Abstract

Generation of 2 μW continuous-wave (CW)-terahertz (THz) radiation at 1.2 THz using a large-area photomixer with interdigitated electrodes is reported. The structure of the utilized photomixer allows for unidirectional carrier acceleration over the illuminated areas. We determine the characteristics of the generated CW-THz beam and show that the divergence of this beam is dependent on the spot size of the pump beams focused on the large-area photomixer. An illuminated area with dimensions much larger than the THz wavelength helps to eliminate the focusing optics for the THz beam. Additionally, we demonstrate that the THz beam radiated from the large-area photomixer is steerable by changing the incidence angles of the CW laser beams, as a result of which the phase distribution of the photocurrent along the contact stripes varies. In our experimental setup, the generated THz beam is steerable in the range of 30 to +30 degrees.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. L. Ives, D. Marsden, M. Caplan, C. Kory, J. Neilson, and S. Schwartzkopf, “Advanced terahertz backward wave oscillators,” in Proceedings of IEEE 4th International Conference on Vacuum Electronics (IEEE, 2003), p. 20.
  2. B. P. Gorshunov, A. A. Volkov, A. S. Prokhorov, and I. E. Spektor, “Methods of terahertz-subterahertz BWO spectroscopy of conducting materials,” Phys. Solid State 50, 2001–2012 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, S. Kohen, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Continuous-wave operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers above liquid-nitrogen temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2494–2496 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. A. Fan, M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Wide-ridge metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with high-order lateral mode suppression,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031106 (2008).
  5. M. A. Belkin, Q. J. Wang, C. Pugl, A. Belyanin, S. P. Khanna, A. G. Davies, E. H. Lineld, and F. Capasso, “High-temperature operation of terahertz quantum cascade laser sources,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 952–967 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W.-K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of Coherent THz Radiation from Superconductors,” Science 318, 1291–1293 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Maestrini, J. S. Ward, C. Tripon-Canseliet, J. Gill, C. Lee, H. Javadi, G. Chattopadhyay, and I. Mehdi, “In-phase power-combined frequency triplers at 300 GHz,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 18, 218–220 (2008).
  8. V. Krozer, G. Loata, J. G. de la Fuente, and P. Sanz, “Limitations in THz power generation with Schottky diode varactor frequency multipliers,” in Proceedings of IEEE 10th International Conference on Terahertz Electronics (IEEE, 2002), p. 109.
  9. Y. J. Ding, “High-power tunable THz sources based on parametric processes and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 705–720 (2007).
  10. D. Creeden, J. C. McCarthy, P. A. Ketteridge, T. Southward, P. G. Schunemann, J. J. Komiak, W. Dove, and E. P. Chicklis, “Compact Fiber-Pumped Terahertz Source Based on Difference Frequency Mixing in ZGP,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 732–737 (2007).
  11. G. Matthaus, S. Notle, R. Hommuth, M. Voitsch, W. Richter, B. Pradarutti, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, and A. Tunnermann, “Microlens coupled interdigital photoconductive switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 091110 (2008).
  12. M. Beck, H. Schafer, G. Klatt, J. Demsar, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, and T. Dekorsy, “Impulsive terahertz radiation with high electric fields from an amplifier-driven large-area photoconductive antenna,” Opt. Express 18, 9251–9257 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, and T. Dekorsy, “Optimum excitation conditions for the generation of high-electric-field terahertz radiation from an oscillator-driven photoconductive device,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1546–1548 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Krause, M. Wagner, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, and D. Stehr, “Tunable narrowband THz pulse generation in scalable large area photoconductive antennas,” Opt. Express 19, 19114 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Saeedkia, R. R. Mansour, and S. Safavi-Naeini, “Analysis and design of a continuous-wave terahertz photoconductive photomixer array source,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53, 4044–4050 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. Maki and C. Otani, “Terahertz beam steering and frequency tuning by using the spatial dispersion of ultrafast laser pulses,” Opt. Express 16, 10158–10169 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Shan and T. F. Heinz, “Terahertz radiation from semiconductors,” Topics Appl. Phys. 92, 2083–2142 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. J. Griffiths and R. College, Introduction to Electrodynamics (Prentice-Hall, 1999).
  19. S. Preu, G. H. Dohler, S. Malzer, L. J. Wang, and A. C. Gossard, “Tunable, continuous-wave Terahertz photomixer sources and applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 061301 (2011).
  20. A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, “High-intensity terahertz radiation from a microstructured large-area photoconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121114 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

S. Preu, G. H. Dohler, S. Malzer, L. J. Wang, and A. C. Gossard, “Tunable, continuous-wave Terahertz photomixer sources and applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 061301 (2011).

J. Krause, M. Wagner, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, and D. Stehr, “Tunable narrowband THz pulse generation in scalable large area photoconductive antennas,” Opt. Express 19, 19114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

M. A. Belkin, Q. J. Wang, C. Pugl, A. Belyanin, S. P. Khanna, A. G. Davies, E. H. Lineld, and F. Capasso, “High-temperature operation of terahertz quantum cascade laser sources,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 952–967 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

B. P. Gorshunov, A. A. Volkov, A. S. Prokhorov, and I. E. Spektor, “Methods of terahertz-subterahertz BWO spectroscopy of conducting materials,” Phys. Solid State 50, 2001–2012 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Maestrini, J. S. Ward, C. Tripon-Canseliet, J. Gill, C. Lee, H. Javadi, G. Chattopadhyay, and I. Mehdi, “In-phase power-combined frequency triplers at 300 GHz,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 18, 218–220 (2008).

G. Matthaus, S. Notle, R. Hommuth, M. Voitsch, W. Richter, B. Pradarutti, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, and A. Tunnermann, “Microlens coupled interdigital photoconductive switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 091110 (2008).

K. Maki and C. Otani, “Terahertz beam steering and frequency tuning by using the spatial dispersion of ultrafast laser pulses,” Opt. Express 16, 10158–10169 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Fan, M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Wide-ridge metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with high-order lateral mode suppression,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031106 (2008).

2007 (3)

Y. J. Ding, “High-power tunable THz sources based on parametric processes and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 705–720 (2007).

D. Creeden, J. C. McCarthy, P. A. Ketteridge, T. Southward, P. G. Schunemann, J. J. Komiak, W. Dove, and E. P. Chicklis, “Compact Fiber-Pumped Terahertz Source Based on Difference Frequency Mixing in ZGP,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 732–737 (2007).

L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W.-K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of Coherent THz Radiation from Superconductors,” Science 318, 1291–1293 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, “High-intensity terahertz radiation from a microstructured large-area photoconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Saeedkia, R. R. Mansour, and S. Safavi-Naeini, “Analysis and design of a continuous-wave terahertz photoconductive photomixer array source,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53, 4044–4050 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

J. Shan and T. F. Heinz, “Terahertz radiation from semiconductors,” Topics Appl. Phys. 92, 2083–2142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, S. Kohen, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Continuous-wave operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers above liquid-nitrogen temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2494–2496 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beck, M.

Belkin, M. A.

M. A. Belkin, Q. J. Wang, C. Pugl, A. Belyanin, S. P. Khanna, A. G. Davies, E. H. Lineld, and F. Capasso, “High-temperature operation of terahertz quantum cascade laser sources,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 952–967 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Fan, M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Wide-ridge metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with high-order lateral mode suppression,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031106 (2008).

Belyanin, A.

M. A. Belkin, Q. J. Wang, C. Pugl, A. Belyanin, S. P. Khanna, A. G. Davies, E. H. Lineld, and F. Capasso, “High-temperature operation of terahertz quantum cascade laser sources,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 952–967 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

M. A. Belkin, Q. J. Wang, C. Pugl, A. Belyanin, S. P. Khanna, A. G. Davies, E. H. Lineld, and F. Capasso, “High-temperature operation of terahertz quantum cascade laser sources,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 952–967 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Fan, M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Wide-ridge metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with high-order lateral mode suppression,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031106 (2008).

Caplan, M.

R. L. Ives, D. Marsden, M. Caplan, C. Kory, J. Neilson, and S. Schwartzkopf, “Advanced terahertz backward wave oscillators,” in Proceedings of IEEE 4th International Conference on Vacuum Electronics (IEEE, 2003), p. 20.

Chattopadhyay, G.

A. Maestrini, J. S. Ward, C. Tripon-Canseliet, J. Gill, C. Lee, H. Javadi, G. Chattopadhyay, and I. Mehdi, “In-phase power-combined frequency triplers at 300 GHz,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 18, 218–220 (2008).

Chicklis, E. P.

D. Creeden, J. C. McCarthy, P. A. Ketteridge, T. Southward, P. G. Schunemann, J. J. Komiak, W. Dove, and E. P. Chicklis, “Compact Fiber-Pumped Terahertz Source Based on Difference Frequency Mixing in ZGP,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 732–737 (2007).

College, R.

D. J. Griffiths and R. College, Introduction to Electrodynamics (Prentice-Hall, 1999).

Creeden, D.

D. Creeden, J. C. McCarthy, P. A. Ketteridge, T. Southward, P. G. Schunemann, J. J. Komiak, W. Dove, and E. P. Chicklis, “Compact Fiber-Pumped Terahertz Source Based on Difference Frequency Mixing in ZGP,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 732–737 (2007).

Davies, A. G.

M. A. Belkin, Q. J. Wang, C. Pugl, A. Belyanin, S. P. Khanna, A. G. Davies, E. H. Lineld, and F. Capasso, “High-temperature operation of terahertz quantum cascade laser sources,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 952–967 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Fan, M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Wide-ridge metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with high-order lateral mode suppression,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031106 (2008).

de la Fuente, J. G.

V. Krozer, G. Loata, J. G. de la Fuente, and P. Sanz, “Limitations in THz power generation with Schottky diode varactor frequency multipliers,” in Proceedings of IEEE 10th International Conference on Terahertz Electronics (IEEE, 2002), p. 109.

Dekorsy, T.

Demsar, J.

Ding, Y. J.

Y. J. Ding, “High-power tunable THz sources based on parametric processes and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 705–720 (2007).

Dohler, G. H.

S. Preu, G. H. Dohler, S. Malzer, L. J. Wang, and A. C. Gossard, “Tunable, continuous-wave Terahertz photomixer sources and applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 061301 (2011).

Dove, W.

D. Creeden, J. C. McCarthy, P. A. Ketteridge, T. Southward, P. G. Schunemann, J. J. Komiak, W. Dove, and E. P. Chicklis, “Compact Fiber-Pumped Terahertz Source Based on Difference Frequency Mixing in ZGP,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 732–737 (2007).

Dreyhaupt, A.

A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, and T. Dekorsy, “Optimum excitation conditions for the generation of high-electric-field terahertz radiation from an oscillator-driven photoconductive device,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1546–1548 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, “High-intensity terahertz radiation from a microstructured large-area photoconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fan, J. A.

J. A. Fan, M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Wide-ridge metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with high-order lateral mode suppression,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031106 (2008).

Gill, J.

A. Maestrini, J. S. Ward, C. Tripon-Canseliet, J. Gill, C. Lee, H. Javadi, G. Chattopadhyay, and I. Mehdi, “In-phase power-combined frequency triplers at 300 GHz,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 18, 218–220 (2008).

Gopalsami, N.

L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W.-K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of Coherent THz Radiation from Superconductors,” Science 318, 1291–1293 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gorshunov, B. P.

B. P. Gorshunov, A. A. Volkov, A. S. Prokhorov, and I. E. Spektor, “Methods of terahertz-subterahertz BWO spectroscopy of conducting materials,” Phys. Solid State 50, 2001–2012 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A. C.

S. Preu, G. H. Dohler, S. Malzer, L. J. Wang, and A. C. Gossard, “Tunable, continuous-wave Terahertz photomixer sources and applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 061301 (2011).

Gray, K. E.

L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W.-K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of Coherent THz Radiation from Superconductors,” Science 318, 1291–1293 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Griffiths, D. J.

D. J. Griffiths and R. College, Introduction to Electrodynamics (Prentice-Hall, 1999).

Heinz, T. F.

J. Shan and T. F. Heinz, “Terahertz radiation from semiconductors,” Topics Appl. Phys. 92, 2083–2142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Helm, M.

Hommuth, R.

G. Matthaus, S. Notle, R. Hommuth, M. Voitsch, W. Richter, B. Pradarutti, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, and A. Tunnermann, “Microlens coupled interdigital photoconductive switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 091110 (2008).

Hu, Q.

S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, S. Kohen, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Continuous-wave operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers above liquid-nitrogen temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2494–2496 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ives, R. L.

R. L. Ives, D. Marsden, M. Caplan, C. Kory, J. Neilson, and S. Schwartzkopf, “Advanced terahertz backward wave oscillators,” in Proceedings of IEEE 4th International Conference on Vacuum Electronics (IEEE, 2003), p. 20.

Javadi, H.

A. Maestrini, J. S. Ward, C. Tripon-Canseliet, J. Gill, C. Lee, H. Javadi, G. Chattopadhyay, and I. Mehdi, “In-phase power-combined frequency triplers at 300 GHz,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 18, 218–220 (2008).

Kadowaki, K.

L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W.-K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of Coherent THz Radiation from Superconductors,” Science 318, 1291–1293 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ketteridge, P. A.

D. Creeden, J. C. McCarthy, P. A. Ketteridge, T. Southward, P. G. Schunemann, J. J. Komiak, W. Dove, and E. P. Chicklis, “Compact Fiber-Pumped Terahertz Source Based on Difference Frequency Mixing in ZGP,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 732–737 (2007).

Khanna, S. P.

M. A. Belkin, Q. J. Wang, C. Pugl, A. Belyanin, S. P. Khanna, A. G. Davies, E. H. Lineld, and F. Capasso, “High-temperature operation of terahertz quantum cascade laser sources,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 952–967 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Fan, M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Wide-ridge metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with high-order lateral mode suppression,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031106 (2008).

Klatt, G.

Kohen, S.

S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, S. Kohen, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Continuous-wave operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers above liquid-nitrogen temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2494–2496 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Komiak, J. J.

D. Creeden, J. C. McCarthy, P. A. Ketteridge, T. Southward, P. G. Schunemann, J. J. Komiak, W. Dove, and E. P. Chicklis, “Compact Fiber-Pumped Terahertz Source Based on Difference Frequency Mixing in ZGP,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 732–737 (2007).

Kory, C.

R. L. Ives, D. Marsden, M. Caplan, C. Kory, J. Neilson, and S. Schwartzkopf, “Advanced terahertz backward wave oscillators,” in Proceedings of IEEE 4th International Conference on Vacuum Electronics (IEEE, 2003), p. 20.

Koshelev, A. E.

L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W.-K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of Coherent THz Radiation from Superconductors,” Science 318, 1291–1293 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krause, J.

Krozer, V.

V. Krozer, G. Loata, J. G. de la Fuente, and P. Sanz, “Limitations in THz power generation with Schottky diode varactor frequency multipliers,” in Proceedings of IEEE 10th International Conference on Terahertz Electronics (IEEE, 2002), p. 109.

Kumar, S.

S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, S. Kohen, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Continuous-wave operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers above liquid-nitrogen temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2494–2496 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kurter, C.

L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W.-K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of Coherent THz Radiation from Superconductors,” Science 318, 1291–1293 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, W.-K.

L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W.-K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of Coherent THz Radiation from Superconductors,” Science 318, 1291–1293 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lachab, M.

J. A. Fan, M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Wide-ridge metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with high-order lateral mode suppression,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031106 (2008).

Lee, C.

A. Maestrini, J. S. Ward, C. Tripon-Canseliet, J. Gill, C. Lee, H. Javadi, G. Chattopadhyay, and I. Mehdi, “In-phase power-combined frequency triplers at 300 GHz,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 18, 218–220 (2008).

Li, Q.

L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W.-K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of Coherent THz Radiation from Superconductors,” Science 318, 1291–1293 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lineld, E. H.

M. A. Belkin, Q. J. Wang, C. Pugl, A. Belyanin, S. P. Khanna, A. G. Davies, E. H. Lineld, and F. Capasso, “High-temperature operation of terahertz quantum cascade laser sources,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 952–967 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E. H.

J. A. Fan, M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Wide-ridge metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with high-order lateral mode suppression,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031106 (2008).

Loata, G.

V. Krozer, G. Loata, J. G. de la Fuente, and P. Sanz, “Limitations in THz power generation with Schottky diode varactor frequency multipliers,” in Proceedings of IEEE 10th International Conference on Terahertz Electronics (IEEE, 2002), p. 109.

Maestrini, A.

A. Maestrini, J. S. Ward, C. Tripon-Canseliet, J. Gill, C. Lee, H. Javadi, G. Chattopadhyay, and I. Mehdi, “In-phase power-combined frequency triplers at 300 GHz,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 18, 218–220 (2008).

Maki, K.

Malzer, S.

S. Preu, G. H. Dohler, S. Malzer, L. J. Wang, and A. C. Gossard, “Tunable, continuous-wave Terahertz photomixer sources and applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 061301 (2011).

Mansour, R. R.

D. Saeedkia, R. R. Mansour, and S. Safavi-Naeini, “Analysis and design of a continuous-wave terahertz photoconductive photomixer array source,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53, 4044–4050 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Marsden, D.

R. L. Ives, D. Marsden, M. Caplan, C. Kory, J. Neilson, and S. Schwartzkopf, “Advanced terahertz backward wave oscillators,” in Proceedings of IEEE 4th International Conference on Vacuum Electronics (IEEE, 2003), p. 20.

Matthaus, G.

G. Matthaus, S. Notle, R. Hommuth, M. Voitsch, W. Richter, B. Pradarutti, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, and A. Tunnermann, “Microlens coupled interdigital photoconductive switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 091110 (2008).

McCarthy, J. C.

D. Creeden, J. C. McCarthy, P. A. Ketteridge, T. Southward, P. G. Schunemann, J. J. Komiak, W. Dove, and E. P. Chicklis, “Compact Fiber-Pumped Terahertz Source Based on Difference Frequency Mixing in ZGP,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 732–737 (2007).

Mehdi, I.

A. Maestrini, J. S. Ward, C. Tripon-Canseliet, J. Gill, C. Lee, H. Javadi, G. Chattopadhyay, and I. Mehdi, “In-phase power-combined frequency triplers at 300 GHz,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 18, 218–220 (2008).

Minami, H.

L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W.-K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of Coherent THz Radiation from Superconductors,” Science 318, 1291–1293 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Neilson, J.

R. L. Ives, D. Marsden, M. Caplan, C. Kory, J. Neilson, and S. Schwartzkopf, “Advanced terahertz backward wave oscillators,” in Proceedings of IEEE 4th International Conference on Vacuum Electronics (IEEE, 2003), p. 20.

Notle, S.

G. Matthaus, S. Notle, R. Hommuth, M. Voitsch, W. Richter, B. Pradarutti, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, and A. Tunnermann, “Microlens coupled interdigital photoconductive switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 091110 (2008).

Notni, G.

G. Matthaus, S. Notle, R. Hommuth, M. Voitsch, W. Richter, B. Pradarutti, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, and A. Tunnermann, “Microlens coupled interdigital photoconductive switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 091110 (2008).

Otani, C.

Ozyuzer, L.

L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W.-K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of Coherent THz Radiation from Superconductors,” Science 318, 1291–1293 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pradarutti, B.

G. Matthaus, S. Notle, R. Hommuth, M. Voitsch, W. Richter, B. Pradarutti, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, and A. Tunnermann, “Microlens coupled interdigital photoconductive switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 091110 (2008).

Preu, S.

S. Preu, G. H. Dohler, S. Malzer, L. J. Wang, and A. C. Gossard, “Tunable, continuous-wave Terahertz photomixer sources and applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 061301 (2011).

Prokhorov, A. S.

B. P. Gorshunov, A. A. Volkov, A. S. Prokhorov, and I. E. Spektor, “Methods of terahertz-subterahertz BWO spectroscopy of conducting materials,” Phys. Solid State 50, 2001–2012 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pugl, C.

M. A. Belkin, Q. J. Wang, C. Pugl, A. Belyanin, S. P. Khanna, A. G. Davies, E. H. Lineld, and F. Capasso, “High-temperature operation of terahertz quantum cascade laser sources,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 952–967 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Reno, J. L.

S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, S. Kohen, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Continuous-wave operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers above liquid-nitrogen temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2494–2496 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Richter, W.

G. Matthaus, S. Notle, R. Hommuth, M. Voitsch, W. Richter, B. Pradarutti, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, and A. Tunnermann, “Microlens coupled interdigital photoconductive switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 091110 (2008).

Riehemann, S.

G. Matthaus, S. Notle, R. Hommuth, M. Voitsch, W. Richter, B. Pradarutti, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, and A. Tunnermann, “Microlens coupled interdigital photoconductive switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 091110 (2008).

Saeedkia, D.

D. Saeedkia, R. R. Mansour, and S. Safavi-Naeini, “Analysis and design of a continuous-wave terahertz photoconductive photomixer array source,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53, 4044–4050 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Safavi-Naeini, S.

D. Saeedkia, R. R. Mansour, and S. Safavi-Naeini, “Analysis and design of a continuous-wave terahertz photoconductive photomixer array source,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53, 4044–4050 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sanz, P.

V. Krozer, G. Loata, J. G. de la Fuente, and P. Sanz, “Limitations in THz power generation with Schottky diode varactor frequency multipliers,” in Proceedings of IEEE 10th International Conference on Terahertz Electronics (IEEE, 2002), p. 109.

Schafer, H.

Schunemann, P. G.

D. Creeden, J. C. McCarthy, P. A. Ketteridge, T. Southward, P. G. Schunemann, J. J. Komiak, W. Dove, and E. P. Chicklis, “Compact Fiber-Pumped Terahertz Source Based on Difference Frequency Mixing in ZGP,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 732–737 (2007).

Schwartzkopf, S.

R. L. Ives, D. Marsden, M. Caplan, C. Kory, J. Neilson, and S. Schwartzkopf, “Advanced terahertz backward wave oscillators,” in Proceedings of IEEE 4th International Conference on Vacuum Electronics (IEEE, 2003), p. 20.

Shan, J.

J. Shan and T. F. Heinz, “Terahertz radiation from semiconductors,” Topics Appl. Phys. 92, 2083–2142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Southward, T.

D. Creeden, J. C. McCarthy, P. A. Ketteridge, T. Southward, P. G. Schunemann, J. J. Komiak, W. Dove, and E. P. Chicklis, “Compact Fiber-Pumped Terahertz Source Based on Difference Frequency Mixing in ZGP,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 732–737 (2007).

Spektor, I. E.

B. P. Gorshunov, A. A. Volkov, A. S. Prokhorov, and I. E. Spektor, “Methods of terahertz-subterahertz BWO spectroscopy of conducting materials,” Phys. Solid State 50, 2001–2012 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stehr, D.

Tachiki, M.

L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W.-K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of Coherent THz Radiation from Superconductors,” Science 318, 1291–1293 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tachiki, T.

L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W.-K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of Coherent THz Radiation from Superconductors,” Science 318, 1291–1293 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tripon-Canseliet, C.

A. Maestrini, J. S. Ward, C. Tripon-Canseliet, J. Gill, C. Lee, H. Javadi, G. Chattopadhyay, and I. Mehdi, “In-phase power-combined frequency triplers at 300 GHz,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 18, 218–220 (2008).

Tunnermann, A.

G. Matthaus, S. Notle, R. Hommuth, M. Voitsch, W. Richter, B. Pradarutti, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, and A. Tunnermann, “Microlens coupled interdigital photoconductive switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 091110 (2008).

Voitsch, M.

G. Matthaus, S. Notle, R. Hommuth, M. Voitsch, W. Richter, B. Pradarutti, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, and A. Tunnermann, “Microlens coupled interdigital photoconductive switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 091110 (2008).

Volkov, A. A.

B. P. Gorshunov, A. A. Volkov, A. S. Prokhorov, and I. E. Spektor, “Methods of terahertz-subterahertz BWO spectroscopy of conducting materials,” Phys. Solid State 50, 2001–2012 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, M.

Wang, L. J.

S. Preu, G. H. Dohler, S. Malzer, L. J. Wang, and A. C. Gossard, “Tunable, continuous-wave Terahertz photomixer sources and applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 061301 (2011).

Wang, Q. J.

M. A. Belkin, Q. J. Wang, C. Pugl, A. Belyanin, S. P. Khanna, A. G. Davies, E. H. Lineld, and F. Capasso, “High-temperature operation of terahertz quantum cascade laser sources,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 952–967 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ward, J. S.

A. Maestrini, J. S. Ward, C. Tripon-Canseliet, J. Gill, C. Lee, H. Javadi, G. Chattopadhyay, and I. Mehdi, “In-phase power-combined frequency triplers at 300 GHz,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 18, 218–220 (2008).

Welp, U.

L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W.-K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of Coherent THz Radiation from Superconductors,” Science 318, 1291–1293 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Williams, B. S.

S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, S. Kohen, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Continuous-wave operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers above liquid-nitrogen temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2494–2496 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Winnerl, S.

Yamaguchi, H.

L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W.-K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of Coherent THz Radiation from Superconductors,” Science 318, 1291–1293 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, T.

L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W.-K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of Coherent THz Radiation from Superconductors,” Science 318, 1291–1293 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, S. Kohen, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Continuous-wave operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers above liquid-nitrogen temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2494–2496 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Fan, M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Wide-ridge metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with high-order lateral mode suppression,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031106 (2008).

G. Matthaus, S. Notle, R. Hommuth, M. Voitsch, W. Richter, B. Pradarutti, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, and A. Tunnermann, “Microlens coupled interdigital photoconductive switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 091110 (2008).

A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, “High-intensity terahertz radiation from a microstructured large-area photoconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. A. Belkin, Q. J. Wang, C. Pugl, A. Belyanin, S. P. Khanna, A. G. Davies, E. H. Lineld, and F. Capasso, “High-temperature operation of terahertz quantum cascade laser sources,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 952–967 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

Y. J. Ding, “High-power tunable THz sources based on parametric processes and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 705–720 (2007).

D. Creeden, J. C. McCarthy, P. A. Ketteridge, T. Southward, P. G. Schunemann, J. J. Komiak, W. Dove, and E. P. Chicklis, “Compact Fiber-Pumped Terahertz Source Based on Difference Frequency Mixing in ZGP,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 732–737 (2007).

IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. (1)

A. Maestrini, J. S. Ward, C. Tripon-Canseliet, J. Gill, C. Lee, H. Javadi, G. Chattopadhyay, and I. Mehdi, “In-phase power-combined frequency triplers at 300 GHz,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 18, 218–220 (2008).

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

D. Saeedkia, R. R. Mansour, and S. Safavi-Naeini, “Analysis and design of a continuous-wave terahertz photoconductive photomixer array source,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53, 4044–4050 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Preu, G. H. Dohler, S. Malzer, L. J. Wang, and A. C. Gossard, “Tunable, continuous-wave Terahertz photomixer sources and applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 061301 (2011).

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Solid State (1)

B. P. Gorshunov, A. A. Volkov, A. S. Prokhorov, and I. E. Spektor, “Methods of terahertz-subterahertz BWO spectroscopy of conducting materials,” Phys. Solid State 50, 2001–2012 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W.-K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of Coherent THz Radiation from Superconductors,” Science 318, 1291–1293 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Topics Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Shan and T. F. Heinz, “Terahertz radiation from semiconductors,” Topics Appl. Phys. 92, 2083–2142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

D. J. Griffiths and R. College, Introduction to Electrodynamics (Prentice-Hall, 1999).

R. L. Ives, D. Marsden, M. Caplan, C. Kory, J. Neilson, and S. Schwartzkopf, “Advanced terahertz backward wave oscillators,” in Proceedings of IEEE 4th International Conference on Vacuum Electronics (IEEE, 2003), p. 20.

V. Krozer, G. Loata, J. G. de la Fuente, and P. Sanz, “Limitations in THz power generation with Schottky diode varactor frequency multipliers,” in Proceedings of IEEE 10th International Conference on Terahertz Electronics (IEEE, 2002), p. 109.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Large-area photomixer at z=0 plane, illuminated by two Gaussian beams propagating in the y-z plane.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of the large-area THz photomixer with interdigitated electrodes. Further metallization is added on every second gap; hence, the photo-induced carriers are accelerated unidirectionally over the illuminated areas.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental setup for photomixing using a large-area photomixer.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Normalized angular distribution of the radiated THz beam mapped out for three different spot sizes. Dotted curves show the analytically calculated beam pattern of the same photomixer for comparison.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Normalized angular distribution of the radiated THz beam for different incidence angles of the laser beam 2 indicated in the figure. (b) Emission angle of the THz beam versus incidence angle of the laser beam 2.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E1|z=0=x^A1exp(x2+y2cos2θ1σ12)cos(ω1tk1ysinθ1),
E2|z=0=x^A2exp(x2+y2cos2θ2σ22)cos(ω2t+k2ysinθ2),
I(x,y;t)A1A2exp(x2+y2cos2θ1σ12x2+y2cos2θ2σ22)×cos(Δωt(k1sinθ1+k2sinθ2)y),
k2sinθ2=kTHzsinθTHz,
θTHz=sin1(λTHzλ2sinθ2),
I(x,y;t)=I0(t)exp(x2+y2σ2),
Jx(x,y;t)=J0(t)exp(x2+y2σ2),
|S(r,t)|=|A(t)|2r2(1sin2θcos2ϕ)exp(σ2kTHz2sin2θ2),

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