Abstract

We present a simple phase-matching model that takes into account the full spatiotemporal nature of capillary high-harmonic generation. Spectra predicted from the model are compared to experimental results for a number of gases and are shown to reproduce the spectral envelope of experimentally generated harmonics. The model demonstrates that an ionization-induced phase mismatch is limiting the energy of the generated harmonics in current capillary high-harmonic generation experiments. The success of this model shows that phase-matching processes play a dominant role in determining the emission from capillary high-harmonic generation.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  49. A single run can be completed in a few seconds on a standard desktop computer.

2011

V.-M. Gkortsas, S. Bhardwaj, E. L. Falcão-Filho, K.-H. Hong, A. Gordon, and F. X. Kärtner, “Scaling of high harmonic generation conversion efficiency,” J. Phys. B 44, 045601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft x-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173901 (2010).

R. T. Chapman, T. J. Butcher, P. Horak, F. Poletti, J. G. Frey, and W. S. Brocklesby, “Modal effects on pump-pulse propagation in an Ar-filled capillary,” Opt. Express 18, 13279–13284 (2010).

2009

I. Thomann, A. Bahabad, X. Liu, R. Trebino, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Characterizing isolated attosecond pulses from hollow-core waveguidesusing multi-cycle driving pulses,” Opt. Express 17, 4611–4633 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Abel, T. Pfeifer, P. M. Nagel, W. Boutu, M. J. Bell, C. P. Steiner, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Isolated attosecond pulses from ionization gating of high-harmonic emission,” Chem. Phys. 366, 9–14 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

S. L. Stebbings, E. T. F. Rogers, A. M. de Paula, M. Praeger, C. A. Froud, B. Mills, D. C. Hanna, J. J. Baumberg, W. S. Brocklesby, and J. G. Frey, “Molecular variation of capillary-produced soft x-ray high harmonics,” J. Phys B 41, 145602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, O. Cohen, M. E. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Extended phase matching of high harmonics driven by mid-infrared light,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2128–2130 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

C. A. Froud, E. T. F. Rogers, D. C. Hanna, W. S. Brocklesby, M. Praeger, A. M. de Paula, J. J. Baumberg, and J. G. Frey, “Soft-x-ray wavelength shift induced by ionization effects in a capillary,” Opt. Lett. 31, 374–376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, A. Paul, I. Thomann, A. Lytle, T. Keep, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Generation of sub-optical-cycle, carrier-envelope-phase-insensitive, extreme-UV pulses via nonlinear stabilization in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 061803 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. Gordon and F. X. Kärtner, “Quantitative modeling of single atom high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

V. S. Popov, “Tunnel and multiphoton ionization of atoms and ions in a strong laser field (keldysh theory),” Phys. Uspekhi 47, 855–885 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High-order harmonic generation up to 250 ev from highly ionized argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 033001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Reider, “Xuv attosecond pulses: generation and measurement,” J. Phys. D 37, R37–R48 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

F. Lindner, W. Stremme, M. G. Schatzel, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Hartmann, and L. Struder, “High-order harmonic generation at a repetition rate of 100 khz,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 013814 (2003).

C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, E. Priori, S. Stagira, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, V. Tosa, and K. Midorikawa, “Phase-matching analysis of high-order harmonics generated by truncated bessel beams in the sub-10-fs regime,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 033806 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297, 376–378 (2002).

A. Babin, D. Kartashov, A. Kiselev, V. Lozhkarev, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, “Ionization spectrum broadening and frequency blue-shift of high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses in gas-filled capillary tubes,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 509–514 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

C. Courtois, A. Couairon, B. Cors, J. Marqués, and G. Mattieussent, “Propagation of intense ultrashort laser pulses in a plasma filled capillary tube: Simulations and experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 3445–3456 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Naumov, A. Zheltikov, A. Fedotov, D. Sidorov-Biryukov, A. Tarasevitch, P. Zhou, and D. von der Linde, “Pressure control of phase matching in high-order harmonic generation in hollow fibers filled with an absorbing weakly ionizing gas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 811–817 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Naumov, A. Zheltikov, A. Fedotov, D. Sidorov-Biryukov, A. Tarasevitch, P. Zhou, and D. Von der Linde, “Ionization and absorption effects in high-order harmonic generation in gas-filled hollow fibers,” Laser Part. Beams 19, 75–79 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Christov, “Control of high harmonic and attosecond pulse generation in aperiodic modulated waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 1877–1881 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Quasi-phase matching of high-harmonics and attosecond pulses in modulated waveguides,” Opt. Express 7, 362–367 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Chantler, “Detailed tabulation of atomic form factors, photoelectric absorption and scattering cross section, and mass attenuation coefficients in the vicinity of absorption edges in the soft x-ray (z=30–36, z=60–89, e=0.1  kev–10  kev), addressing convergence issues of earlier work,” Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 29, 597–1048 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, C. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: Model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2187–2190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

M. Bellini, C. Lynga, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hansch, A. L’Huillier, and C. G. Wahlstrom, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297–300 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Toward a terawatt-scale sub-10-fs laser technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 414–420 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Nubling and J. Harrington, “Launch conditions and mode coupling in hollow-glass waveguides,” Opt. Eng. 37, 2454–2458 (1998).

1995

C. T. Chantler, “Theoretical form-factor, attenuation and scattering tabulation for z=1–92 from e=1–10  ev to e=0.4–1.0  mev,” Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 24, 71–591 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, and A. L’Huillier, “Phase of the atomic polarization in high-order harmonic-generation,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 4747–4754 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Salieres, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Coherence control of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3776–3779 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132(1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, and C. L. Gordon, “High-order harmonic generation using intense femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 766–769 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. L’Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, J. Larsson, and C. G. Wahlström, “High-order harmonic-generation cutoff,” Phys. Rev. A 48, R3433–R3436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

J. Krause, K. Schafer, and K. Kulander, “High-order harmonic-generation from atoms and ions in the high-intensity regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3535–3538 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schaffer, and K. C. Kulander, “Calculation of photoemission from atoms subject to intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 4998–-5010 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. L’Huillier, P. Balcou, S. Candel, K. Schafer, and K. Kulander, “Calculations of high-order harmonic-generation processes in xenon at 1064 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 2778–2790 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

1966

1964

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1783–1809 (1964).

1960

A. Dalgarno and A. E. Kingston, “The refractive indices and verdet constants of the inert gases,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. A 259, 424–431 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1914

C. Cuthbertson and M. Cuthbertson, “On the refraction and dispersion of the halogens, halogen acids, ozone, steam, oxides of nitrogen and ammonia,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 213, 1–26 (1914).
[CrossRef]

Abel, M. J.

M. J. Abel, T. Pfeifer, P. M. Nagel, W. Boutu, M. J. Bell, C. P. Steiner, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Isolated attosecond pulses from ionization gating of high-harmonic emission,” Chem. Phys. 366, 9–14 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Agostini, P.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, C. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: Model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Altucci, C.

C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, E. Priori, S. Stagira, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, V. Tosa, and K. Midorikawa, “Phase-matching analysis of high-order harmonics generated by truncated bessel beams in the sub-10-fs regime,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 033806 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Arpin, P.

M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft x-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173901 (2010).

Attwood, D.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297, 376–378 (2002).

Augst, S.

Babin, A.

A. Babin, D. Kartashov, A. Kiselev, V. Lozhkarev, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, “Ionization spectrum broadening and frequency blue-shift of high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses in gas-filled capillary tubes,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 509–514 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Backus, S.

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High-order harmonic generation up to 250 ev from highly ionized argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 033001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297, 376–378 (2002).

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2187–2190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bahabad, A.

Balcou, P.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132(1994).
[CrossRef]

A. L’Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, J. Larsson, and C. G. Wahlström, “High-order harmonic-generation cutoff,” Phys. Rev. A 48, R3433–R3436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. L’Huillier, P. Balcou, S. Candel, K. Schafer, and K. Kulander, “Calculations of high-order harmonic-generation processes in xenon at 1064 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 2778–2790 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bartels, R. A.

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M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, and A. L’Huillier, “Phase of the atomic polarization in high-order harmonic-generation,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 4747–4754 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132(1994).
[CrossRef]

A. L’Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, J. Larsson, and C. G. Wahlström, “High-order harmonic-generation cutoff,” Phys. Rev. A 48, R3433–R3436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. L’Huillier, P. Balcou, S. Candel, K. Schafer, and K. Kulander, “Calculations of high-order harmonic-generation processes in xenon at 1064 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 2778–2790 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Larsson, J.

A. L’Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, J. Larsson, and C. G. Wahlström, “High-order harmonic-generation cutoff,” Phys. Rev. A 48, R3433–R3436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Le Blanc, C.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, C. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: Model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Leone, S. R.

M. J. Abel, T. Pfeifer, P. M. Nagel, W. Boutu, M. J. Bell, C. P. Steiner, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Isolated attosecond pulses from ionization gating of high-harmonic emission,” Chem. Phys. 366, 9–14 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lewenstein, M.

P. Salieres, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Coherence control of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3776–3779 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, and A. L’Huillier, “Phase of the atomic polarization in high-order harmonic-generation,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 4747–4754 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132(1994).
[CrossRef]

A. L’Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, J. Larsson, and C. G. Wahlström, “High-order harmonic-generation cutoff,” Phys. Rev. A 48, R3433–R3436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lindner, F.

F. Lindner, W. Stremme, M. G. Schatzel, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Hartmann, and L. Struder, “High-order harmonic generation at a repetition rate of 100 khz,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 013814 (2003).

Liu, X.

Liu, Y. W.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297, 376–378 (2002).

Lozhkarev, V.

A. Babin, D. Kartashov, A. Kiselev, V. Lozhkarev, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, “Ionization spectrum broadening and frequency blue-shift of high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses in gas-filled capillary tubes,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 509–514 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lynga, C.

M. Bellini, C. Lynga, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hansch, A. L’Huillier, and C. G. Wahlstrom, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297–300 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lytle, A.

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, A. Paul, I. Thomann, A. Lytle, T. Keep, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Generation of sub-optical-cycle, carrier-envelope-phase-insensitive, extreme-UV pulses via nonlinear stabilization in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 061803 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Macklin, J. J.

J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, and C. L. Gordon, “High-order harmonic generation using intense femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 766–769 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Marcatili, E. A. J.

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1783–1809 (1964).

Marqués, J.

C. Courtois, A. Couairon, B. Cors, J. Marqués, and G. Mattieussent, “Propagation of intense ultrashort laser pulses in a plasma filled capillary tube: Simulations and experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 3445–3456 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mattieussent, G.

C. Courtois, A. Couairon, B. Cors, J. Marqués, and G. Mattieussent, “Propagation of intense ultrashort laser pulses in a plasma filled capillary tube: Simulations and experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 3445–3456 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mével, E.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, C. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: Model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Meyerhofer, D. D.

Midorikawa, K.

C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, E. Priori, S. Stagira, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, V. Tosa, and K. Midorikawa, “Phase-matching analysis of high-order harmonics generated by truncated bessel beams in the sub-10-fs regime,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 033806 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mills, B.

S. L. Stebbings, E. T. F. Rogers, A. M. de Paula, M. Praeger, C. A. Froud, B. Mills, D. C. Hanna, J. J. Baumberg, W. S. Brocklesby, and J. G. Frey, “Molecular variation of capillary-produced soft x-ray high harmonics,” J. Phys B 41, 145602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Milosevic, N.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Murnane, M. M.

M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft x-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173901 (2010).

I. Thomann, A. Bahabad, X. Liu, R. Trebino, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Characterizing isolated attosecond pulses from hollow-core waveguidesusing multi-cycle driving pulses,” Opt. Express 17, 4611–4633 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, O. Cohen, M. E. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Extended phase matching of high harmonics driven by mid-infrared light,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2128–2130 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, A. Paul, I. Thomann, A. Lytle, T. Keep, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Generation of sub-optical-cycle, carrier-envelope-phase-insensitive, extreme-UV pulses via nonlinear stabilization in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 061803 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High-order harmonic generation up to 250 ev from highly ionized argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 033001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297, 376–378 (2002).

I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Quasi-phase matching of high-harmonics and attosecond pulses in modulated waveguides,” Opt. Express 7, 362–367 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2187–2190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nagel, P. M.

M. J. Abel, T. Pfeifer, P. M. Nagel, W. Boutu, M. J. Bell, C. P. Steiner, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Isolated attosecond pulses from ionization gating of high-harmonic emission,” Chem. Phys. 366, 9–14 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Naumov, A.

A. Naumov, A. Zheltikov, A. Fedotov, D. Sidorov-Biryukov, A. Tarasevitch, P. Zhou, and D. Von der Linde, “Ionization and absorption effects in high-order harmonic generation in gas-filled hollow fibers,” Laser Part. Beams 19, 75–79 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Naumov, A. Zheltikov, A. Fedotov, D. Sidorov-Biryukov, A. Tarasevitch, P. Zhou, and D. von der Linde, “Pressure control of phase matching in high-order harmonic generation in hollow fibers filled with an absorbing weakly ionizing gas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 811–817 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nemes, G.

A. E. Siegman, G. Nemes, and J. Serna, “How to (maybe) measure laser beam quality,” in DPSS (Diode Pumped Solid State) Lasers: Applications and Issues, M. Dowley, ed., Vol. 17 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 1998), p. MQ1.

Neumark, D. M.

M. J. Abel, T. Pfeifer, P. M. Nagel, W. Boutu, M. J. Bell, C. P. Steiner, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Isolated attosecond pulses from ionization gating of high-harmonic emission,” Chem. Phys. 366, 9–14 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nisoli, M.

C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, E. Priori, S. Stagira, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, V. Tosa, and K. Midorikawa, “Phase-matching analysis of high-order harmonics generated by truncated bessel beams in the sub-10-fs regime,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 033806 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Toward a terawatt-scale sub-10-fs laser technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 414–420 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nubling, R.

R. Nubling and J. Harrington, “Launch conditions and mode coupling in hollow-glass waveguides,” Opt. Eng. 37, 2454–2458 (1998).

Pascolini, M.

C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, E. Priori, S. Stagira, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, V. Tosa, and K. Midorikawa, “Phase-matching analysis of high-order harmonics generated by truncated bessel beams in the sub-10-fs regime,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 033806 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Paul, A.

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, A. Paul, I. Thomann, A. Lytle, T. Keep, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Generation of sub-optical-cycle, carrier-envelope-phase-insensitive, extreme-UV pulses via nonlinear stabilization in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 061803 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High-order harmonic generation up to 250 ev from highly ionized argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 033001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297, 376–378 (2002).

Paulus, G. G.

F. Lindner, W. Stremme, M. G. Schatzel, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Hartmann, and L. Struder, “High-order harmonic generation at a repetition rate of 100 khz,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 013814 (2003).

Peck, E. R.

Pfeifer, T.

M. J. Abel, T. Pfeifer, P. M. Nagel, W. Boutu, M. J. Bell, C. P. Steiner, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Isolated attosecond pulses from ionization gating of high-harmonic emission,” Chem. Phys. 366, 9–14 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Poletti, F.

Poletto, L.

C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, E. Priori, S. Stagira, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, V. Tosa, and K. Midorikawa, “Phase-matching analysis of high-order harmonics generated by truncated bessel beams in the sub-10-fs regime,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 033806 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Popmintchev, D.

M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft x-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173901 (2010).

Popmintchev, T.

M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft x-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173901 (2010).

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, O. Cohen, M. E. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Extended phase matching of high harmonics driven by mid-infrared light,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2128–2130 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Popov, V. S.

V. S. Popov, “Tunnel and multiphoton ionization of atoms and ions in a strong laser field (keldysh theory),” Phys. Uspekhi 47, 855–885 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Praeger, M.

S. L. Stebbings, E. T. F. Rogers, A. M. de Paula, M. Praeger, C. A. Froud, B. Mills, D. C. Hanna, J. J. Baumberg, W. S. Brocklesby, and J. G. Frey, “Molecular variation of capillary-produced soft x-ray high harmonics,” J. Phys B 41, 145602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Froud, E. T. F. Rogers, D. C. Hanna, W. S. Brocklesby, M. Praeger, A. M. de Paula, J. J. Baumberg, and J. G. Frey, “Soft-x-ray wavelength shift induced by ionization effects in a capillary,” Opt. Lett. 31, 374–376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Priori, E.

C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, E. Priori, S. Stagira, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, V. Tosa, and K. Midorikawa, “Phase-matching analysis of high-order harmonics generated by truncated bessel beams in the sub-10-fs regime,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 033806 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reider, G. A.

G. A. Reider, “Xuv attosecond pulses: generation and measurement,” J. Phys. D 37, R37–R48 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rocca, J. J.

Rogers, E. T. F.

S. L. Stebbings, E. T. F. Rogers, A. M. de Paula, M. Praeger, C. A. Froud, B. Mills, D. C. Hanna, J. J. Baumberg, W. S. Brocklesby, and J. G. Frey, “Molecular variation of capillary-produced soft x-ray high harmonics,” J. Phys B 41, 145602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Froud, E. T. F. Rogers, D. C. Hanna, W. S. Brocklesby, M. Praeger, A. M. de Paula, J. J. Baumberg, and J. G. Frey, “Soft-x-ray wavelength shift induced by ionization effects in a capillary,” Opt. Lett. 31, 374–376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rundquist, A. R.

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2187–2190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Salieres, P.

P. Salieres, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Coherence control of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3776–3779 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Salières, P.

M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, and A. L’Huillier, “Phase of the atomic polarization in high-order harmonic-generation,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 4747–4754 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. L’Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, J. Larsson, and C. G. Wahlström, “High-order harmonic-generation cutoff,” Phys. Rev. A 48, R3433–R3436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Salin, F.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, C. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: Model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sandhu, A. S.

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, A. Paul, I. Thomann, A. Lytle, T. Keep, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Generation of sub-optical-cycle, carrier-envelope-phase-insensitive, extreme-UV pulses via nonlinear stabilization in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 061803 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sartania, S.

M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Toward a terawatt-scale sub-10-fs laser technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 414–420 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schafer, K.

J. Krause, K. Schafer, and K. Kulander, “High-order harmonic-generation from atoms and ions in the high-intensity regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3535–3538 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. L’Huillier, P. Balcou, S. Candel, K. Schafer, and K. Kulander, “Calculations of high-order harmonic-generation processes in xenon at 1064 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 2778–2790 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schaffer, K. J.

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schaffer, and K. C. Kulander, “Calculation of photoemission from atoms subject to intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 4998–-5010 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schatzel, M. G.

F. Lindner, W. Stremme, M. G. Schatzel, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Hartmann, and L. Struder, “High-order harmonic generation at a repetition rate of 100 khz,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 013814 (2003).

Schmeltzer, R. A.

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1783–1809 (1964).

Seaberg, M.

M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft x-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173901 (2010).

Sergeev, A.

A. Babin, D. Kartashov, A. Kiselev, V. Lozhkarev, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, “Ionization spectrum broadening and frequency blue-shift of high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses in gas-filled capillary tubes,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 509–514 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Serna, J.

A. E. Siegman, G. Nemes, and J. Serna, “How to (maybe) measure laser beam quality,” in DPSS (Diode Pumped Solid State) Lasers: Applications and Issues, M. Dowley, ed., Vol. 17 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 1998), p. MQ1.

Sidorov-Biryukov, D.

A. Naumov, A. Zheltikov, A. Fedotov, D. Sidorov-Biryukov, A. Tarasevitch, P. Zhou, and D. Von der Linde, “Ionization and absorption effects in high-order harmonic generation in gas-filled hollow fibers,” Laser Part. Beams 19, 75–79 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Naumov, A. Zheltikov, A. Fedotov, D. Sidorov-Biryukov, A. Tarasevitch, P. Zhou, and D. von der Linde, “Pressure control of phase matching in high-order harmonic generation in hollow fibers filled with an absorbing weakly ionizing gas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 811–817 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, G. Nemes, and J. Serna, “How to (maybe) measure laser beam quality,” in DPSS (Diode Pumped Solid State) Lasers: Applications and Issues, M. Dowley, ed., Vol. 17 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 1998), p. MQ1.

Spielmann, C.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Toward a terawatt-scale sub-10-fs laser technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 414–420 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stagira, S.

C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, E. Priori, S. Stagira, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, V. Tosa, and K. Midorikawa, “Phase-matching analysis of high-order harmonics generated by truncated bessel beams in the sub-10-fs regime,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 033806 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Toward a terawatt-scale sub-10-fs laser technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 414–420 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stebbings, S. L.

S. L. Stebbings, E. T. F. Rogers, A. M. de Paula, M. Praeger, C. A. Froud, B. Mills, D. C. Hanna, J. J. Baumberg, W. S. Brocklesby, and J. G. Frey, “Molecular variation of capillary-produced soft x-ray high harmonics,” J. Phys B 41, 145602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Steiner, C. P.

M. J. Abel, T. Pfeifer, P. M. Nagel, W. Boutu, M. J. Bell, C. P. Steiner, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Isolated attosecond pulses from ionization gating of high-harmonic emission,” Chem. Phys. 366, 9–14 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, A.

A. Babin, D. Kartashov, A. Kiselev, V. Lozhkarev, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, “Ionization spectrum broadening and frequency blue-shift of high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses in gas-filled capillary tubes,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 509–514 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stremme, W.

F. Lindner, W. Stremme, M. G. Schatzel, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Hartmann, and L. Struder, “High-order harmonic generation at a repetition rate of 100 khz,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 013814 (2003).

Strickland, D.

Struder, L.

F. Lindner, W. Stremme, M. G. Schatzel, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Hartmann, and L. Struder, “High-order harmonic generation at a repetition rate of 100 khz,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 013814 (2003).

Svelto, O.

M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Toward a terawatt-scale sub-10-fs laser technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 414–420 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tarasevitch, A.

A. Naumov, A. Zheltikov, A. Fedotov, D. Sidorov-Biryukov, A. Tarasevitch, P. Zhou, and D. von der Linde, “Pressure control of phase matching in high-order harmonic generation in hollow fibers filled with an absorbing weakly ionizing gas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 811–817 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Naumov, A. Zheltikov, A. Fedotov, D. Sidorov-Biryukov, A. Tarasevitch, P. Zhou, and D. Von der Linde, “Ionization and absorption effects in high-order harmonic generation in gas-filled hollow fibers,” Laser Part. Beams 19, 75–79 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tempea, G.

M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Toward a terawatt-scale sub-10-fs laser technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 414–420 (1998).
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[CrossRef]

Tobey, R.

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High-order harmonic generation up to 250 ev from highly ionized argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 033001 (2004).
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[CrossRef]

Tozzi, A.

M. Bellini, C. Lynga, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hansch, A. L’Huillier, and C. G. Wahlstrom, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297–300 (1998).
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Trebino, R.

Villoresi, P.

C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, E. Priori, S. Stagira, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, V. Tosa, and K. Midorikawa, “Phase-matching analysis of high-order harmonics generated by truncated bessel beams in the sub-10-fs regime,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 033806 (2003).
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A. Naumov, A. Zheltikov, A. Fedotov, D. Sidorov-Biryukov, A. Tarasevitch, P. Zhou, and D. Von der Linde, “Ionization and absorption effects in high-order harmonic generation in gas-filled hollow fibers,” Laser Part. Beams 19, 75–79 (2001).
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A. Naumov, A. Zheltikov, A. Fedotov, D. Sidorov-Biryukov, A. Tarasevitch, P. Zhou, and D. von der Linde, “Pressure control of phase matching in high-order harmonic generation in hollow fibers filled with an absorbing weakly ionizing gas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 811–817 (2001).
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Wagner, N.

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High-order harmonic generation up to 250 ev from highly ionized argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 033001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wahlstrom, C. G.

M. Bellini, C. Lynga, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hansch, A. L’Huillier, and C. G. Wahlstrom, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297–300 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wahlström, C. G.

A. L’Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, J. Larsson, and C. G. Wahlström, “High-order harmonic-generation cutoff,” Phys. Rev. A 48, R3433–R3436 (1993).
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Walther, H.

F. Lindner, W. Stremme, M. G. Schatzel, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Hartmann, and L. Struder, “High-order harmonic generation at a repetition rate of 100 khz,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 013814 (2003).

Wolf, E.

M. Born, and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1965), 3rd ed.

Zhang, B.

M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft x-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173901 (2010).

Zheltikov, A.

A. Naumov, A. Zheltikov, A. Fedotov, D. Sidorov-Biryukov, A. Tarasevitch, P. Zhou, and D. Von der Linde, “Ionization and absorption effects in high-order harmonic generation in gas-filled hollow fibers,” Laser Part. Beams 19, 75–79 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Naumov, A. Zheltikov, A. Fedotov, D. Sidorov-Biryukov, A. Tarasevitch, P. Zhou, and D. von der Linde, “Pressure control of phase matching in high-order harmonic generation in hollow fibers filled with an absorbing weakly ionizing gas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 811–817 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, P.

A. Naumov, A. Zheltikov, A. Fedotov, D. Sidorov-Biryukov, A. Tarasevitch, P. Zhou, and D. von der Linde, “Pressure control of phase matching in high-order harmonic generation in hollow fibers filled with an absorbing weakly ionizing gas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 811–817 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Naumov, A. Zheltikov, A. Fedotov, D. Sidorov-Biryukov, A. Tarasevitch, P. Zhou, and D. Von der Linde, “Ionization and absorption effects in high-order harmonic generation in gas-filled hollow fibers,” Laser Part. Beams 19, 75–79 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

A. Babin, D. Kartashov, A. Kiselev, V. Lozhkarev, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, “Ionization spectrum broadening and frequency blue-shift of high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses in gas-filled capillary tubes,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 509–514 (2002).
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Bell Syst. Tech. J.

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Chem. Phys.

M. J. Abel, T. Pfeifer, P. M. Nagel, W. Boutu, M. J. Bell, C. P. Steiner, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Isolated attosecond pulses from ionization gating of high-harmonic emission,” Chem. Phys. 366, 9–14 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Toward a terawatt-scale sub-10-fs laser technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 414–420 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys B

S. L. Stebbings, E. T. F. Rogers, A. M. de Paula, M. Praeger, C. A. Froud, B. Mills, D. C. Hanna, J. J. Baumberg, W. S. Brocklesby, and J. G. Frey, “Molecular variation of capillary-produced soft x-ray high harmonics,” J. Phys B 41, 145602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B

V.-M. Gkortsas, S. Bhardwaj, E. L. Falcão-Filho, K.-H. Hong, A. Gordon, and F. X. Kärtner, “Scaling of high harmonic generation conversion efficiency,” J. Phys. B 44, 045601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D

G. A. Reider, “Xuv attosecond pulses: generation and measurement,” J. Phys. D 37, R37–R48 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laser Part. Beams

A. Naumov, A. Zheltikov, A. Fedotov, D. Sidorov-Biryukov, A. Tarasevitch, P. Zhou, and D. Von der Linde, “Ionization and absorption effects in high-order harmonic generation in gas-filled hollow fibers,” Laser Part. Beams 19, 75–79 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nature

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

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Opt. Express

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Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A

C. Cuthbertson and M. Cuthbertson, “On the refraction and dispersion of the halogens, halogen acids, ozone, steam, oxides of nitrogen and ammonia,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 213, 1–26 (1914).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Chem. Ref. Data

C. T. Chantler, “Detailed tabulation of atomic form factors, photoelectric absorption and scattering cross section, and mass attenuation coefficients in the vicinity of absorption edges in the soft x-ray (z=30–36, z=60–89, e=0.1  kev–10  kev), addressing convergence issues of earlier work,” Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 29, 597–1048 (2000).
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C. T. Chantler, “Theoretical form-factor, attenuation and scattering tabulation for z=1–92 from e=1–10  ev to e=0.4–1.0  mev,” Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 24, 71–591 (1995).
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Phys. Plasmas

C. Courtois, A. Couairon, B. Cors, J. Marqués, and G. Mattieussent, “Propagation of intense ultrashort laser pulses in a plasma filled capillary tube: Simulations and experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 3445–3456 (2001).
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Phys. Rev. A

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132(1994).
[CrossRef]

A. L’Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, J. Larsson, and C. G. Wahlström, “High-order harmonic-generation cutoff,” Phys. Rev. A 48, R3433–R3436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, A. Paul, I. Thomann, A. Lytle, T. Keep, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Generation of sub-optical-cycle, carrier-envelope-phase-insensitive, extreme-UV pulses via nonlinear stabilization in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 061803 (2006).
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[CrossRef]

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C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, E. Priori, S. Stagira, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, V. Tosa, and K. Midorikawa, “Phase-matching analysis of high-order harmonics generated by truncated bessel beams in the sub-10-fs regime,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 033806 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. L’Huillier, P. Balcou, S. Candel, K. Schafer, and K. Kulander, “Calculations of high-order harmonic-generation processes in xenon at 1064 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 2778–2790 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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P. Salieres, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Coherence control of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3776–3779 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Bellini, C. Lynga, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hansch, A. L’Huillier, and C. G. Wahlstrom, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297–300 (1998).
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J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, and C. L. Gordon, “High-order harmonic generation using intense femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 766–769 (1993).
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[CrossRef]

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C. Chantler, K. Olsen, R. Dragoset, J. Chang, A. Kishore, S. Kotochigova, and D. Zucker, “X-ray form factor, attenuation and scattering tables (version 2.1),” [Online] Available: http://physics.nist.gov/ffast [July 16, 2008] (2005). Originally published as [39, 40].

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Absorption depth of XUV radiation in 50 mbar of various gases as a function of energy. Data taken from [38].

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental (solid) and theoretical (dashed) spectra for (a) argon, (b) nitrogen, (c) nitrous oxide, and (d) neon at 50 mbar. The calculations reproduce the relative intensities of the harmonics, the shape of the spectra, and the high energy cutoff.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Theoretical prediction of generation—summed over all harmonics—for (a) argon, (b) nitrogen, (c) nitrous oxide, and (d) neon as a function of time and radial position in the capillary, relative to the peak of the pulse. Darker colors indicate more harmonic generation. The contours are lines of constant intensity with labels in 1014Wcm2. The 1.1×1014Wcm2 contour has been omitted in (c) for clarity. Note the intensity at which generation occurs for each gas. The pressure in the capillary is 50 mbar.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I(r,t,q)(dN)2(1+e2αL2eαLcosΔkLα2+Δk2),
Δk(r,t,q)qu112λ04πa2+Nere(qλ0λq)2π(Na+Ne)λq[δ(λ0)δ(λq)],
u1mu11q.
Ec=Ip+3.17Up,

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