3O4nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 093503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Piccirillo, C.

D. Barreca, C. Massignan, S. Daolio, M. Fabrizio, C. Piccirillo, L. Armelao, and E. Tondello, “Composition and microstructure of cobalt oxide thin films obtained from a novel cobalt (II) precursor by chemical vapor deposition,” Chem. Mater. 13, 588–593 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Plekhanov, Yu. V.

I. D. Belova, Yu. E. Roginskaya, R. R. Shifrina, S. G. Gagarin, Yu. V. Plekhanov, and Yu. N. Venevtsev, “Co(III) ions high-spin configuration in nonstoichiometric Co3O4 films,” Solid State Commun. 47, 577–584 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

P. N. Prasad, Nanophotonics (Wiley, 2004).

Rativa, D.

Rodrigues, J. J.

Rogers, S. E.

R. J. de Oliveira, P. Brown, G. B. Correia, S. E. Rogers, R. Heenan, I. Grillo, A. Galembeck, and J. Eastoe, “Photoreactive surfactants: a facile and clean route to oxide and metal nanoparticles in reverse micelles,” Langmuir 27, 9277–9284 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Roginskaya, Yu. E.

I. D. Belova, Yu. E. Roginskaya, R. R. Shifrina, S. G. Gagarin, Yu. V. Plekhanov, and Yu. N. Venevtsev, “Co(III) ions high-spin configuration in nonstoichiometric Co3O4 films,” Solid State Commun. 47, 577–584 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Rossi, L. M.

Said, A. A.

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. van Stryland, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405–414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sakagichi, T.

M. Ando, K. Kadono, M. Haruta, T. Sakagichi, and M. Miya, “Large third-order optical nonlinearities in transition-metal oxides,” Nature 374, 625–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. van Stryland, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405–414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shifrina, R. R.

I. D. Belova, Yu. E. Roginskaya, R. R. Shifrina, S. G. Gagarin, Yu. V. Plekhanov, and Yu. N. Venevtsev, “Co(III) ions high-spin configuration in nonstoichiometric Co3O4 films,” Solid State Commun. 47, 577–584 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

J. E. Sipe and R. W. Boyd, “Nonlinear susceptibility of composite materials in the Maxwell–Garnet model,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 1614–1629 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sobral-Filho, R. G.

Sutherland, R. L.

R. L. Sutherland, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics (Dekker, 2003).

Takada, S.

S. Takada, M. Fujii, S. Kohiki, T. Babasaki, H. Deguchi, M. Mitome, and M. Oku, “Intraparticle magnetic properties of Co3O4 nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 1, 379–382 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, S.

H. Yamamoto, S. Tanaka, T. Naito, and K. Hirao, “Nonlinear change of refractive index of Co3O4 thin films induced by semiconductor laser (λ=405  nm) irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 991001 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tejos, M.

G. E. Buono-Core, G. Cabello, B. Torrejon, M. Tejos, and R. H. Hill, “A photochemical method for the preparation of indium oxide and indium-cobalt oxides thin films,” Mater. Res. Bull. 40, 1765–1774 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, J.

Thota, S.

S. Thota, A. Kumar, and J. Kumar, “Optical, electrical, and magnetic properties of Co3O4 nanocrystallites obtained by thermal decomposition of sol-gel derived oxalates,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 164, 30–37 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tondello, E.

D. Barreca, C. Massignan, S. Daolio, M. Fabrizio, C. Piccirillo, L. Armelao, and E. Tondello, “Composition and microstructure of cobalt oxide thin films obtained from a novel cobalt (II) precursor by chemical vapor deposition,” Chem. Mater. 13, 588–593 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Torrejon, B.

G. E. Buono-Core, G. Cabello, B. Torrejon, M. Tejos, and R. H. Hill, “A photochemical method for the preparation of indium oxide and indium-cobalt oxides thin films,” Mater. Res. Bull. 40, 1765–1774 (2005).
[CrossRef]

van Stryland, E. W.

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. van Stryland, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405–414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Venevtsev, Yu. N.

I. D. Belova, Yu. E. Roginskaya, R. R. Shifrina, S. G. Gagarin, Yu. V. Plekhanov, and Yu. N. Venevtsev, “Co(III) ions high-spin configuration in nonstoichiometric Co3O4 films,” Solid State Commun. 47, 577–584 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Volkova, A. V.

A. A. Novakova, V. Y. Lanchinskayaa, A. V. Volkova, T. S. Gendlerb, T. Y. Kiselevaa, M. A. Moskvinaa, and S. B. Zezin, “Magnetic properties of polymer nanocomposites containing iron oxide nanoparticles,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 258–259, 354–357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Wang, R. M.

R. M. Wang, C. M. Liu, H. Z. Zhang, C. P. Chen, L. Guo, H. B. Xu, and S. H. Yang, “Porous nanotubes of Co3O4: synthesis, characterization, and magnetic properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2080–2082 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T. H.

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. van Stryland, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405–414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Woggon, U.

U. Woggon, Optical Properties of Semiconductor Quantum Dots (Springer, 1997).

Wohlfarth, C.

C. Wohlfarth, Refractive Indices of Pure Liquids and Binary Liquid Mixtures (Springer, 2008).

Xu, H. B.

R. M. Wang, C. M. Liu, H. Z. Zhang, C. P. Chen, L. Guo, H. B. Xu, and S. H. Yang, “Porous nanotubes of Co3O4: synthesis, characterization, and magnetic properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2080–2082 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, R.

R. Xu and H. C. Zeng, “Self-generation of tiered surfactant superstructure for one-pot synthesis of Co3O4 nanocubes and their close- and non-close-packed organizations,” Langmuir 20, 9780–9790 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, H.

H. Yamamoto, S. Tanaka, T. Naito, and K. Hirao, “Nonlinear change of refractive index of Co3O4 thin films induced by semiconductor laser (λ=405  nm) irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 991001 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yamane, M.

M. Yamane and Y. Asahara, Glasses for Photonics (Cambridge University, 2000).

Yang, S. H.

R. M. Wang, C. M. Liu, H. Z. Zhang, C. P. Chen, L. Guo, H. B. Xu, and S. H. Yang, “Porous nanotubes of Co3O4: synthesis, characterization, and magnetic properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2080–2082 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Young, J.

Zeng, H. C.

R. Xu and H. C. Zeng, “Self-generation of tiered surfactant superstructure for one-pot synthesis of Co3O4 nanocubes and their close- and non-close-packed organizations,” Langmuir 20, 9780–9790 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zezin, S. B.

A. A. Novakova, V. Y. Lanchinskayaa, A. V. Volkova, T. S. Gendlerb, T. Y. Kiselevaa, M. A. Moskvinaa, and S. B. Zezin, “Magnetic properties of polymer nanocomposites containing iron oxide nanoparticles,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 258–259, 354–357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. Z.

R. M. Wang, C. M. Liu, H. Z. Zhang, C. P. Chen, L. Guo, H. B. Xu, and S. H. Yang, “Porous nanotubes of Co3O4: synthesis, characterization, and magnetic properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2080–2082 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

F. Gu, C. Li, Y. Hu, and L. Zhang, “Synthesis and optical characterization of Co3O4 nanocrystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 304, 369–373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, X.

X. Zhu, J. Wang, D. Nguyen, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Co3O4 nanoparticle-doped polyvinyl-alcohol thin films,” Opt. Mater. Express 2, 103–110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhu, J. Wang, P. Lau, D. Nguyen, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Nonlinear optical performance of periodic structures made from composites of polymers and Co3O4nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 093503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Clay Sci. (1)

D. Hradila, T. Grygara, J. Hradilová, and P. Bezdicka, “Clay and iron oxide pigments in the history of painting,” Appl. Clay Sci. 22, 223–236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

H. Yamamoto, S. Tanaka, T. Naito, and K. Hirao, “Nonlinear change of refractive index of Co3O4 thin films induced by semiconductor laser (λ=405  nm) irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 991001 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Wang, C. M. Liu, H. Z. Zhang, C. P. Chen, L. Guo, H. B. Xu, and S. H. Yang, “Porous nanotubes of Co3O4: synthesis, characterization, and magnetic properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2080–2082 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhu, J. Wang, P. Lau, D. Nguyen, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Nonlinear optical performance of periodic structures made from composites of polymers and Co3O4nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 093503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Ma, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Measurements of nondegenerate optical nonlinearity using a two-color single beam method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2666–2668 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Biomaterials (1)

A. K. Gupta and M. Gupta, “Synthesis and surface engineering of iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications,” Biomaterials 26, 3995–4021 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

D. Barreca, C. Massignan, S. Daolio, M. Fabrizio, C. Piccirillo, L. Armelao, and E. Tondello, “Composition and microstructure of cobalt oxide thin films obtained from a novel cobalt (II) precursor by chemical vapor deposition,” Chem. Mater. 13, 588–593 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

F. Gu, C. Li, Y. Hu, and L. Zhang, “Synthesis and optical characterization of Co3O4 nanocrystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 304, 369–373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Magn. Magn. Mater. (1)

A. A. Novakova, V. Y. Lanchinskayaa, A. V. Volkova, T. S. Gendlerb, T. Y. Kiselevaa, M. A. Moskvinaa, and S. B. Zezin, “Magnetic properties of polymer nanocomposites containing iron oxide nanoparticles,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 258–259, 354–357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

K. M. Miedzinska, B. R. Hollebone, and J. G. Cook, “An assignment of the optical absorption spectrum of mixed valence Co3O4 spinel films,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 48, 649–656 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (2)

R. Xu and H. C. Zeng, “Self-generation of tiered surfactant superstructure for one-pot synthesis of Co3O4 nanocubes and their close- and non-close-packed organizations,” Langmuir 20, 9780–9790 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. J. de Oliveira, P. Brown, G. B. Correia, S. E. Rogers, R. Heenan, I. Grillo, A. Galembeck, and J. Eastoe, “Photoreactive surfactants: a facile and clean route to oxide and metal nanoparticles in reverse micelles,” Langmuir 27, 9277–9284 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Bull. (1)

G. E. Buono-Core, G. Cabello, B. Torrejon, M. Tejos, and R. H. Hill, “A photochemical method for the preparation of indium oxide and indium-cobalt oxides thin films,” Mater. Res. Bull. 40, 1765–1774 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

S. Thota, A. Kumar, and J. Kumar, “Optical, electrical, and magnetic properties of Co3O4 nanocrystallites obtained by thermal decomposition of sol-gel derived oxalates,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 164, 30–37 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

S. Takada, M. Fujii, S. Kohiki, T. Babasaki, H. Deguchi, M. Mitome, and M. Oku, “Intraparticle magnetic properties of Co3O4 nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 1, 379–382 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

M. Ando, K. Kadono, M. Haruta, T. Sakagichi, and M. Miya, “Large third-order optical nonlinearities in transition-metal oxides,” Nature 374, 625–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, and W. Ji, “Optical nonlinearities and photo-excited lifetime in CdS at 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 190, 351–356 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

J. E. Sipe and R. W. Boyd, “Nonlinear susceptibility of composite materials in the Maxwell–Garnet model,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 1614–1629 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun. (1)

I. D. Belova, Yu. E. Roginskaya, R. R. Shifrina, S. G. Gagarin, Yu. V. Plekhanov, and Yu. N. Venevtsev, “Co(III) ions high-spin configuration in nonstoichiometric Co3O4 films,” Solid State Commun. 47, 577–584 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

M. Ando, K. Kadono, K. Kamada, and K. Ohta, “Third-order nonlinear optical responses of nanoparticulate Co3O4 films,” Thin Solid Films 446, 271–276 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

M. Yamane and Y. Asahara, Glasses for Photonics (Cambridge University, 2000).

R. A. H. El-Mallawany, Tellurite Glasses Handbook: Physical Properties and Data (CRC, 2002).

C. Wohlfarth, Refractive Indices of Pure Liquids and Binary Liquid Mixtures (Springer, 2008).

U. Woggon, Optical Properties of Semiconductor Quantum Dots (Springer, 1997).

R. L. Sutherland, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics (Dekker, 2003).

P. N. Prasad, Nanophotonics (Wiley, 2004).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Representative TEM image of the Co3O4 particles. (b) Size distribution histogram (the line represents a log-normal distribution). (c) High-resolution image showing the crystalline planes of the Co3O4 NPs.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Absorption coefficients of colloids containing Co3O4 NPs dissolved in n-heptane for various filling fractions. The black line corresponds to the pure solvent. The feature at 655nm is due to the exchange of the spectrophotometer lamps. (b) Log-plot of the absorbance spectrum to make more clear the presence of the bands associated to Co2+ centers (at 650nm), Co3+ centers (at 365nm) and the ligand-to-metal charge transfer band at 234 nm. Sample length: 5 cm. Filling fraction: f=1.35×104.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Closed-aperture Z-scan traces corresponding to f=1.35×104 for different intensities. (b) Open-aperture traces for the same value of f and same intensities as in (a). (Black circles, 1.18GW/cm2; red stars, 2.36GW/cm2; blue squares, 3.54GW/cm2; up triangles, dark cyan; magenta diamonds, 5.9GW/cm2; dark yellow pentagons, 7.4GW/cm2). (c) Closed-aperture trace for pure n-heptane obtained with laser intensity of 6.6GW/cm2. The inset shows the Z-scan trace using the open-aperture scheme. The solid lines are guides to the eyes.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Intensity dependence of |ΔT/I| for the closed- (a) and open-aperture (b) experiments. Filling fraction: 1.35×104.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Dependence of the NL index of refraction, n2, and the NL absorption coefficient, α2, as a function of the NPs filling fraction.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

χeff(3)=f1P21|P|2χNP(3)+χh(3),
χeff(5)=f1P2|P|4χNP(5),

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