Abstract

We have investigated the diffraction spectra of photoelectrons from one-photon single ionization of diatomic molecules by ultrashort extreme ultraviolet pulses. The result shows that the diffraction patterns strongly depend on the internuclear distances of molecules. With these diffraction patterns, we succeed in measuring the transient internuclear distances of small-distance molecules with a high precision. This provides a simple and efficient method for imaging molecular transient structures, avoiding the complicated recovering process of the diffraction pattern in the imaging with rescattered electrons.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
  2. H. Hetzheim, C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, and W. Becker, “Interference effects in above-threshold ionization from diatomic molecules: Determining the internuclear separation,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 023418 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. X. Hu and L. A. Collins, “Imaging molecular structures by electron diffraction using an intense few-cycle pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 073004 (2005).
  4. M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavičić, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320, 1478–1482 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Spanner, O. Smirnova, P. B. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “Reading diffraction images in strong field ionization of diatomic molecules,” J. Phys. B 37, L243–L250 (2004).
  6. T. Zuo, A. D. Bandrauk, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron diffraction: a new tool for probing ultrafast molecular dynamics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 259, 313–320 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Henkel, M. Lein, and V. Engel, “Interference in above-threshold-ionization electron distributions from molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 051401(R) (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. R. Schneider, “FLASH-from accelerator test facility to the first single-pass soft x-ray free-electron laser,” J. Phys. B 43, 194001 (2010).
  9. E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Lan, P. Lu, Q. Li, F. Li, W. Hong, and Q. Zhang, “Macroscopic effects for quantum control of broadband isolated attosecond pulse generation with a two-color field,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 043413 (2009).
  11. Q. Zhang, P. Lu, P. Lan, W. Hong, and Z. Yang, “Multi-cycle laser-driven broadband supercontinuum with a modulated polarization gating,” Opt. Express 16, 9795–9803 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Yuan, H. Lu, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Linear- and circular-polarization photoionization angular distributions in H2 and H2+ by attosecond xuv laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 043418 (2011).
  13. S. E. Cantona, E. Plésiat, J. D. Bozek, B. S. Rude, P. Decleva, and F. Martín, “Direct observation of Young’s double-slit interferences in vibrationally resolved photoionization of diatomic molecules,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 108, 7302–7306(2011).
  14. M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, and A. Steiger, “Solution of the Schrödinger equation by a spectral method,” J. Comput. Phys. 47, 412–433 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. Huang, Q. Liao, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Role of Coulomb focusing on the electron transverse momentum of above-threshold ionization,” Opt. Express 18, 14293–14300 (2010).
  16. X. M. Tong, K. Hino, and N. Toshima, “Phase-dependent atomic ionization in few-cycle intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 031405(R) (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Q. Liao, P. Lu, Q. Zhang, W. Hong, and Z. Yang, “Phase-dependent nonsequential double ionization by few-cycle laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 41 (2008).
  18. R. Kosloff and H. Tal-Ezer, “A direct relaxation method for calculating eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the Schrödinger equation on a grid,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 127, 223–230 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. D. Cohen and U. Fano, “Interference in the photo-ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. 150, 30–33 (1966).
  20. R. Torres, R. de Nalda, and J. P. Marangos, “Dynamics of laser-induced molecular alignment in the impulsive and adiabatic regimes: A direct comparison,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 023420 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. Stapelfeldt and T. Seideman, “Colloquium: Aligning molecules with strong laser pulses,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 543–557 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (3)

J. Henkel, M. Lein, and V. Engel, “Interference in above-threshold-ionization electron distributions from molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 051401(R) (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Yuan, H. Lu, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Linear- and circular-polarization photoionization angular distributions in H2 and H2+ by attosecond xuv laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 043418 (2011).

S. E. Cantona, E. Plésiat, J. D. Bozek, B. S. Rude, P. Decleva, and F. Martín, “Direct observation of Young’s double-slit interferences in vibrationally resolved photoionization of diatomic molecules,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 108, 7302–7306(2011).

2010 (2)

J. R. Schneider, “FLASH-from accelerator test facility to the first single-pass soft x-ray free-electron laser,” J. Phys. B 43, 194001 (2010).

C. Huang, Q. Liao, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Role of Coulomb focusing on the electron transverse momentum of above-threshold ionization,” Opt. Express 18, 14293–14300 (2010).

2009 (1)

P. Lan, P. Lu, Q. Li, F. Li, W. Hong, and Q. Zhang, “Macroscopic effects for quantum control of broadband isolated attosecond pulse generation with a two-color field,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 043413 (2009).

2008 (4)

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavičić, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320, 1478–1482 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liao, P. Lu, Q. Zhang, W. Hong, and Z. Yang, “Phase-dependent nonsequential double ionization by few-cycle laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 41 (2008).

Q. Zhang, P. Lu, P. Lan, W. Hong, and Z. Yang, “Multi-cycle laser-driven broadband supercontinuum with a modulated polarization gating,” Opt. Express 16, 9795–9803 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

H. Hetzheim, C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, and W. Becker, “Interference effects in above-threshold ionization from diatomic molecules: Determining the internuclear separation,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 023418 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

X. M. Tong, K. Hino, and N. Toshima, “Phase-dependent atomic ionization in few-cycle intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 031405(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

R. Torres, R. de Nalda, and J. P. Marangos, “Dynamics of laser-induced molecular alignment in the impulsive and adiabatic regimes: A direct comparison,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 023420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. X. Hu and L. A. Collins, “Imaging molecular structures by electron diffraction using an intense few-cycle pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 073004 (2005).

2004 (1)

M. Spanner, O. Smirnova, P. B. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “Reading diffraction images in strong field ionization of diatomic molecules,” J. Phys. B 37, L243–L250 (2004).

2003 (1)

H. Stapelfeldt and T. Seideman, “Colloquium: Aligning molecules with strong laser pulses,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 543–557 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

T. Zuo, A. D. Bandrauk, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron diffraction: a new tool for probing ultrafast molecular dynamics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 259, 313–320 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).

1986 (1)

R. Kosloff and H. Tal-Ezer, “A direct relaxation method for calculating eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the Schrödinger equation on a grid,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 127, 223–230 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, and A. Steiger, “Solution of the Schrödinger equation by a spectral method,” J. Comput. Phys. 47, 412–433 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

H. D. Cohen and U. Fano, “Interference in the photo-ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. 150, 30–33 (1966).

Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bandrauk, A. D.

K. Yuan, H. Lu, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Linear- and circular-polarization photoionization angular distributions in H2 and H2+ by attosecond xuv laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 043418 (2011).

T. Zuo, A. D. Bandrauk, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron diffraction: a new tool for probing ultrafast molecular dynamics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 259, 313–320 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bandulet, H. C.

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavičić, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320, 1478–1482 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Becker, W.

H. Hetzheim, C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, and W. Becker, “Interference effects in above-threshold ionization from diatomic molecules: Determining the internuclear separation,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 023418 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bozek, J. D.

S. E. Cantona, E. Plésiat, J. D. Bozek, B. S. Rude, P. Decleva, and F. Martín, “Direct observation of Young’s double-slit interferences in vibrationally resolved photoionization of diatomic molecules,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 108, 7302–7306(2011).

Cantona, S. E.

S. E. Cantona, E. Plésiat, J. D. Bozek, B. S. Rude, P. Decleva, and F. Martín, “Direct observation of Young’s double-slit interferences in vibrationally resolved photoionization of diatomic molecules,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 108, 7302–7306(2011).

Cohen, H. D.

H. D. Cohen and U. Fano, “Interference in the photo-ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. 150, 30–33 (1966).

Collins, L. A.

S. X. Hu and L. A. Collins, “Imaging molecular structures by electron diffraction using an intense few-cycle pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 073004 (2005).

Comtois, D.

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavičić, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320, 1478–1482 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavičić, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320, 1478–1482 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Spanner, O. Smirnova, P. B. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “Reading diffraction images in strong field ionization of diatomic molecules,” J. Phys. B 37, L243–L250 (2004).

T. Zuo, A. D. Bandrauk, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron diffraction: a new tool for probing ultrafast molecular dynamics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 259, 313–320 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).

de Nalda, R.

R. Torres, R. de Nalda, and J. P. Marangos, “Dynamics of laser-induced molecular alignment in the impulsive and adiabatic regimes: A direct comparison,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 023420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Decleva, P.

S. E. Cantona, E. Plésiat, J. D. Bozek, B. S. Rude, P. Decleva, and F. Martín, “Direct observation of Young’s double-slit interferences in vibrationally resolved photoionization of diatomic molecules,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 108, 7302–7306(2011).

Dörner, R.

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavičić, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320, 1478–1482 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Engel, V.

J. Henkel, M. Lein, and V. Engel, “Interference in above-threshold-ionization electron distributions from molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 051401(R) (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fano, U.

H. D. Cohen and U. Fano, “Interference in the photo-ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. 150, 30–33 (1966).

Feit, M. D.

M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, and A. Steiger, “Solution of the Schrödinger equation by a spectral method,” J. Comput. Phys. 47, 412–433 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Figueira de Morisson Faria, C.

H. Hetzheim, C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, and W. Becker, “Interference effects in above-threshold ionization from diatomic molecules: Determining the internuclear separation,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 023418 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fleck, J. A.

M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, and A. Steiger, “Solution of the Schrödinger equation by a spectral method,” J. Comput. Phys. 47, 412–433 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Gagnon, J.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Goulielmakis, E.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Henkel, J.

J. Henkel, M. Lein, and V. Engel, “Interference in above-threshold-ionization electron distributions from molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 051401(R) (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hetzheim, H.

H. Hetzheim, C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, and W. Becker, “Interference effects in above-threshold ionization from diatomic molecules: Determining the internuclear separation,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 023418 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hino, K.

X. M. Tong, K. Hino, and N. Toshima, “Phase-dependent atomic ionization in few-cycle intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 031405(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hofstetter, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hong, W.

P. Lan, P. Lu, Q. Li, F. Li, W. Hong, and Q. Zhang, “Macroscopic effects for quantum control of broadband isolated attosecond pulse generation with a two-color field,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 043413 (2009).

Q. Liao, P. Lu, Q. Zhang, W. Hong, and Z. Yang, “Phase-dependent nonsequential double ionization by few-cycle laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 41 (2008).

Q. Zhang, P. Lu, P. Lan, W. Hong, and Z. Yang, “Multi-cycle laser-driven broadband supercontinuum with a modulated polarization gating,” Opt. Express 16, 9795–9803 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hu, S. X.

S. X. Hu and L. A. Collins, “Imaging molecular structures by electron diffraction using an intense few-cycle pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 073004 (2005).

Huang, C.

Ivanov, M. Y.

M. Spanner, O. Smirnova, P. B. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “Reading diffraction images in strong field ionization of diatomic molecules,” J. Phys. B 37, L243–L250 (2004).

Kieffer, J. C.

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavičić, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320, 1478–1482 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kienberger, R.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kleineberg, U.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kosloff, R.

R. Kosloff and H. Tal-Ezer, “A direct relaxation method for calculating eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the Schrödinger equation on a grid,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 127, 223–230 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lan, P.

P. Lan, P. Lu, Q. Li, F. Li, W. Hong, and Q. Zhang, “Macroscopic effects for quantum control of broadband isolated attosecond pulse generation with a two-color field,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 043413 (2009).

Q. Zhang, P. Lu, P. Lan, W. Hong, and Z. Yang, “Multi-cycle laser-driven broadband supercontinuum with a modulated polarization gating,” Opt. Express 16, 9795–9803 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lein, M.

J. Henkel, M. Lein, and V. Engel, “Interference in above-threshold-ionization electron distributions from molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 051401(R) (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, F.

P. Lan, P. Lu, Q. Li, F. Li, W. Hong, and Q. Zhang, “Macroscopic effects for quantum control of broadband isolated attosecond pulse generation with a two-color field,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 043413 (2009).

Li, Q.

P. Lan, P. Lu, Q. Li, F. Li, W. Hong, and Q. Zhang, “Macroscopic effects for quantum control of broadband isolated attosecond pulse generation with a two-color field,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 043413 (2009).

Liao, Q.

C. Huang, Q. Liao, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Role of Coulomb focusing on the electron transverse momentum of above-threshold ionization,” Opt. Express 18, 14293–14300 (2010).

Q. Liao, P. Lu, Q. Zhang, W. Hong, and Z. Yang, “Phase-dependent nonsequential double ionization by few-cycle laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 41 (2008).

Lu, H.

K. Yuan, H. Lu, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Linear- and circular-polarization photoionization angular distributions in H2 and H2+ by attosecond xuv laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 043418 (2011).

Lu, P.

C. Huang, Q. Liao, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Role of Coulomb focusing on the electron transverse momentum of above-threshold ionization,” Opt. Express 18, 14293–14300 (2010).

P. Lan, P. Lu, Q. Li, F. Li, W. Hong, and Q. Zhang, “Macroscopic effects for quantum control of broadband isolated attosecond pulse generation with a two-color field,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 043413 (2009).

Q. Liao, P. Lu, Q. Zhang, W. Hong, and Z. Yang, “Phase-dependent nonsequential double ionization by few-cycle laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 41 (2008).

Q. Zhang, P. Lu, P. Lan, W. Hong, and Z. Yang, “Multi-cycle laser-driven broadband supercontinuum with a modulated polarization gating,” Opt. Express 16, 9795–9803 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Marangos, J. P.

R. Torres, R. de Nalda, and J. P. Marangos, “Dynamics of laser-induced molecular alignment in the impulsive and adiabatic regimes: A direct comparison,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 023420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martín, F.

S. E. Cantona, E. Plésiat, J. D. Bozek, B. S. Rude, P. Decleva, and F. Martín, “Direct observation of Young’s double-slit interferences in vibrationally resolved photoionization of diatomic molecules,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 108, 7302–7306(2011).

Meckel, M.

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavičić, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320, 1478–1482 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pavicic, D.

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavičić, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320, 1478–1482 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pépin, H.

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavičić, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320, 1478–1482 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Plésiat, E.

S. E. Cantona, E. Plésiat, J. D. Bozek, B. S. Rude, P. Decleva, and F. Martín, “Direct observation of Young’s double-slit interferences in vibrationally resolved photoionization of diatomic molecules,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 108, 7302–7306(2011).

Rude, B. S.

S. E. Cantona, E. Plésiat, J. D. Bozek, B. S. Rude, P. Decleva, and F. Martín, “Direct observation of Young’s double-slit interferences in vibrationally resolved photoionization of diatomic molecules,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 108, 7302–7306(2011).

Schneider, J. R.

J. R. Schneider, “FLASH-from accelerator test facility to the first single-pass soft x-ray free-electron laser,” J. Phys. B 43, 194001 (2010).

Schultze, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Seideman, T.

H. Stapelfeldt and T. Seideman, “Colloquium: Aligning molecules with strong laser pulses,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 543–557 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smirnova, O.

M. Spanner, O. Smirnova, P. B. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “Reading diffraction images in strong field ionization of diatomic molecules,” J. Phys. B 37, L243–L250 (2004).

Spanner, M.

M. Spanner, O. Smirnova, P. B. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “Reading diffraction images in strong field ionization of diatomic molecules,” J. Phys. B 37, L243–L250 (2004).

Stapelfeldt, H.

H. Stapelfeldt and T. Seideman, “Colloquium: Aligning molecules with strong laser pulses,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 543–557 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Staudte, A.

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavičić, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320, 1478–1482 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Steiger, A.

M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, and A. Steiger, “Solution of the Schrödinger equation by a spectral method,” J. Comput. Phys. 47, 412–433 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Tal-Ezer, H.

R. Kosloff and H. Tal-Ezer, “A direct relaxation method for calculating eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the Schrödinger equation on a grid,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 127, 223–230 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Tong, X. M.

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[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

2D photoelectron momentum distributions of H2+ aligned at θ=90° for the internuclear distances (a) R=2.0a.u. (b) R=4.0a.u.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Electron diffraction patterns of H2+ aligned at θ=90° for various internuclear distances. The left column shows 2D momentum distributions on logarithmic scale. The right column is momentum distributions along x axis. The “input” internuclear distances are R=2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 a.u. from top to bottom, respectively. The red solid lines mark the first-order diffraction minima to guide the eye.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

2D electron momentum distributions of H2+ aligned at (a) θ=0° and (b) θ=45° for R=4.0a.u. on logarithmic scale. (c) Shows the momentum distribution along x axis of H2+ aligned at θ=90° for R=4.0a.u., taking the cos2θa angular distribution of aligned molecules into account.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Comparison between the Measured and the “Input” Internuclear Distances

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