Abstract

We propose a nonlocal entanglement concentration protocol (ECP) for N-photon systems in a partially entangled W state, resorting to some ancillary single photons and the parity-check measurement based on cross-Kerr nonlinearity. One party in quantum communication first performs a parity-check measurement on her photon in an N-photon system and an ancillary photon, and then she picks up the even-parity instance for obtaining the standard W state. When she obtains an odd-parity instance, the system is in a less-entanglement state, and it is the resource in the next round of entanglement concentration. By iterating the entanglement concentration process several times, the present ECP has a total success probability approaching the limit in theory. The present ECP has the advantage of a high success probability. Moreover, the present ECP requires only the N-photon system itself and some ancillary single photons, not two copies of the systems, which decreases the difficulty of its implementation greatly in experiment. It may have good applications in quantum communication in the future.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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  33. F. G. Deng, X. H. Li, and H. Y. Zhou, “Passively self-error-rejecting qubit transmission over a collective-noise channel,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 11, 0913–0924 (2011).
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    [CrossRef]
  35. C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, S. Popescu, B. Schumacher, J. A. Smolin, and W. K. Wootters, “Purification of noisy entanglement and faithful teleportation via noisy channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 722–725 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  36. D. Deutsch, A. Ekert, R. Jozsa, C. Macchiavello, S. Popescu, and A. Sanpera, “Quantum privacy amplification and the security of quantum cryptography over noisy channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2818–2821 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  37. J. W. Pan, C. Simon, and A. Zellinger, “Entanglement purification for quantum communication,” Nature 410, 1067–1070 (2001).
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  38. C. Simon and J. W. Pan, “Polarization entanglement purification using spatial entanglement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 257901(2002).
    [CrossRef]
  39. Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Efficient polarization-entanglement purification based on parametric down-conversion sources with cross-Kerr nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 042308 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  40. Y. B. Sheng and F. G. Deng, “Deterministic entanglement purification and complete nonlocal Bell-state analysis with hyperentanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 032307 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  41. X. H. Li, “Deterministic polarization-entanglement purification using spatial entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 044304 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  42. Y. B. Sheng and F. G. Deng, “One-step deterministic polarization-entanglement purification using spatial entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 044305 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  43. F. G. Deng, “One-step error correction for multipartite polarization entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 062316 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  44. C. Wang, Y. Zhang, and G. S. Jin, “Entanglement purification and concentration of electron-spin entangled states using quantum-dot spins in optical microcavities,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 032307 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  45. C. Wang, Y. Zhang, and G. S. Jin, “Polarization-entanglement purification and concentration using cross-Kerr nonlinearity,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 11, 0988–1002 (2011).
  46. F. G. Deng, “Efficient multipartite entanglement purification with the entanglement link from a subspace,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 052312 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  47. C. H. Bennett, H. J. Bernstein, S. Popescu, and B. Schumacher, “Concentrating partial entanglement by local operations,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 2046–2052 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  48. S. Bose, V. Vedral, and P. L. Knight, “Purification via entanglement swapping and conserved entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 194–197 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  49. B. S. Shi, Y. K. Jiang, and G. C. Guo, “Optimal entanglement purification via entanglement swapping,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 054301 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  50. T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, “Concentration and purification scheme for two partially entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 012304 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  51. Z. Zhao, J. W. Pan, and M. S. Zhan, “Practical scheme for entanglement concentration,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 014301 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  52. Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Nonlocal entanglement concentration scheme for partially entangled multipartite systems with nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 062325 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  53. Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Single-photon entanglement concentration for long-distance quantum communication,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 10, 0272–0281 (2010).
  54. Y. B. Sheng, L. Zhou, S. M. Zhao, and B. Y. Zheng, “Efficient single-photon-assisted entanglement concentration for partially entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 012307 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  55. F. G. Deng, “Optimal nonlocal multipartite entanglement concentration based on projection measurements,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 022311 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  56. M. Yang, Y. Zhao, W. Song, and Z. L. Cao, “Entanglement concentration for unknown atomic entangled states via entanglement swapping,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 044302 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  57. Z. L. Cao, L. H. Zhang, and M. Yang, “Concentration for unknown atomic entangled states via cavity decay,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 014303 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  58. H. F. Wang, S. Zhang, and K. H. Yeon, “Linear optical scheme for entanglement concentration of two partially entangled threephoton W states,” Eur. Phys. J. D 56, 271–275 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  59. H. F. Wang, S. Zhang, and K. H. Yeon, “Linear-optics-based entanglement concentration of unknown partially entangled three-photon W states,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 2159–2164 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  60. W. Xiong and L. Ye, “Schemes for entanglement concentration of two unknown partially entangled states with cross-Kerr nonlinearity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 2030–2037 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  61. K. Nemoto and W. J. Munro, “Nearly deterministic linear optical controlled-not gate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 250502 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  62. S. D. Barrett, P. Kok, K. Nemoto, R. G. Beausoleil, W. J. Munro, and T. P. Spiller, “Symmetry analyzer for nondestructive Bell-state detection using weak nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 060302 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

Y. B. Sheng, L. Zhou, S. M. Zhao, and B. Y. Zheng, “Efficient single-photon-assisted entanglement concentration for partially entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 012307 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Deng, “Optimal nonlocal multipartite entanglement concentration based on projection measurements,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 022311 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (6)

F. G. Deng, “One-step error correction for multipartite polarization entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 062316 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Wang, Y. Zhang, and G. S. Jin, “Entanglement purification and concentration of electron-spin entangled states using quantum-dot spins in optical microcavities,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 032307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Wang, Y. Zhang, and G. S. Jin, “Polarization-entanglement purification and concentration using cross-Kerr nonlinearity,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 11, 0988–1002 (2011).

F. G. Deng, “Efficient multipartite entanglement purification with the entanglement link from a subspace,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 052312 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Xiong and L. Ye, “Schemes for entanglement concentration of two unknown partially entangled states with cross-Kerr nonlinearity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 2030–2037 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Deng, X. H. Li, and H. Y. Zhou, “Passively self-error-rejecting qubit transmission over a collective-noise channel,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 11, 0913–0924 (2011).

2010 (7)

Y. B. Sheng and F. G. Deng, “Efficient quantum entanglement distribution over an arbitrary collective-noise channel,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 042332 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Single-photon entanglement concentration for long-distance quantum communication,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 10, 0272–0281 (2010).

H. F. Wang, S. Zhang, and K. H. Yeon, “Linear optical scheme for entanglement concentration of two partially entangled threephoton W states,” Eur. Phys. J. D 56, 271–275 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Wang, S. Zhang, and K. H. Yeon, “Linear-optics-based entanglement concentration of unknown partially entangled three-photon W states,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 2159–2164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng and F. G. Deng, “Deterministic entanglement purification and complete nonlocal Bell-state analysis with hyperentanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 032307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Li, “Deterministic polarization-entanglement purification using spatial entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 044304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng and F. G. Deng, “One-step deterministic polarization-entanglement purification using spatial entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 044305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

X. H. Li, B. K. Zhao, Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Efficient faithful qubit transmission with frequency degree of freedom,” Opt. Commun. 282, 4025–4027 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (6)

X. H. Li, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Efficient quantum key distribution over a collective noise channel,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 022321 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Efficient and economic five-party quantum state sharing of an arbitrary m-qubit state,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48, 279–284 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Li, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Efficient quantum key distribution over a collective noise channel,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 022321 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Deng, X. H. Li, and H. Y. Zhou, “Efficient high-capacity quantum secret sharing with two-photon entanglement,” Phys. Lett. A 372, 1957–1962 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Nonlocal entanglement concentration scheme for partially entangled multipartite systems with nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 062325 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Efficient polarization-entanglement purification based on parametric down-conversion sources with cross-Kerr nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 042308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

X. H. Li, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Faithful qubit transmission against collective noise without ancillary qubits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 144101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

F. G. Deng, X. H. Li, C. Y. Li, P. Zhou, and H. Y. Zhou, “Quantum state sharing of an arbitrary two-qubit state with two-photon entanglements and Bell-state measurements,” Eur. Phys. J. D 39, 459–464 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Li, P. Zhou, C. Y. Li, H. Y. Zhou, and F. G. Deng, “Efficient symmetric multiparty quantum state sharing of an arbitrary m-qubit state,” J. Phys. B 39, 1975–1983 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Cao, L. H. Zhang, and M. Yang, “Concentration for unknown atomic entangled states via cavity decay,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 014303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (9)

S. D. Barrett, P. Kok, K. Nemoto, R. G. Beausoleil, W. J. Munro, and T. P. Spiller, “Symmetry analyzer for nondestructive Bell-state detection using weak nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 060302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Yang, Y. Zhao, W. Song, and Z. L. Cao, “Entanglement concentration for unknown atomic entangled states via entanglement swapping,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 044302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Deng, G. L. Long, and H. Y. Zhou, “Bidirectional quantum secret sharing and secret splitting with polarized single photons,” Phys. Lett. A 337, 329–334 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. J. Zhang, Y. Li, and Z. X. Man, “Multiparty quantum secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 044301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. L. Yan and T. Gao, “Quantum secret sharing between multiparty and multiparty without entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 012304 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Deng, X. H. Li, H. Y. Zhou, and Z. J. Zhang, “Improving the security of multiparty quantum secret sharing against Trojan horse attack,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 044302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamamoto, J. Shimamura, S. K. Özdemir, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, “Faithful qubit distribution assisted by one additional qubit against collective noise,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 040503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Deng, X. H. Li, C. Y. Li, P. Zhou, and H. Y. Zhou, “Multiparty quantum-state sharing of an arbitrary two-particle state with Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen pairs,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 044301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Deng, C. Y. Li, Y. S. Li, H. Y. Zhou, and Y. Wang, “Symmetric multiparty-controlled teleportation of an arbitrary two-particle entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 022338 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (6)

J. C. Boileau, D. Gottesman, R. Laflamme, D. Poulin, and R. W. Spekkens, “Robust polarization-based quantum key distribution over a collective-noise channel,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 017901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Boileau, R. Laflamme, M. Laforest, and C. R. Myers, “Robust quantum communication using a polarization-entangled photon pair,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 220501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Yang, S. I. Chu, and S. Han, “Efficient many-party controlled teleportation of multiqubit quantum information via entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 022329 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Lance, T. Symul, W. P. Bowen, B. C. Sanders, and P. K. Lam, “Tripartite quantum state sharing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 177903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Xiao, G. L. Long, F. G. Deng, and J. W. Pan, “Efficient multiparty quantum-secret-sharing schemes,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 052307 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Nemoto and W. J. Munro, “Nearly deterministic linear optical controlled-not gate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 250502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

F. G. Deng and G. L. Long, “Controlled order rearrangement encryption for quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 042315 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. D. Walton, A. F. Abouraddy, A. V. Sergienko, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Decoherence-free subspaces in quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 087901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

G. L. Long and X. S. Liu, “Theoretically efficient high-capacity quantum-key-distribution scheme,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 032302 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Liu, G. L. Long, D. M. Tong, and L. Feng, “General scheme for superdense coding between multiparties,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 022304 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Simon and J. W. Pan, “Polarization entanglement purification using spatial entanglement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 257901(2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

J. W. Pan, C. Simon, and A. Zellinger, “Entanglement purification for quantum communication,” Nature 410, 1067–1070 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, “Concentration and purification scheme for two partially entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 012304 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhao, J. W. Pan, and M. S. Zhan, “Practical scheme for entanglement concentration,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 014301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

B. S. Shi, Y. K. Jiang, and G. C. Guo, “Optimal entanglement purification via entanglement swapping,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 054301 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

S. Bose, V. Vedral, and P. L. Knight, “Purification via entanglement swapping and conserved entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 194–197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Hillery, V. Bužek, and A. Berthiaume, “Quantum secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1829–1834 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Karlsson, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, “Quantum entanglement for secret sharing and secret splitting,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 162–168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. Karlsson and M. Bourennane, “Quantum teleportation using three-particle entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 4394–4400 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, S. Popescu, B. Schumacher, J. A. Smolin, and W. K. Wootters, “Purification of noisy entanglement and faithful teleportation via noisy channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 722–725 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Deutsch, A. Ekert, R. Jozsa, C. Macchiavello, S. Popescu, and A. Sanpera, “Quantum privacy amplification and the security of quantum cryptography over noisy channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2818–2821 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Bennett, H. J. Bernstein, S. Popescu, and B. Schumacher, “Concentrating partial entanglement by local operations,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 2046–2052 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crepeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, and W. K. Wootters, “Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1895–1899 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

C. H. Bennett and S. J. Wiesner, “Communication via one- and two-particle operators on Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2881–2884 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and N. D. Mermin, “Quantum cryptography without Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 557–559 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

A. K. Ekert, “Quantum cryptography based on Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 661–663 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Abouraddy, A. F.

Z. D. Walton, A. F. Abouraddy, A. V. Sergienko, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Decoherence-free subspaces in quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 087901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barrett, S. D.

S. D. Barrett, P. Kok, K. Nemoto, R. G. Beausoleil, W. J. Munro, and T. P. Spiller, “Symmetry analyzer for nondestructive Bell-state detection using weak nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 060302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Beausoleil, R. G.

S. D. Barrett, P. Kok, K. Nemoto, R. G. Beausoleil, W. J. Munro, and T. P. Spiller, “Symmetry analyzer for nondestructive Bell-state detection using weak nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 060302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett, H. J. Bernstein, S. Popescu, and B. Schumacher, “Concentrating partial entanglement by local operations,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 2046–2052 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, S. Popescu, B. Schumacher, J. A. Smolin, and W. K. Wootters, “Purification of noisy entanglement and faithful teleportation via noisy channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 722–725 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crepeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, and W. K. Wootters, “Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1895–1899 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and N. D. Mermin, “Quantum cryptography without Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 557–559 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Bennett and S. J. Wiesner, “Communication via one- and two-particle operators on Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2881–2884 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bernstein, H. J.

C. H. Bennett, H. J. Bernstein, S. Popescu, and B. Schumacher, “Concentrating partial entanglement by local operations,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 2046–2052 (1996).
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M. Hillery, V. Bužek, and A. Berthiaume, “Quantum secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1829–1834 (1999).
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J. C. Boileau, D. Gottesman, R. Laflamme, D. Poulin, and R. W. Spekkens, “Robust polarization-based quantum key distribution over a collective-noise channel,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 017901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Boileau, R. Laflamme, M. Laforest, and C. R. Myers, “Robust quantum communication using a polarization-entangled photon pair,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 220501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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S. Bose, V. Vedral, and P. L. Knight, “Purification via entanglement swapping and conserved entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 194–197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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A. Karlsson and M. Bourennane, “Quantum teleportation using three-particle entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 4394–4400 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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A. M. Lance, T. Symul, W. P. Bowen, B. C. Sanders, and P. K. Lam, “Tripartite quantum state sharing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 177903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brassard, G.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, S. Popescu, B. Schumacher, J. A. Smolin, and W. K. Wootters, “Purification of noisy entanglement and faithful teleportation via noisy channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 722–725 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crepeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, and W. K. Wootters, “Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1895–1899 (1993).
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C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and N. D. Mermin, “Quantum cryptography without Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 557–559 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bužek, V.

M. Hillery, V. Bužek, and A. Berthiaume, “Quantum secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1829–1834 (1999).
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Z. L. Cao, L. H. Zhang, and M. Yang, “Concentration for unknown atomic entangled states via cavity decay,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 014303 (2006).
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M. Yang, Y. Zhao, W. Song, and Z. L. Cao, “Entanglement concentration for unknown atomic entangled states via entanglement swapping,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 044302 (2005).
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C. P. Yang, S. I. Chu, and S. Han, “Efficient many-party controlled teleportation of multiqubit quantum information via entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 022329 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, I. L.

M. A. Nielsen and I. L. Chuang, Quantum Computation and Quantum Information (Cambridge University, 2000).

Crepeau, C.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crepeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, and W. K. Wootters, “Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1895–1899 (1993).
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F. G. Deng, “Optimal nonlocal multipartite entanglement concentration based on projection measurements,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 022311 (2012).
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F. G. Deng, “Efficient multipartite entanglement purification with the entanglement link from a subspace,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 052312 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Deng, X. H. Li, and H. Y. Zhou, “Passively self-error-rejecting qubit transmission over a collective-noise channel,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 11, 0913–0924 (2011).

F. G. Deng, “One-step error correction for multipartite polarization entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 062316 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng and F. G. Deng, “Deterministic entanglement purification and complete nonlocal Bell-state analysis with hyperentanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 032307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng and F. G. Deng, “Efficient quantum entanglement distribution over an arbitrary collective-noise channel,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 042332 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng and F. G. Deng, “One-step deterministic polarization-entanglement purification using spatial entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 044305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Single-photon entanglement concentration for long-distance quantum communication,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 10, 0272–0281 (2010).

X. H. Li, B. K. Zhao, Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Efficient faithful qubit transmission with frequency degree of freedom,” Opt. Commun. 282, 4025–4027 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Efficient polarization-entanglement purification based on parametric down-conversion sources with cross-Kerr nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 042308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Li, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Efficient quantum key distribution over a collective noise channel,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 022321 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Li, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Efficient quantum key distribution over a collective noise channel,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 022321 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Deng, X. H. Li, and H. Y. Zhou, “Efficient high-capacity quantum secret sharing with two-photon entanglement,” Phys. Lett. A 372, 1957–1962 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Efficient and economic five-party quantum state sharing of an arbitrary m-qubit state,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48, 279–284 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Nonlocal entanglement concentration scheme for partially entangled multipartite systems with nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 062325 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Li, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Faithful qubit transmission against collective noise without ancillary qubits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 144101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Li, P. Zhou, C. Y. Li, H. Y. Zhou, and F. G. Deng, “Efficient symmetric multiparty quantum state sharing of an arbitrary m-qubit state,” J. Phys. B 39, 1975–1983 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Deng, X. H. Li, C. Y. Li, P. Zhou, and H. Y. Zhou, “Quantum state sharing of an arbitrary two-qubit state with two-photon entanglements and Bell-state measurements,” Eur. Phys. J. D 39, 459–464 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Deng, X. H. Li, H. Y. Zhou, and Z. J. Zhang, “Improving the security of multiparty quantum secret sharing against Trojan horse attack,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 044302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Deng, X. H. Li, C. Y. Li, P. Zhou, and H. Y. Zhou, “Multiparty quantum-state sharing of an arbitrary two-particle state with Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen pairs,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 044301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Deng, G. L. Long, and H. Y. Zhou, “Bidirectional quantum secret sharing and secret splitting with polarized single photons,” Phys. Lett. A 337, 329–334 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Deng, C. Y. Li, Y. S. Li, H. Y. Zhou, and Y. Wang, “Symmetric multiparty-controlled teleportation of an arbitrary two-particle entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 022338 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Xiao, G. L. Long, F. G. Deng, and J. W. Pan, “Efficient multiparty quantum-secret-sharing schemes,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 052307 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Deng and G. L. Long, “Controlled order rearrangement encryption for quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 042315 (2003).
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D. Deutsch, A. Ekert, R. Jozsa, C. Macchiavello, S. Popescu, and A. Sanpera, “Quantum privacy amplification and the security of quantum cryptography over noisy channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2818–2821 (1996).
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D. Deutsch, A. Ekert, R. Jozsa, C. Macchiavello, S. Popescu, and A. Sanpera, “Quantum privacy amplification and the security of quantum cryptography over noisy channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2818–2821 (1996).
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A. K. Ekert, “Quantum cryptography based on Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 661–663 (1991).
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X. S. Liu, G. L. Long, D. M. Tong, and L. Feng, “General scheme for superdense coding between multiparties,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 022304 (2002).
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F. L. Yan and T. Gao, “Quantum secret sharing between multiparty and multiparty without entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 012304 (2005).
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J. C. Boileau, D. Gottesman, R. Laflamme, D. Poulin, and R. W. Spekkens, “Robust polarization-based quantum key distribution over a collective-noise channel,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 017901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guo, G. C.

B. S. Shi, Y. K. Jiang, and G. C. Guo, “Optimal entanglement purification via entanglement swapping,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 054301 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Han, S.

C. P. Yang, S. I. Chu, and S. Han, “Efficient many-party controlled teleportation of multiqubit quantum information via entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 022329 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hillery, M.

M. Hillery, V. Bužek, and A. Berthiaume, “Quantum secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1829–1834 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Imoto, N.

T. Yamamoto, J. Shimamura, S. K. Özdemir, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, “Faithful qubit distribution assisted by one additional qubit against collective noise,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 040503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, “Concentration and purification scheme for two partially entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 012304 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Karlsson, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, “Quantum entanglement for secret sharing and secret splitting,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 162–168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y. K.

B. S. Shi, Y. K. Jiang, and G. C. Guo, “Optimal entanglement purification via entanglement swapping,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 054301 (2000).
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Jin, G. S.

C. Wang, Y. Zhang, and G. S. Jin, “Polarization-entanglement purification and concentration using cross-Kerr nonlinearity,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 11, 0988–1002 (2011).

C. Wang, Y. Zhang, and G. S. Jin, “Entanglement purification and concentration of electron-spin entangled states using quantum-dot spins in optical microcavities,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 032307 (2011).
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Jozsa, R.

D. Deutsch, A. Ekert, R. Jozsa, C. Macchiavello, S. Popescu, and A. Sanpera, “Quantum privacy amplification and the security of quantum cryptography over noisy channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2818–2821 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crepeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, and W. K. Wootters, “Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1895–1899 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Karlsson, A.

A. Karlsson, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, “Quantum entanglement for secret sharing and secret splitting,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 162–168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Karlsson and M. Bourennane, “Quantum teleportation using three-particle entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 4394–4400 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Knight, P. L.

S. Bose, V. Vedral, and P. L. Knight, “Purification via entanglement swapping and conserved entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 194–197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Koashi, M.

T. Yamamoto, J. Shimamura, S. K. Özdemir, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, “Faithful qubit distribution assisted by one additional qubit against collective noise,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 040503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, “Concentration and purification scheme for two partially entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 012304 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Karlsson, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, “Quantum entanglement for secret sharing and secret splitting,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 162–168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kok, P.

S. D. Barrett, P. Kok, K. Nemoto, R. G. Beausoleil, W. J. Munro, and T. P. Spiller, “Symmetry analyzer for nondestructive Bell-state detection using weak nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 060302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laflamme, R.

J. C. Boileau, R. Laflamme, M. Laforest, and C. R. Myers, “Robust quantum communication using a polarization-entangled photon pair,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 220501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Boileau, D. Gottesman, R. Laflamme, D. Poulin, and R. W. Spekkens, “Robust polarization-based quantum key distribution over a collective-noise channel,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 017901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laforest, M.

J. C. Boileau, R. Laflamme, M. Laforest, and C. R. Myers, “Robust quantum communication using a polarization-entangled photon pair,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 220501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lam, P. K.

A. M. Lance, T. Symul, W. P. Bowen, B. C. Sanders, and P. K. Lam, “Tripartite quantum state sharing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 177903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lance, A. M.

A. M. Lance, T. Symul, W. P. Bowen, B. C. Sanders, and P. K. Lam, “Tripartite quantum state sharing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 177903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, C. Y.

F. G. Deng, X. H. Li, C. Y. Li, P. Zhou, and H. Y. Zhou, “Quantum state sharing of an arbitrary two-qubit state with two-photon entanglements and Bell-state measurements,” Eur. Phys. J. D 39, 459–464 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Li, P. Zhou, C. Y. Li, H. Y. Zhou, and F. G. Deng, “Efficient symmetric multiparty quantum state sharing of an arbitrary m-qubit state,” J. Phys. B 39, 1975–1983 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Deng, X. H. Li, C. Y. Li, P. Zhou, and H. Y. Zhou, “Multiparty quantum-state sharing of an arbitrary two-particle state with Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen pairs,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 044301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Deng, C. Y. Li, Y. S. Li, H. Y. Zhou, and Y. Wang, “Symmetric multiparty-controlled teleportation of an arbitrary two-particle entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 022338 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. H.

F. G. Deng, X. H. Li, and H. Y. Zhou, “Passively self-error-rejecting qubit transmission over a collective-noise channel,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 11, 0913–0924 (2011).

X. H. Li, “Deterministic polarization-entanglement purification using spatial entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 044304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Li, B. K. Zhao, Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Efficient faithful qubit transmission with frequency degree of freedom,” Opt. Commun. 282, 4025–4027 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Li, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Efficient quantum key distribution over a collective noise channel,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 022321 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Deng, X. H. Li, and H. Y. Zhou, “Efficient high-capacity quantum secret sharing with two-photon entanglement,” Phys. Lett. A 372, 1957–1962 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Li, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Efficient quantum key distribution over a collective noise channel,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 022321 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Li, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Faithful qubit transmission against collective noise without ancillary qubits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 144101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Deng, X. H. Li, C. Y. Li, P. Zhou, and H. Y. Zhou, “Quantum state sharing of an arbitrary two-qubit state with two-photon entanglements and Bell-state measurements,” Eur. Phys. J. D 39, 459–464 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Li, P. Zhou, C. Y. Li, H. Y. Zhou, and F. G. Deng, “Efficient symmetric multiparty quantum state sharing of an arbitrary m-qubit state,” J. Phys. B 39, 1975–1983 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Deng, X. H. Li, H. Y. Zhou, and Z. J. Zhang, “Improving the security of multiparty quantum secret sharing against Trojan horse attack,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 044302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Deng, X. H. Li, C. Y. Li, P. Zhou, and H. Y. Zhou, “Multiparty quantum-state sharing of an arbitrary two-particle state with Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen pairs,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 044301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Z. J. Zhang, Y. Li, and Z. X. Man, “Multiparty quantum secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 044301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. S.

F. G. Deng, C. Y. Li, Y. S. Li, H. Y. Zhou, and Y. Wang, “Symmetric multiparty-controlled teleportation of an arbitrary two-particle entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 022338 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X. S.

G. L. Long and X. S. Liu, “Theoretically efficient high-capacity quantum-key-distribution scheme,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 032302 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Liu, G. L. Long, D. M. Tong, and L. Feng, “General scheme for superdense coding between multiparties,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 022304 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Long, G. L.

F. G. Deng, G. L. Long, and H. Y. Zhou, “Bidirectional quantum secret sharing and secret splitting with polarized single photons,” Phys. Lett. A 337, 329–334 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Xiao, G. L. Long, F. G. Deng, and J. W. Pan, “Efficient multiparty quantum-secret-sharing schemes,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 052307 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Deng and G. L. Long, “Controlled order rearrangement encryption for quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 042315 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Long and X. S. Liu, “Theoretically efficient high-capacity quantum-key-distribution scheme,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 032302 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Liu, G. L. Long, D. M. Tong, and L. Feng, “General scheme for superdense coding between multiparties,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 022304 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Macchiavello, C.

D. Deutsch, A. Ekert, R. Jozsa, C. Macchiavello, S. Popescu, and A. Sanpera, “Quantum privacy amplification and the security of quantum cryptography over noisy channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2818–2821 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Man, Z. X.

Z. J. Zhang, Y. Li, and Z. X. Man, “Multiparty quantum secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 044301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mermin, N. D.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and N. D. Mermin, “Quantum cryptography without Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 557–559 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Munro, W. J.

S. D. Barrett, P. Kok, K. Nemoto, R. G. Beausoleil, W. J. Munro, and T. P. Spiller, “Symmetry analyzer for nondestructive Bell-state detection using weak nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 060302 (2005).
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K. Nemoto and W. J. Munro, “Nearly deterministic linear optical controlled-not gate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 250502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Myers, C. R.

J. C. Boileau, R. Laflamme, M. Laforest, and C. R. Myers, “Robust quantum communication using a polarization-entangled photon pair,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 220501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nemoto, K.

S. D. Barrett, P. Kok, K. Nemoto, R. G. Beausoleil, W. J. Munro, and T. P. Spiller, “Symmetry analyzer for nondestructive Bell-state detection using weak nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 060302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Nemoto and W. J. Munro, “Nearly deterministic linear optical controlled-not gate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 250502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, M. A.

M. A. Nielsen and I. L. Chuang, Quantum Computation and Quantum Information (Cambridge University, 2000).

Özdemir, S. K.

T. Yamamoto, J. Shimamura, S. K. Özdemir, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, “Faithful qubit distribution assisted by one additional qubit against collective noise,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 040503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pan, J. W.

L. Xiao, G. L. Long, F. G. Deng, and J. W. Pan, “Efficient multiparty quantum-secret-sharing schemes,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 052307 (2004).
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C. Simon and J. W. Pan, “Polarization entanglement purification using spatial entanglement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 257901(2002).
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J. W. Pan, C. Simon, and A. Zellinger, “Entanglement purification for quantum communication,” Nature 410, 1067–1070 (2001).
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Z. Zhao, J. W. Pan, and M. S. Zhan, “Practical scheme for entanglement concentration,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 014301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Peres, A.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crepeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, and W. K. Wootters, “Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1895–1899 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Popescu, S.

D. Deutsch, A. Ekert, R. Jozsa, C. Macchiavello, S. Popescu, and A. Sanpera, “Quantum privacy amplification and the security of quantum cryptography over noisy channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2818–2821 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, S. Popescu, B. Schumacher, J. A. Smolin, and W. K. Wootters, “Purification of noisy entanglement and faithful teleportation via noisy channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 722–725 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Bennett, H. J. Bernstein, S. Popescu, and B. Schumacher, “Concentrating partial entanglement by local operations,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 2046–2052 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Poulin, D.

J. C. Boileau, D. Gottesman, R. Laflamme, D. Poulin, and R. W. Spekkens, “Robust polarization-based quantum key distribution over a collective-noise channel,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 017901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Saleh, B. E. A.

Z. D. Walton, A. F. Abouraddy, A. V. Sergienko, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Decoherence-free subspaces in quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 087901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, B. C.

A. M. Lance, T. Symul, W. P. Bowen, B. C. Sanders, and P. K. Lam, “Tripartite quantum state sharing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 177903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sanpera, A.

D. Deutsch, A. Ekert, R. Jozsa, C. Macchiavello, S. Popescu, and A. Sanpera, “Quantum privacy amplification and the security of quantum cryptography over noisy channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2818–2821 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schumacher, B.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, S. Popescu, B. Schumacher, J. A. Smolin, and W. K. Wootters, “Purification of noisy entanglement and faithful teleportation via noisy channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 722–725 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Bennett, H. J. Bernstein, S. Popescu, and B. Schumacher, “Concentrating partial entanglement by local operations,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 2046–2052 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sergienko, A. V.

Z. D. Walton, A. F. Abouraddy, A. V. Sergienko, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Decoherence-free subspaces in quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 087901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, Y. B.

Y. B. Sheng, L. Zhou, S. M. Zhao, and B. Y. Zheng, “Efficient single-photon-assisted entanglement concentration for partially entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 012307 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Single-photon entanglement concentration for long-distance quantum communication,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 10, 0272–0281 (2010).

Y. B. Sheng and F. G. Deng, “Efficient quantum entanglement distribution over an arbitrary collective-noise channel,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 042332 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng and F. G. Deng, “One-step deterministic polarization-entanglement purification using spatial entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 044305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng and F. G. Deng, “Deterministic entanglement purification and complete nonlocal Bell-state analysis with hyperentanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 032307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Li, B. K. Zhao, Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Efficient faithful qubit transmission with frequency degree of freedom,” Opt. Commun. 282, 4025–4027 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Efficient polarization-entanglement purification based on parametric down-conversion sources with cross-Kerr nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 042308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Efficient and economic five-party quantum state sharing of an arbitrary m-qubit state,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48, 279–284 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Nonlocal entanglement concentration scheme for partially entangled multipartite systems with nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 062325 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shi, B. S.

B. S. Shi, Y. K. Jiang, and G. C. Guo, “Optimal entanglement purification via entanglement swapping,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 054301 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shimamura, J.

T. Yamamoto, J. Shimamura, S. K. Özdemir, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, “Faithful qubit distribution assisted by one additional qubit against collective noise,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 040503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Simon, C.

C. Simon and J. W. Pan, “Polarization entanglement purification using spatial entanglement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 257901(2002).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Pan, C. Simon, and A. Zellinger, “Entanglement purification for quantum communication,” Nature 410, 1067–1070 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Smolin, J. A.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, S. Popescu, B. Schumacher, J. A. Smolin, and W. K. Wootters, “Purification of noisy entanglement and faithful teleportation via noisy channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 722–725 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Song, W.

M. Yang, Y. Zhao, W. Song, and Z. L. Cao, “Entanglement concentration for unknown atomic entangled states via entanglement swapping,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 044302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Spekkens, R. W.

J. C. Boileau, D. Gottesman, R. Laflamme, D. Poulin, and R. W. Spekkens, “Robust polarization-based quantum key distribution over a collective-noise channel,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 017901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Spiller, T. P.

S. D. Barrett, P. Kok, K. Nemoto, R. G. Beausoleil, W. J. Munro, and T. P. Spiller, “Symmetry analyzer for nondestructive Bell-state detection using weak nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 060302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Symul, T.

A. M. Lance, T. Symul, W. P. Bowen, B. C. Sanders, and P. K. Lam, “Tripartite quantum state sharing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 177903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Teich, M. C.

Z. D. Walton, A. F. Abouraddy, A. V. Sergienko, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Decoherence-free subspaces in quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 087901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tong, D. M.

X. S. Liu, G. L. Long, D. M. Tong, and L. Feng, “General scheme for superdense coding between multiparties,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 022304 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vedral, V.

S. Bose, V. Vedral, and P. L. Knight, “Purification via entanglement swapping and conserved entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 194–197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Walton, Z. D.

Z. D. Walton, A. F. Abouraddy, A. V. Sergienko, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Decoherence-free subspaces in quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 087901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

C. Wang, Y. Zhang, and G. S. Jin, “Polarization-entanglement purification and concentration using cross-Kerr nonlinearity,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 11, 0988–1002 (2011).

C. Wang, Y. Zhang, and G. S. Jin, “Entanglement purification and concentration of electron-spin entangled states using quantum-dot spins in optical microcavities,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 032307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. F.

H. F. Wang, S. Zhang, and K. H. Yeon, “Linear optical scheme for entanglement concentration of two partially entangled threephoton W states,” Eur. Phys. J. D 56, 271–275 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Wang, S. Zhang, and K. H. Yeon, “Linear-optics-based entanglement concentration of unknown partially entangled three-photon W states,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 2159–2164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

F. G. Deng, C. Y. Li, Y. S. Li, H. Y. Zhou, and Y. Wang, “Symmetric multiparty-controlled teleportation of an arbitrary two-particle entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 022338 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wiesner, S. J.

C. H. Bennett and S. J. Wiesner, “Communication via one- and two-particle operators on Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2881–2884 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wootters, W. K.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, S. Popescu, B. Schumacher, J. A. Smolin, and W. K. Wootters, “Purification of noisy entanglement and faithful teleportation via noisy channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 722–725 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crepeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, and W. K. Wootters, “Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1895–1899 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, L.

L. Xiao, G. L. Long, F. G. Deng, and J. W. Pan, “Efficient multiparty quantum-secret-sharing schemes,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 052307 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, W.

Yamamoto, T.

T. Yamamoto, J. Shimamura, S. K. Özdemir, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, “Faithful qubit distribution assisted by one additional qubit against collective noise,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 040503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, “Concentration and purification scheme for two partially entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 012304 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yan, F. L.

F. L. Yan and T. Gao, “Quantum secret sharing between multiparty and multiparty without entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 012304 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. P.

C. P. Yang, S. I. Chu, and S. Han, “Efficient many-party controlled teleportation of multiqubit quantum information via entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 022329 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, M.

Z. L. Cao, L. H. Zhang, and M. Yang, “Concentration for unknown atomic entangled states via cavity decay,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 014303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Yang, Y. Zhao, W. Song, and Z. L. Cao, “Entanglement concentration for unknown atomic entangled states via entanglement swapping,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 044302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ye, L.

Yeon, K. H.

H. F. Wang, S. Zhang, and K. H. Yeon, “Linear optical scheme for entanglement concentration of two partially entangled threephoton W states,” Eur. Phys. J. D 56, 271–275 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Wang, S. Zhang, and K. H. Yeon, “Linear-optics-based entanglement concentration of unknown partially entangled three-photon W states,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 2159–2164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zellinger, A.

J. W. Pan, C. Simon, and A. Zellinger, “Entanglement purification for quantum communication,” Nature 410, 1067–1070 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhan, M. S.

Z. Zhao, J. W. Pan, and M. S. Zhan, “Practical scheme for entanglement concentration,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 014301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L. H.

Z. L. Cao, L. H. Zhang, and M. Yang, “Concentration for unknown atomic entangled states via cavity decay,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 014303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

H. F. Wang, S. Zhang, and K. H. Yeon, “Linear-optics-based entanglement concentration of unknown partially entangled three-photon W states,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 2159–2164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Wang, S. Zhang, and K. H. Yeon, “Linear optical scheme for entanglement concentration of two partially entangled threephoton W states,” Eur. Phys. J. D 56, 271–275 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

C. Wang, Y. Zhang, and G. S. Jin, “Entanglement purification and concentration of electron-spin entangled states using quantum-dot spins in optical microcavities,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 032307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Wang, Y. Zhang, and G. S. Jin, “Polarization-entanglement purification and concentration using cross-Kerr nonlinearity,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 11, 0988–1002 (2011).

Zhang, Z. J.

Z. J. Zhang, Y. Li, and Z. X. Man, “Multiparty quantum secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 044301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Deng, X. H. Li, H. Y. Zhou, and Z. J. Zhang, “Improving the security of multiparty quantum secret sharing against Trojan horse attack,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 044302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, B. K.

X. H. Li, B. K. Zhao, Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Efficient faithful qubit transmission with frequency degree of freedom,” Opt. Commun. 282, 4025–4027 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, S. M.

Y. B. Sheng, L. Zhou, S. M. Zhao, and B. Y. Zheng, “Efficient single-photon-assisted entanglement concentration for partially entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 012307 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

M. Yang, Y. Zhao, W. Song, and Z. L. Cao, “Entanglement concentration for unknown atomic entangled states via entanglement swapping,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 044302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Z.

Z. Zhao, J. W. Pan, and M. S. Zhan, “Practical scheme for entanglement concentration,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 014301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, B. Y.

Y. B. Sheng, L. Zhou, S. M. Zhao, and B. Y. Zheng, “Efficient single-photon-assisted entanglement concentration for partially entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 012307 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, H. Y.

F. G. Deng, X. H. Li, and H. Y. Zhou, “Passively self-error-rejecting qubit transmission over a collective-noise channel,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 11, 0913–0924 (2011).

Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Single-photon entanglement concentration for long-distance quantum communication,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 10, 0272–0281 (2010).

X. H. Li, B. K. Zhao, Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Efficient faithful qubit transmission with frequency degree of freedom,” Opt. Commun. 282, 4025–4027 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Efficient polarization-entanglement purification based on parametric down-conversion sources with cross-Kerr nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 042308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Li, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Efficient quantum key distribution over a collective noise channel,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 022321 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Deng, X. H. Li, and H. Y. Zhou, “Efficient high-capacity quantum secret sharing with two-photon entanglement,” Phys. Lett. A 372, 1957–1962 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Efficient and economic five-party quantum state sharing of an arbitrary m-qubit state,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48, 279–284 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Li, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Efficient quantum key distribution over a collective noise channel,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 022321 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Nonlocal entanglement concentration scheme for partially entangled multipartite systems with nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 062325 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Li, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Faithful qubit transmission against collective noise without ancillary qubits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 144101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Li, P. Zhou, C. Y. Li, H. Y. Zhou, and F. G. Deng, “Efficient symmetric multiparty quantum state sharing of an arbitrary m-qubit state,” J. Phys. B 39, 1975–1983 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Deng, X. H. Li, C. Y. Li, P. Zhou, and H. Y. Zhou, “Quantum state sharing of an arbitrary two-qubit state with two-photon entanglements and Bell-state measurements,” Eur. Phys. J. D 39, 459–464 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Deng, X. H. Li, C. Y. Li, P. Zhou, and H. Y. Zhou, “Multiparty quantum-state sharing of an arbitrary two-particle state with Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen pairs,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 044301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Deng, X. H. Li, H. Y. Zhou, and Z. J. Zhang, “Improving the security of multiparty quantum secret sharing against Trojan horse attack,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 044302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Deng, G. L. Long, and H. Y. Zhou, “Bidirectional quantum secret sharing and secret splitting with polarized single photons,” Phys. Lett. A 337, 329–334 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Deng, C. Y. Li, Y. S. Li, H. Y. Zhou, and Y. Wang, “Symmetric multiparty-controlled teleportation of an arbitrary two-particle entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 022338 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

Y. B. Sheng, L. Zhou, S. M. Zhao, and B. Y. Zheng, “Efficient single-photon-assisted entanglement concentration for partially entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 012307 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, P.

F. G. Deng, X. H. Li, C. Y. Li, P. Zhou, and H. Y. Zhou, “Quantum state sharing of an arbitrary two-qubit state with two-photon entanglements and Bell-state measurements,” Eur. Phys. J. D 39, 459–464 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Li, P. Zhou, C. Y. Li, H. Y. Zhou, and F. G. Deng, “Efficient symmetric multiparty quantum state sharing of an arbitrary m-qubit state,” J. Phys. B 39, 1975–1983 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Deng, X. H. Li, C. Y. Li, P. Zhou, and H. Y. Zhou, “Multiparty quantum-state sharing of an arbitrary two-particle state with Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen pairs,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 044301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

X. H. Li, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Faithful qubit transmission against collective noise without ancillary qubits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 144101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. D (3)

Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Efficient and economic five-party quantum state sharing of an arbitrary m-qubit state,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48, 279–284 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Deng, X. H. Li, C. Y. Li, P. Zhou, and H. Y. Zhou, “Quantum state sharing of an arbitrary two-qubit state with two-photon entanglements and Bell-state measurements,” Eur. Phys. J. D 39, 459–464 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Wang, S. Zhang, and K. H. Yeon, “Linear optical scheme for entanglement concentration of two partially entangled threephoton W states,” Eur. Phys. J. D 56, 271–275 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. B (1)

X. H. Li, P. Zhou, C. Y. Li, H. Y. Zhou, and F. G. Deng, “Efficient symmetric multiparty quantum state sharing of an arbitrary m-qubit state,” J. Phys. B 39, 1975–1983 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

J. W. Pan, C. Simon, and A. Zellinger, “Entanglement purification for quantum communication,” Nature 410, 1067–1070 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

X. H. Li, B. K. Zhao, Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Efficient faithful qubit transmission with frequency degree of freedom,” Opt. Commun. 282, 4025–4027 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Lett. A (2)

F. G. Deng, G. L. Long, and H. Y. Zhou, “Bidirectional quantum secret sharing and secret splitting with polarized single photons,” Phys. Lett. A 337, 329–334 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Deng, X. H. Li, and H. Y. Zhou, “Efficient high-capacity quantum secret sharing with two-photon entanglement,” Phys. Lett. A 372, 1957–1962 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (34)

Z. J. Zhang, Y. Li, and Z. X. Man, “Multiparty quantum secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 044301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. L. Yan and T. Gao, “Quantum secret sharing between multiparty and multiparty without entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 012304 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Deng, X. H. Li, H. Y. Zhou, and Z. J. Zhang, “Improving the security of multiparty quantum secret sharing against Trojan horse attack,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 044302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Deng, X. H. Li, C. Y. Li, P. Zhou, and H. Y. Zhou, “Multiparty quantum-state sharing of an arbitrary two-particle state with Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen pairs,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 044301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Long and X. S. Liu, “Theoretically efficient high-capacity quantum-key-distribution scheme,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 032302 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Deng and G. L. Long, “Controlled order rearrangement encryption for quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 042315 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Li, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Efficient quantum key distribution over a collective noise channel,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 022321 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Liu, G. L. Long, D. M. Tong, and L. Feng, “General scheme for superdense coding between multiparties,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 022304 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Hillery, V. Bužek, and A. Berthiaume, “Quantum secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1829–1834 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Karlsson, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, “Quantum entanglement for secret sharing and secret splitting,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 162–168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Xiao, G. L. Long, F. G. Deng, and J. W. Pan, “Efficient multiparty quantum-secret-sharing schemes,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 052307 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Li, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Efficient quantum key distribution over a collective noise channel,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 022321 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Karlsson and M. Bourennane, “Quantum teleportation using three-particle entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 4394–4400 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Yang, S. I. Chu, and S. Han, “Efficient many-party controlled teleportation of multiqubit quantum information via entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 022329 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Deng, C. Y. Li, Y. S. Li, H. Y. Zhou, and Y. Wang, “Symmetric multiparty-controlled teleportation of an arbitrary two-particle entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 022338 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng and F. G. Deng, “Efficient quantum entanglement distribution over an arbitrary collective-noise channel,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 042332 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Efficient polarization-entanglement purification based on parametric down-conversion sources with cross-Kerr nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 042308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng and F. G. Deng, “Deterministic entanglement purification and complete nonlocal Bell-state analysis with hyperentanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 032307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Li, “Deterministic polarization-entanglement purification using spatial entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 044304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng and F. G. Deng, “One-step deterministic polarization-entanglement purification using spatial entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 044305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Deng, “One-step error correction for multipartite polarization entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 062316 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Wang, Y. Zhang, and G. S. Jin, “Entanglement purification and concentration of electron-spin entangled states using quantum-dot spins in optical microcavities,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 032307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Barrett, P. Kok, K. Nemoto, R. G. Beausoleil, W. J. Munro, and T. P. Spiller, “Symmetry analyzer for nondestructive Bell-state detection using weak nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 060302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng, L. Zhou, S. M. Zhao, and B. Y. Zheng, “Efficient single-photon-assisted entanglement concentration for partially entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 012307 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Deng, “Optimal nonlocal multipartite entanglement concentration based on projection measurements,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 022311 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Yang, Y. Zhao, W. Song, and Z. L. Cao, “Entanglement concentration for unknown atomic entangled states via entanglement swapping,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 044302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Cao, L. H. Zhang, and M. Yang, “Concentration for unknown atomic entangled states via cavity decay,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 014303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Deng, “Efficient multipartite entanglement purification with the entanglement link from a subspace,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 052312 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Bennett, H. J. Bernstein, S. Popescu, and B. Schumacher, “Concentrating partial entanglement by local operations,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 2046–2052 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Bose, V. Vedral, and P. L. Knight, “Purification via entanglement swapping and conserved entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 194–197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Shi, Y. K. Jiang, and G. C. Guo, “Optimal entanglement purification via entanglement swapping,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 054301 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, “Concentration and purification scheme for two partially entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 012304 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhao, J. W. Pan, and M. S. Zhan, “Practical scheme for entanglement concentration,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 014301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Nonlocal entanglement concentration scheme for partially entangled multipartite systems with nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 062325 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (13)

K. Nemoto and W. J. Munro, “Nearly deterministic linear optical controlled-not gate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 250502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Simon and J. W. Pan, “Polarization entanglement purification using spatial entanglement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 257901(2002).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, S. Popescu, B. Schumacher, J. A. Smolin, and W. K. Wootters, “Purification of noisy entanglement and faithful teleportation via noisy channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 722–725 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Deutsch, A. Ekert, R. Jozsa, C. Macchiavello, S. Popescu, and A. Sanpera, “Quantum privacy amplification and the security of quantum cryptography over noisy channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2818–2821 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Z. D. Walton, A. F. Abouraddy, A. V. Sergienko, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Decoherence-free subspaces in quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 087901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Boileau, D. Gottesman, R. Laflamme, D. Poulin, and R. W. Spekkens, “Robust polarization-based quantum key distribution over a collective-noise channel,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 017901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Boileau, R. Laflamme, M. Laforest, and C. R. Myers, “Robust quantum communication using a polarization-entangled photon pair,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 220501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamamoto, J. Shimamura, S. K. Özdemir, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, “Faithful qubit distribution assisted by one additional qubit against collective noise,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 040503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crepeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, and W. K. Wootters, “Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1895–1899 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Bennett and S. J. Wiesner, “Communication via one- and two-particle operators on Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2881–2884 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Ekert, “Quantum cryptography based on Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 661–663 (1991).
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C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and N. D. Mermin, “Quantum cryptography without Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 557–559 (1992).
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A. M. Lance, T. Symul, W. P. Bowen, B. C. Sanders, and P. K. Lam, “Tripartite quantum state sharing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 177903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Quantum Inf. Comput. (3)

F. G. Deng, X. H. Li, and H. Y. Zhou, “Passively self-error-rejecting qubit transmission over a collective-noise channel,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 11, 0913–0924 (2011).

C. Wang, Y. Zhang, and G. S. Jin, “Polarization-entanglement purification and concentration using cross-Kerr nonlinearity,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 11, 0988–1002 (2011).

Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Single-photon entanglement concentration for long-distance quantum communication,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 10, 0272–0281 (2010).

Other (1)

M. A. Nielsen and I. L. Chuang, Quantum Computation and Quantum Information (Cambridge University, 2000).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The principle of a PCD on the polarizations of two photons, the same as that in [46,55]. PBS represents a polarizing beam splitter that transmits the photon in the horizontal polarization |H and reflects the photon in the vertical polarization |V. ck1 and ck2 represent two cross-Kerr nonlinearities that will lead to the phase shift +θ and θ when there is a photon passing through the media, respectively. |XX| represents an X quadrature measurement with which one cannot distinguish the states |αe±iθp [61,62].

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The principle of the present ECP for three-photon W states with ancillary single photons and the PCD based on cross-Kerr nonlinearity. R45 represents a Hadamard operation on the polarization of the ancillary single photon a. H and V represent the horizontal polarization state of photons |H and the vertical polarization state |V, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The relation between the total success probability P(n) and the parameter F=3|α|2 when |α|2|β|2 for the cases n=1 (dot curve), 2 (dash-dot curve), 3 (dash-dot-dot curve), 4 (dash curve), and 5 (solid curve), respectively.

Equations (26)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Hck=χas+asap+ap,
Uck|Ψs|αp=eiHckt/[c0|0s+c1|1s]|αp=c0|0s|αp+c1|1s|αeiθp,
|φCBA=α|HC|HB|VA+β(|HC|VB|HA+|VC|HB|HA),
α2+2β2=1.
|φa=1α2+β2(α|H+β|V)a.
|ΦCBAa=|φCBA|φa=1α2+β2{αβ[|HC|HB|VA|Va+(|HC|VB+|VC|HB)|HA|Ha]+α2|HC|HB|VA|Ha+β2(|HC|VB+|VC|HB)|HA|Va}.
|Ψ1CBAa=13(|HC|HB|VA|Va+(|HC|VB+|VC|HB)|HA|Ha).
|Ψ1CBAa=1α2+2β2[α2|HC|HB|VA|Ha+β2(|HC|VB+|VC|HB)|HA|Va].
P1=3α2β2α2+β2.
P1=α4+2β4α2+β2.
|W3+CBA=13(|HC|HB|VA+(|HC|VB+|VC|HB)|HA).
|W3CBA=13(|HC|HB|VA(|HC|VB+|VC|HB)|HA).
|Ψ2CBA=α2α2+2β2|HC|HB|VA+β2α2+2β2(|HC|VB+|VC|HB)|HA.
P2=3·α4α4+2β4·β4α4+2β4α4α4+2β4+β4α4+2β4=3α4β4(α4+β4)(α4+2β4).
P2=(α4α4+2β4)2+2·(β4α4+2β4)2α4α4+2β4+β4α4+2β4=α8+2β8(α4+β4)(α4+2β4).
P(n)=P1+P1P2++P1P2P3++P1P2Pn1Pn=3[α2β2α2+β2+α4β4(α2+β2)(α4+β4)+α8β8(α2+β2)(α4+β4)(α8+β8)++α2nβ2n(α2+β2)(α4+β4)(α2n+β2n)].
|φABCZ=α1|HZ|HC|HB|VA+β1(|HZ|HC|VB|HA+|HZ|VC|HB|HA++|VZ|HC|HB|HA).
α12+(N1)β12=1.
|ΦZCBAa1=|φZCBA|φa1=1α12+β12{α1β1[|HZ|HC|HB|VA|Va1+(|HZ|HC|VB+|HZ|VC|HB++|VZ|HC|HB)|HA|Ha1]+α12|HZ|HC|HB|VA|Ha1+β12(|HZ|HC|VB+|HZ|VC|HB++|VZ|HC|HB)|HA|Va1}.
|Ψ1ZCBAa1=1N[|HZ|HC|HB|VA|Va1+(|HZ|HC|VB+|HZ|VC|HB++|VZ|HC|HB)|HA|Ha1],
P1=Nα12β12α12+β12.
|Ψ1ZCBAa1=1α14+(N1)β14[α12|HZ|HC|HB|VA|Ha1+β12(|HZ|HC|VB+|HZ|VC|HB++|VZ|HC|HB)|HA|Va1],
P1=α14+(N1)β14α12+β12.
|WN+ZCBA=1N[|HZ|HC|HB|VA+(|HZ|HC|VB+|HZ|VC|HB++|VZ|HC|HB)|HA]
|Ψ1ZCBA=1α14+(N1)β14[α12|HZ|HC|HB|VA+β12(|HZ|HC|VB+|HZ|VC|HB++|VZ|HC|HB)|HA]
P(n)=N[α12β12α12+β12+α14β14(α12+β12)(α14+β14)+α18β18(α12+β12)(α14+β14)(α18+β18)++α12nβ12n(α12+β12)(α14+β14)(α12n+β12n)].

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