Abstract

We present a theoretical scheme for laser cooling with colloidal lead-salt PbSe quantum dots (QDs) doped in a glass host. The laser cooling process is based on the anti-Stokes fluorescence in QDs. The relatively short (microsecond range) lifetime of the excited level of the PbSe QD allows the cooling process to be accelerated and new materials with higher phonon energy to be used as hosts, which are normally considered unsuitable for cooling with rare-earth ions. The considerable increase (by 104) in the absorption cross section of the PbSe QD in comparison with the absorption cross section of rare-earth ions doped in glasses or crystals increases the efficiency of the cooling process considerably, lowering the pump power requirements.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. O. Dantas, F. Qu, A. F. G. Monte, R. S. Silva, and P. C. Morais, “Optical properties of IV–VI quantum dots embedded in glass: size-effects,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 3525–3529 (2006).
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  5. D. V. Seletskiy, S. D. Melgaard, S. Bigotta, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Laser cooling of solids to cryogenic temperatures,” Nat. Photon. 4, 161–164 (2010).
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  8. T. Vossmeyer, L. Katsikas, M. Giersig, I. G. Popovic, K. Diesner, A. Chemseddine, A. Eychmueller, and H. Weller, “CdS nanoclusters: synthesis, characterization, size dependent oscillator strength, temperature shift of the excitonic transition energy, and reversible absorbance shift,” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 7665–7673 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Nomura and T. Kobayashi, “Exciton–LO-phonon couplings in spherical semiconductor microcrystallites,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 1305–1316 (1992).
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    [CrossRef]
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  12. C. Cheng and H. Zhang, “Characteristics of bandwidth, gain and noise of a PbSe quantum dot-doped fiber amplifier,” Opt. Commun. 277, 372–378 (2007).
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  13. C. Cheng, “A multiquantum-dot-doped fiber amplifier with characteristics of broadband, flat gain, and low noise,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 1404–1410 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. R. Bahrampour, H. Rooholamini, L. Rahimi, and A. A. Askari, “An inhomogeneous theoretical model for analysis of PbSe quantum-dot-doped fiber amplifier,” Opt. Commun. 282, 4449–4454 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. M. I. Vasilevskiy, E. V. Anda, and S. S. Makler, “Electron-phonon interaction effects in semiconductor quantum dots: a nonperturabative approach,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 035318 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, and M. G. Bawendi, “Quantization of multiparticle Auger rates in semiconductor quantum dots,” Science 287, 1011–1013 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. Htoon, J. A. Hollingsworth, R. Dickerson, and V. I. Klimov, “Effect of zero- to one-dimensional transformation on multiparticle Auger recombination in semiconductor quantum rods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 227401 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. D. Schaller, M. A. Petruska, and V. I. Klimov, “Tunable near-infrared optical gain and amplified spontaneous emission using PbSe nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 13765–13768 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. V. I. Klimov, “Mechanisms for photogeneration and recombination of multiexcitons in semiconductor nanocrystals: implications for lasing and solar energy conversion,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 16827–16845 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  23. V. I. Klimov, “Optical nonlinearities and ultrafast carrier dynamics in semiconductor nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 6112–6123 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  24. D. E. Gmez, J. van Embden, J. Jasieniak, T. A. Smith, and P. Mulvaney, “Blinking and surface chemistry of single CdSe nanocrystals,” Small 2, 204–208 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. W. Stouwdam, J. Shan, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, A. G. Pattantyus-Abraham, J. F. Young, and M. Raudsepp, “Photostability of colloidal PbSe and PbSe/PbS core/shell nanocrystals in solution and in the solid state,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 1086–1092 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. C. Bartnik, F. W. Wise, A. Kigel, and E. Lifshitz, “Electronic structure of PbSe/PbS core-shell quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 245424 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. Sheik-Bahae and R. I. Epstein, “Laser cooling of solids,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 67–84 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  28. B. L. Wehrenbeg, C. Wang, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Interband and intraband optical studies of PbSe colloidal quantum dots,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 10634–10640 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. M. Harbold, H. Du, T. D. Krauss, K.-S. Cho, C. B. Murray, and F. W. Wise, “Time-resolved intraband relaxation of strongly confined electrons and holes in colloidal PbSe nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 195312 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  30. G. Nemova and R. Kashyap, “Alternative technique for laser cooling with superradiance,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 013404 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  31. S. Bigotta and M. Tonelli, “Laser cooling in fluoride crystals,” in Optical Refrigeration, R. I. Epstein and M. Sheik-Bahae, eds. (Wiley-VCH, 2009), pp. 75–95.

2011

G. Nemova and R. Kashyap, “Alternative technique for laser cooling with superradiance,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 013404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

D. V. Seletskiy, S. D. Melgaard, S. Bigotta, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Laser cooling of solids to cryogenic temperatures,” Nat. Photon. 4, 161–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

M. Sheik-Bahae and R. I. Epstein, “Laser cooling of solids,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 67–84 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Bahrampour, H. Rooholamini, L. Rahimi, and A. A. Askari, “An inhomogeneous theoretical model for analysis of PbSe quantum-dot-doped fiber amplifier,” Opt. Commun. 282, 4449–4454 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

C. Cheng and H. Zhang, “Characteristics of bandwidth, gain and noise of a PbSe quantum dot-doped fiber amplifier,” Opt. Commun. 277, 372–378 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Harbold and F. W. Wise, “Photoluminescence spectroscopy of PbSe nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 125304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Stouwdam, J. Shan, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, A. G. Pattantyus-Abraham, J. F. Young, and M. Raudsepp, “Photostability of colloidal PbSe and PbSe/PbS core/shell nanocrystals in solution and in the solid state,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 1086–1092 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Bartnik, F. W. Wise, A. Kigel, and E. Lifshitz, “Electronic structure of PbSe/PbS core-shell quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 245424 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

N. O. Dantas, F. Qu, A. F. G. Monte, R. S. Silva, and P. C. Morais, “Optical properties of IV–VI quantum dots embedded in glass: size-effects,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 3525–3529 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Gmez, J. van Embden, J. Jasieniak, T. A. Smith, and P. Mulvaney, “Blinking and surface chemistry of single CdSe nanocrystals,” Small 2, 204–208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Klimov, “Mechanisms for photogeneration and recombination of multiexcitons in semiconductor nanocrystals: implications for lasing and solar energy conversion,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 16827–16845 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

J. M. Harbold, H. Du, T. D. Krauss, K.-S. Cho, C. B. Murray, and F. W. Wise, “Time-resolved intraband relaxation of strongly confined electrons and holes in colloidal PbSe nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 195312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. I. Vasilevskiy, E. V. Anda, and S. S. Makler, “Electron-phonon interaction effects in semiconductor quantum dots: a nonperturabative approach,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 035318 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

H. Htoon, J. A. Hollingsworth, R. Dickerson, and V. I. Klimov, “Effect of zero- to one-dimensional transformation on multiparticle Auger recombination in semiconductor quantum rods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 227401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Schaller, M. A. Petruska, and V. I. Klimov, “Tunable near-infrared optical gain and amplified spontaneous emission using PbSe nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 13765–13768 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

B. L. Wehrenbeg, C. Wang, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Interband and intraband optical studies of PbSe colloidal quantum dots,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 10634–10640 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

V. I. Klimov, “Optical nonlinearities and ultrafast carrier dynamics in semiconductor nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 6112–6123 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, and M. G. Bawendi, “Quantization of multiparticle Auger rates in semiconductor quantum dots,” Science 287, 1011–1013 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. W. Wise, “Lead-salt quantum dots: the limit of strong quantum confinement,” Acc. Chem. Res. 33, 773–780 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

A. Olkhovets, R.-C. Hsu, A. Lipovskii, and F. W. Wise, “Size-dependent temperature variation of the energy gap in lead-salt quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3539–3542 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. Lipovskii, E. Kolobkova, V. Petrikov, I. Kang, A. Olkhovets, T. Krauss, M. Thomas, J. Silcox, F. Wise, Q. Shen, and S. Kycia, “Synthesis and characterization of PbSe quantum dots in phosphate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3406–3408 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

R. I. Epstein, M. I. Buchwald, B. C. Edwards, T. R. Gosnell, and C. E. Mungan, “Observation of laser-induced fluorescent cooling of a solid,” Nature 377, 500–503 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

T. Vossmeyer, L. Katsikas, M. Giersig, I. G. Popovic, K. Diesner, A. Chemseddine, A. Eychmueller, and H. Weller, “CdS nanoclusters: synthesis, characterization, size dependent oscillator strength, temperature shift of the excitonic transition energy, and reversible absorbance shift,” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 7665–7673 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

S. Nomura and T. Kobayashi, “Exciton–LO-phonon couplings in spherical semiconductor microcrystallites,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 1305–1316 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Zheng and H. S. Kwok, “Temperature dependence of the optical properties of semiconductor microcrystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 2047–2053 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

D. I. Chepic, A. L. Efros, A. I. Ekimov, M. G. Ivanov, V. A. Kharchenko, and I. A. Kudriavtsev, “Auger ionization of semiconductor quantum drops in a glass matrix,” J. Lumin. 47, 113–127 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1929

P. Pringsheim, “Zwei Bemerkungen über den Unterschied von Lumineszenz und Temperaturstrahlung,” Z. Phys. 57, 739–746 (1929).
[CrossRef]

Anda, E. V.

M. I. Vasilevskiy, E. V. Anda, and S. S. Makler, “Electron-phonon interaction effects in semiconductor quantum dots: a nonperturabative approach,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 035318 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Askari, A. A.

A. R. Bahrampour, H. Rooholamini, L. Rahimi, and A. A. Askari, “An inhomogeneous theoretical model for analysis of PbSe quantum-dot-doped fiber amplifier,” Opt. Commun. 282, 4449–4454 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bahrampour, A. R.

A. R. Bahrampour, H. Rooholamini, L. Rahimi, and A. A. Askari, “An inhomogeneous theoretical model for analysis of PbSe quantum-dot-doped fiber amplifier,” Opt. Commun. 282, 4449–4454 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bartnik, A. C.

A. C. Bartnik, F. W. Wise, A. Kigel, and E. Lifshitz, “Electronic structure of PbSe/PbS core-shell quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 245424 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bawendi, M. G.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, and M. G. Bawendi, “Quantization of multiparticle Auger rates in semiconductor quantum dots,” Science 287, 1011–1013 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bigotta, S.

D. V. Seletskiy, S. D. Melgaard, S. Bigotta, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Laser cooling of solids to cryogenic temperatures,” Nat. Photon. 4, 161–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Bigotta and M. Tonelli, “Laser cooling in fluoride crystals,” in Optical Refrigeration, R. I. Epstein and M. Sheik-Bahae, eds. (Wiley-VCH, 2009), pp. 75–95.

Buchwald, M. I.

R. I. Epstein, M. I. Buchwald, B. C. Edwards, T. R. Gosnell, and C. E. Mungan, “Observation of laser-induced fluorescent cooling of a solid,” Nature 377, 500–503 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chemseddine, A.

T. Vossmeyer, L. Katsikas, M. Giersig, I. G. Popovic, K. Diesner, A. Chemseddine, A. Eychmueller, and H. Weller, “CdS nanoclusters: synthesis, characterization, size dependent oscillator strength, temperature shift of the excitonic transition energy, and reversible absorbance shift,” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 7665–7673 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, C.

C. Cheng, “A multiquantum-dot-doped fiber amplifier with characteristics of broadband, flat gain, and low noise,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 1404–1410 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Cheng and H. Zhang, “Characteristics of bandwidth, gain and noise of a PbSe quantum dot-doped fiber amplifier,” Opt. Commun. 277, 372–378 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chepic, D. I.

D. I. Chepic, A. L. Efros, A. I. Ekimov, M. G. Ivanov, V. A. Kharchenko, and I. A. Kudriavtsev, “Auger ionization of semiconductor quantum drops in a glass matrix,” J. Lumin. 47, 113–127 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cho, K.-S.

J. M. Harbold, H. Du, T. D. Krauss, K.-S. Cho, C. B. Murray, and F. W. Wise, “Time-resolved intraband relaxation of strongly confined electrons and holes in colloidal PbSe nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 195312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dantas, N. O.

N. O. Dantas, F. Qu, A. F. G. Monte, R. S. Silva, and P. C. Morais, “Optical properties of IV–VI quantum dots embedded in glass: size-effects,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 3525–3529 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Di Lieto, A.

D. V. Seletskiy, S. D. Melgaard, S. Bigotta, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Laser cooling of solids to cryogenic temperatures,” Nat. Photon. 4, 161–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dickerson, R.

H. Htoon, J. A. Hollingsworth, R. Dickerson, and V. I. Klimov, “Effect of zero- to one-dimensional transformation on multiparticle Auger recombination in semiconductor quantum rods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 227401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Diesner, K.

T. Vossmeyer, L. Katsikas, M. Giersig, I. G. Popovic, K. Diesner, A. Chemseddine, A. Eychmueller, and H. Weller, “CdS nanoclusters: synthesis, characterization, size dependent oscillator strength, temperature shift of the excitonic transition energy, and reversible absorbance shift,” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 7665–7673 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Du, H.

J. M. Harbold, H. Du, T. D. Krauss, K.-S. Cho, C. B. Murray, and F. W. Wise, “Time-resolved intraband relaxation of strongly confined electrons and holes in colloidal PbSe nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 195312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, B. C.

R. I. Epstein, M. I. Buchwald, B. C. Edwards, T. R. Gosnell, and C. E. Mungan, “Observation of laser-induced fluorescent cooling of a solid,” Nature 377, 500–503 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Efros, A. L.

D. I. Chepic, A. L. Efros, A. I. Ekimov, M. G. Ivanov, V. A. Kharchenko, and I. A. Kudriavtsev, “Auger ionization of semiconductor quantum drops in a glass matrix,” J. Lumin. 47, 113–127 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ekimov, A. I.

D. I. Chepic, A. L. Efros, A. I. Ekimov, M. G. Ivanov, V. A. Kharchenko, and I. A. Kudriavtsev, “Auger ionization of semiconductor quantum drops in a glass matrix,” J. Lumin. 47, 113–127 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Epstein, R. I.

M. Sheik-Bahae and R. I. Epstein, “Laser cooling of solids,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 67–84 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. I. Epstein, M. I. Buchwald, B. C. Edwards, T. R. Gosnell, and C. E. Mungan, “Observation of laser-induced fluorescent cooling of a solid,” Nature 377, 500–503 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Eychmueller, A.

T. Vossmeyer, L. Katsikas, M. Giersig, I. G. Popovic, K. Diesner, A. Chemseddine, A. Eychmueller, and H. Weller, “CdS nanoclusters: synthesis, characterization, size dependent oscillator strength, temperature shift of the excitonic transition energy, and reversible absorbance shift,” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 7665–7673 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Giersig, M.

T. Vossmeyer, L. Katsikas, M. Giersig, I. G. Popovic, K. Diesner, A. Chemseddine, A. Eychmueller, and H. Weller, “CdS nanoclusters: synthesis, characterization, size dependent oscillator strength, temperature shift of the excitonic transition energy, and reversible absorbance shift,” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 7665–7673 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gmez, D. E.

D. E. Gmez, J. van Embden, J. Jasieniak, T. A. Smith, and P. Mulvaney, “Blinking and surface chemistry of single CdSe nanocrystals,” Small 2, 204–208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gosnell, T. R.

R. I. Epstein, M. I. Buchwald, B. C. Edwards, T. R. Gosnell, and C. E. Mungan, “Observation of laser-induced fluorescent cooling of a solid,” Nature 377, 500–503 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Guyot-Sionnest, P.

B. L. Wehrenbeg, C. Wang, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Interband and intraband optical studies of PbSe colloidal quantum dots,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 10634–10640 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Harbold, J. M.

J. M. Harbold and F. W. Wise, “Photoluminescence spectroscopy of PbSe nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 125304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Harbold, H. Du, T. D. Krauss, K.-S. Cho, C. B. Murray, and F. W. Wise, “Time-resolved intraband relaxation of strongly confined electrons and holes in colloidal PbSe nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 195312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hollingsworth, J. A.

H. Htoon, J. A. Hollingsworth, R. Dickerson, and V. I. Klimov, “Effect of zero- to one-dimensional transformation on multiparticle Auger recombination in semiconductor quantum rods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 227401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, R.-C.

A. Olkhovets, R.-C. Hsu, A. Lipovskii, and F. W. Wise, “Size-dependent temperature variation of the energy gap in lead-salt quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3539–3542 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Htoon, H.

H. Htoon, J. A. Hollingsworth, R. Dickerson, and V. I. Klimov, “Effect of zero- to one-dimensional transformation on multiparticle Auger recombination in semiconductor quantum rods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 227401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, M. G.

D. I. Chepic, A. L. Efros, A. I. Ekimov, M. G. Ivanov, V. A. Kharchenko, and I. A. Kudriavtsev, “Auger ionization of semiconductor quantum drops in a glass matrix,” J. Lumin. 47, 113–127 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jasieniak, J.

D. E. Gmez, J. van Embden, J. Jasieniak, T. A. Smith, and P. Mulvaney, “Blinking and surface chemistry of single CdSe nanocrystals,” Small 2, 204–208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kang, I.

A. Lipovskii, E. Kolobkova, V. Petrikov, I. Kang, A. Olkhovets, T. Krauss, M. Thomas, J. Silcox, F. Wise, Q. Shen, and S. Kycia, “Synthesis and characterization of PbSe quantum dots in phosphate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3406–3408 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kashyap, R.

G. Nemova and R. Kashyap, “Alternative technique for laser cooling with superradiance,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 013404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Katsikas, L.

T. Vossmeyer, L. Katsikas, M. Giersig, I. G. Popovic, K. Diesner, A. Chemseddine, A. Eychmueller, and H. Weller, “CdS nanoclusters: synthesis, characterization, size dependent oscillator strength, temperature shift of the excitonic transition energy, and reversible absorbance shift,” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 7665–7673 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kharchenko, V. A.

D. I. Chepic, A. L. Efros, A. I. Ekimov, M. G. Ivanov, V. A. Kharchenko, and I. A. Kudriavtsev, “Auger ionization of semiconductor quantum drops in a glass matrix,” J. Lumin. 47, 113–127 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kigel, A.

A. C. Bartnik, F. W. Wise, A. Kigel, and E. Lifshitz, “Electronic structure of PbSe/PbS core-shell quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 245424 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Klimov, V. I.

V. I. Klimov, “Mechanisms for photogeneration and recombination of multiexcitons in semiconductor nanocrystals: implications for lasing and solar energy conversion,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 16827–16845 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Htoon, J. A. Hollingsworth, R. Dickerson, and V. I. Klimov, “Effect of zero- to one-dimensional transformation on multiparticle Auger recombination in semiconductor quantum rods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 227401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Schaller, M. A. Petruska, and V. I. Klimov, “Tunable near-infrared optical gain and amplified spontaneous emission using PbSe nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 13765–13768 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Klimov, “Optical nonlinearities and ultrafast carrier dynamics in semiconductor nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 6112–6123 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, and M. G. Bawendi, “Quantization of multiparticle Auger rates in semiconductor quantum dots,” Science 287, 1011–1013 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

S. Nomura and T. Kobayashi, “Exciton–LO-phonon couplings in spherical semiconductor microcrystallites,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 1305–1316 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kolobkova, E.

A. Lipovskii, E. Kolobkova, V. Petrikov, I. Kang, A. Olkhovets, T. Krauss, M. Thomas, J. Silcox, F. Wise, Q. Shen, and S. Kycia, “Synthesis and characterization of PbSe quantum dots in phosphate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3406–3408 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T.

A. Lipovskii, E. Kolobkova, V. Petrikov, I. Kang, A. Olkhovets, T. Krauss, M. Thomas, J. Silcox, F. Wise, Q. Shen, and S. Kycia, “Synthesis and characterization of PbSe quantum dots in phosphate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3406–3408 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. D.

J. M. Harbold, H. Du, T. D. Krauss, K.-S. Cho, C. B. Murray, and F. W. Wise, “Time-resolved intraband relaxation of strongly confined electrons and holes in colloidal PbSe nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 195312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kudriavtsev, I. A.

D. I. Chepic, A. L. Efros, A. I. Ekimov, M. G. Ivanov, V. A. Kharchenko, and I. A. Kudriavtsev, “Auger ionization of semiconductor quantum drops in a glass matrix,” J. Lumin. 47, 113–127 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, H. S.

Kycia, S.

A. Lipovskii, E. Kolobkova, V. Petrikov, I. Kang, A. Olkhovets, T. Krauss, M. Thomas, J. Silcox, F. Wise, Q. Shen, and S. Kycia, “Synthesis and characterization of PbSe quantum dots in phosphate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3406–3408 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Landsberg, P. T.

P. T. Landsberg, Recombination in Semiconductors(Cambridge University, 1991).

Leatherdale, C. A.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, and M. G. Bawendi, “Quantization of multiparticle Auger rates in semiconductor quantum dots,” Science 287, 1011–1013 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lifshitz, E.

A. C. Bartnik, F. W. Wise, A. Kigel, and E. Lifshitz, “Electronic structure of PbSe/PbS core-shell quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 245424 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lipovskii, A.

A. Olkhovets, R.-C. Hsu, A. Lipovskii, and F. W. Wise, “Size-dependent temperature variation of the energy gap in lead-salt quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3539–3542 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Lipovskii, E. Kolobkova, V. Petrikov, I. Kang, A. Olkhovets, T. Krauss, M. Thomas, J. Silcox, F. Wise, Q. Shen, and S. Kycia, “Synthesis and characterization of PbSe quantum dots in phosphate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3406–3408 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Makler, S. S.

M. I. Vasilevskiy, E. V. Anda, and S. S. Makler, “Electron-phonon interaction effects in semiconductor quantum dots: a nonperturabative approach,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 035318 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McBranch, D. W.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, and M. G. Bawendi, “Quantization of multiparticle Auger rates in semiconductor quantum dots,” Science 287, 1011–1013 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Melgaard, S. D.

D. V. Seletskiy, S. D. Melgaard, S. Bigotta, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Laser cooling of solids to cryogenic temperatures,” Nat. Photon. 4, 161–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mikhailovsky, A. A.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, and M. G. Bawendi, “Quantization of multiparticle Auger rates in semiconductor quantum dots,” Science 287, 1011–1013 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Monte, A. F. G.

N. O. Dantas, F. Qu, A. F. G. Monte, R. S. Silva, and P. C. Morais, “Optical properties of IV–VI quantum dots embedded in glass: size-effects,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 3525–3529 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Morais, P. C.

N. O. Dantas, F. Qu, A. F. G. Monte, R. S. Silva, and P. C. Morais, “Optical properties of IV–VI quantum dots embedded in glass: size-effects,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 3525–3529 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mulvaney, P.

D. E. Gmez, J. van Embden, J. Jasieniak, T. A. Smith, and P. Mulvaney, “Blinking and surface chemistry of single CdSe nanocrystals,” Small 2, 204–208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mungan, C. E.

R. I. Epstein, M. I. Buchwald, B. C. Edwards, T. R. Gosnell, and C. E. Mungan, “Observation of laser-induced fluorescent cooling of a solid,” Nature 377, 500–503 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Murray, C. B.

J. M. Harbold, H. Du, T. D. Krauss, K.-S. Cho, C. B. Murray, and F. W. Wise, “Time-resolved intraband relaxation of strongly confined electrons and holes in colloidal PbSe nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 195312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nemova, G.

G. Nemova and R. Kashyap, “Alternative technique for laser cooling with superradiance,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 013404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nomura, S.

S. Nomura and T. Kobayashi, “Exciton–LO-phonon couplings in spherical semiconductor microcrystallites,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 1305–1316 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Olkhovets, A.

A. Olkhovets, R.-C. Hsu, A. Lipovskii, and F. W. Wise, “Size-dependent temperature variation of the energy gap in lead-salt quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3539–3542 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Lipovskii, E. Kolobkova, V. Petrikov, I. Kang, A. Olkhovets, T. Krauss, M. Thomas, J. Silcox, F. Wise, Q. Shen, and S. Kycia, “Synthesis and characterization of PbSe quantum dots in phosphate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3406–3408 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pattantyus-Abraham, A. G.

J. W. Stouwdam, J. Shan, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, A. G. Pattantyus-Abraham, J. F. Young, and M. Raudsepp, “Photostability of colloidal PbSe and PbSe/PbS core/shell nanocrystals in solution and in the solid state,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 1086–1092 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Petrikov, V.

A. Lipovskii, E. Kolobkova, V. Petrikov, I. Kang, A. Olkhovets, T. Krauss, M. Thomas, J. Silcox, F. Wise, Q. Shen, and S. Kycia, “Synthesis and characterization of PbSe quantum dots in phosphate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3406–3408 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Petruska, M. A.

R. D. Schaller, M. A. Petruska, and V. I. Klimov, “Tunable near-infrared optical gain and amplified spontaneous emission using PbSe nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 13765–13768 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Popovic, I. G.

T. Vossmeyer, L. Katsikas, M. Giersig, I. G. Popovic, K. Diesner, A. Chemseddine, A. Eychmueller, and H. Weller, “CdS nanoclusters: synthesis, characterization, size dependent oscillator strength, temperature shift of the excitonic transition energy, and reversible absorbance shift,” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 7665–7673 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pringsheim, P.

P. Pringsheim, “Zwei Bemerkungen über den Unterschied von Lumineszenz und Temperaturstrahlung,” Z. Phys. 57, 739–746 (1929).
[CrossRef]

Qu, F.

N. O. Dantas, F. Qu, A. F. G. Monte, R. S. Silva, and P. C. Morais, “Optical properties of IV–VI quantum dots embedded in glass: size-effects,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 3525–3529 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rahimi, L.

A. R. Bahrampour, H. Rooholamini, L. Rahimi, and A. A. Askari, “An inhomogeneous theoretical model for analysis of PbSe quantum-dot-doped fiber amplifier,” Opt. Commun. 282, 4449–4454 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Raudsepp, M.

J. W. Stouwdam, J. Shan, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, A. G. Pattantyus-Abraham, J. F. Young, and M. Raudsepp, “Photostability of colloidal PbSe and PbSe/PbS core/shell nanocrystals in solution and in the solid state,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 1086–1092 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rooholamini, H.

A. R. Bahrampour, H. Rooholamini, L. Rahimi, and A. A. Askari, “An inhomogeneous theoretical model for analysis of PbSe quantum-dot-doped fiber amplifier,” Opt. Commun. 282, 4449–4454 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schaller, R. D.

R. D. Schaller, M. A. Petruska, and V. I. Klimov, “Tunable near-infrared optical gain and amplified spontaneous emission using PbSe nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 13765–13768 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Seletskiy, D. V.

D. V. Seletskiy, S. D. Melgaard, S. Bigotta, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Laser cooling of solids to cryogenic temperatures,” Nat. Photon. 4, 161–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shan, J.

J. W. Stouwdam, J. Shan, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, A. G. Pattantyus-Abraham, J. F. Young, and M. Raudsepp, “Photostability of colloidal PbSe and PbSe/PbS core/shell nanocrystals in solution and in the solid state,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 1086–1092 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

D. V. Seletskiy, S. D. Melgaard, S. Bigotta, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Laser cooling of solids to cryogenic temperatures,” Nat. Photon. 4, 161–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae and R. I. Epstein, “Laser cooling of solids,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 67–84 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Q.

A. Lipovskii, E. Kolobkova, V. Petrikov, I. Kang, A. Olkhovets, T. Krauss, M. Thomas, J. Silcox, F. Wise, Q. Shen, and S. Kycia, “Synthesis and characterization of PbSe quantum dots in phosphate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3406–3408 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Silcox, J.

A. Lipovskii, E. Kolobkova, V. Petrikov, I. Kang, A. Olkhovets, T. Krauss, M. Thomas, J. Silcox, F. Wise, Q. Shen, and S. Kycia, “Synthesis and characterization of PbSe quantum dots in phosphate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3406–3408 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Silva, R. S.

N. O. Dantas, F. Qu, A. F. G. Monte, R. S. Silva, and P. C. Morais, “Optical properties of IV–VI quantum dots embedded in glass: size-effects,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 3525–3529 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smith, T. A.

D. E. Gmez, J. van Embden, J. Jasieniak, T. A. Smith, and P. Mulvaney, “Blinking and surface chemistry of single CdSe nanocrystals,” Small 2, 204–208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stouwdam, J. W.

J. W. Stouwdam, J. Shan, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, A. G. Pattantyus-Abraham, J. F. Young, and M. Raudsepp, “Photostability of colloidal PbSe and PbSe/PbS core/shell nanocrystals in solution and in the solid state,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 1086–1092 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, M.

A. Lipovskii, E. Kolobkova, V. Petrikov, I. Kang, A. Olkhovets, T. Krauss, M. Thomas, J. Silcox, F. Wise, Q. Shen, and S. Kycia, “Synthesis and characterization of PbSe quantum dots in phosphate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3406–3408 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tonelli, M.

D. V. Seletskiy, S. D. Melgaard, S. Bigotta, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Laser cooling of solids to cryogenic temperatures,” Nat. Photon. 4, 161–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Bigotta and M. Tonelli, “Laser cooling in fluoride crystals,” in Optical Refrigeration, R. I. Epstein and M. Sheik-Bahae, eds. (Wiley-VCH, 2009), pp. 75–95.

van Embden, J.

D. E. Gmez, J. van Embden, J. Jasieniak, T. A. Smith, and P. Mulvaney, “Blinking and surface chemistry of single CdSe nanocrystals,” Small 2, 204–208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van Veggel, F. C. J. M.

J. W. Stouwdam, J. Shan, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, A. G. Pattantyus-Abraham, J. F. Young, and M. Raudsepp, “Photostability of colloidal PbSe and PbSe/PbS core/shell nanocrystals in solution and in the solid state,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 1086–1092 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vasilevskiy, M. I.

M. I. Vasilevskiy, E. V. Anda, and S. S. Makler, “Electron-phonon interaction effects in semiconductor quantum dots: a nonperturabative approach,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 035318 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vossmeyer, T.

T. Vossmeyer, L. Katsikas, M. Giersig, I. G. Popovic, K. Diesner, A. Chemseddine, A. Eychmueller, and H. Weller, “CdS nanoclusters: synthesis, characterization, size dependent oscillator strength, temperature shift of the excitonic transition energy, and reversible absorbance shift,” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 7665–7673 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

B. L. Wehrenbeg, C. Wang, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Interband and intraband optical studies of PbSe colloidal quantum dots,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 10634–10640 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wehrenbeg, B. L.

B. L. Wehrenbeg, C. Wang, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Interband and intraband optical studies of PbSe colloidal quantum dots,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 10634–10640 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Weller, H.

T. Vossmeyer, L. Katsikas, M. Giersig, I. G. Popovic, K. Diesner, A. Chemseddine, A. Eychmueller, and H. Weller, “CdS nanoclusters: synthesis, characterization, size dependent oscillator strength, temperature shift of the excitonic transition energy, and reversible absorbance shift,” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 7665–7673 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wise, F.

A. Lipovskii, E. Kolobkova, V. Petrikov, I. Kang, A. Olkhovets, T. Krauss, M. Thomas, J. Silcox, F. Wise, Q. Shen, and S. Kycia, “Synthesis and characterization of PbSe quantum dots in phosphate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3406–3408 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wise, F. W.

J. M. Harbold and F. W. Wise, “Photoluminescence spectroscopy of PbSe nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 125304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Bartnik, F. W. Wise, A. Kigel, and E. Lifshitz, “Electronic structure of PbSe/PbS core-shell quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 245424 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Harbold, H. Du, T. D. Krauss, K.-S. Cho, C. B. Murray, and F. W. Wise, “Time-resolved intraband relaxation of strongly confined electrons and holes in colloidal PbSe nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 195312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. W. Wise, “Lead-salt quantum dots: the limit of strong quantum confinement,” Acc. Chem. Res. 33, 773–780 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Olkhovets, R.-C. Hsu, A. Lipovskii, and F. W. Wise, “Size-dependent temperature variation of the energy gap in lead-salt quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3539–3542 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Young, J. F.

J. W. Stouwdam, J. Shan, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, A. G. Pattantyus-Abraham, J. F. Young, and M. Raudsepp, “Photostability of colloidal PbSe and PbSe/PbS core/shell nanocrystals in solution and in the solid state,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 1086–1092 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

C. Cheng and H. Zhang, “Characteristics of bandwidth, gain and noise of a PbSe quantum dot-doped fiber amplifier,” Opt. Commun. 277, 372–378 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, J. P.

Acc. Chem. Res.

F. W. Wise, “Lead-salt quantum dots: the limit of strong quantum confinement,” Acc. Chem. Res. 33, 773–780 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Lipovskii, E. Kolobkova, V. Petrikov, I. Kang, A. Olkhovets, T. Krauss, M. Thomas, J. Silcox, F. Wise, Q. Shen, and S. Kycia, “Synthesis and characterization of PbSe quantum dots in phosphate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3406–3408 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Lumin.

D. I. Chepic, A. L. Efros, A. I. Ekimov, M. G. Ivanov, V. A. Kharchenko, and I. A. Kudriavtsev, “Auger ionization of semiconductor quantum drops in a glass matrix,” J. Lumin. 47, 113–127 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

N. O. Dantas, F. Qu, A. F. G. Monte, R. S. Silva, and P. C. Morais, “Optical properties of IV–VI quantum dots embedded in glass: size-effects,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 3525–3529 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. Chem.

T. Vossmeyer, L. Katsikas, M. Giersig, I. G. Popovic, K. Diesner, A. Chemseddine, A. Eychmueller, and H. Weller, “CdS nanoclusters: synthesis, characterization, size dependent oscillator strength, temperature shift of the excitonic transition energy, and reversible absorbance shift,” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 7665–7673 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B

V. I. Klimov, “Mechanisms for photogeneration and recombination of multiexcitons in semiconductor nanocrystals: implications for lasing and solar energy conversion,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 16827–16845 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Klimov, “Optical nonlinearities and ultrafast carrier dynamics in semiconductor nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 6112–6123 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Schaller, M. A. Petruska, and V. I. Klimov, “Tunable near-infrared optical gain and amplified spontaneous emission using PbSe nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 13765–13768 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Wehrenbeg, C. Wang, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Interband and intraband optical studies of PbSe colloidal quantum dots,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 10634–10640 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C

J. W. Stouwdam, J. Shan, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, A. G. Pattantyus-Abraham, J. F. Young, and M. Raudsepp, “Photostability of colloidal PbSe and PbSe/PbS core/shell nanocrystals in solution and in the solid state,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 1086–1092 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev.

M. Sheik-Bahae and R. I. Epstein, “Laser cooling of solids,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 67–84 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon.

D. V. Seletskiy, S. D. Melgaard, S. Bigotta, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Laser cooling of solids to cryogenic temperatures,” Nat. Photon. 4, 161–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature

R. I. Epstein, M. I. Buchwald, B. C. Edwards, T. R. Gosnell, and C. E. Mungan, “Observation of laser-induced fluorescent cooling of a solid,” Nature 377, 500–503 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

C. Cheng and H. Zhang, “Characteristics of bandwidth, gain and noise of a PbSe quantum dot-doped fiber amplifier,” Opt. Commun. 277, 372–378 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Bahrampour, H. Rooholamini, L. Rahimi, and A. A. Askari, “An inhomogeneous theoretical model for analysis of PbSe quantum-dot-doped fiber amplifier,” Opt. Commun. 282, 4449–4454 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

G. Nemova and R. Kashyap, “Alternative technique for laser cooling with superradiance,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 013404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

S. Nomura and T. Kobayashi, “Exciton–LO-phonon couplings in spherical semiconductor microcrystallites,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 1305–1316 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Harbold and F. W. Wise, “Photoluminescence spectroscopy of PbSe nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 125304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Vasilevskiy, E. V. Anda, and S. S. Makler, “Electron-phonon interaction effects in semiconductor quantum dots: a nonperturabative approach,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 035318 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Harbold, H. Du, T. D. Krauss, K.-S. Cho, C. B. Murray, and F. W. Wise, “Time-resolved intraband relaxation of strongly confined electrons and holes in colloidal PbSe nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 195312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Bartnik, F. W. Wise, A. Kigel, and E. Lifshitz, “Electronic structure of PbSe/PbS core-shell quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 245424 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

H. Htoon, J. A. Hollingsworth, R. Dickerson, and V. I. Klimov, “Effect of zero- to one-dimensional transformation on multiparticle Auger recombination in semiconductor quantum rods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 227401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Olkhovets, R.-C. Hsu, A. Lipovskii, and F. W. Wise, “Size-dependent temperature variation of the energy gap in lead-salt quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3539–3542 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Science

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, and M. G. Bawendi, “Quantization of multiparticle Auger rates in semiconductor quantum dots,” Science 287, 1011–1013 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Small

D. E. Gmez, J. van Embden, J. Jasieniak, T. A. Smith, and P. Mulvaney, “Blinking and surface chemistry of single CdSe nanocrystals,” Small 2, 204–208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys.

P. Pringsheim, “Zwei Bemerkungen über den Unterschied von Lumineszenz und Temperaturstrahlung,” Z. Phys. 57, 739–746 (1929).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. Bigotta and M. Tonelli, “Laser cooling in fluoride crystals,” in Optical Refrigeration, R. I. Epstein and M. Sheik-Bahae, eds. (Wiley-VCH, 2009), pp. 75–95.

P. Michler, ed., Single Semiconductor Quantum Dots (Springer-Verlag, 2009).

P. T. Landsberg, Recombination in Semiconductors(Cambridge University, 1991).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Bulk semiconductor with continuous conduction and valence energy bands and a fixed energy gap Eg. (b) QD with discrete atomiclike states and with energy gap Eg(R), which is a function of the QD radius, R.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

QD size distribution with mean diameter of 5.5 nm and relative deviation of 0.05.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Spectrum of absorption cross section with the peak values at wavelengths of 1450, 1550, and 1650 nm of QDs with diameters of 5, 5.5, and 6 nm, respectively. (b) Spectrum of emission cross section with peak values at wavelengths of 1530, 1630, and 1730 nm of QDs with diameters of 5, 5.5, and 6 nm, respectively [10].

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Dependences between the pump power and cooling power (left axis) and between the pump power and temperature of the sample (right axis).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Dependences between the pump power and cooling power (left axis) and between the pump power and efficiency of the cooling process, ηp=Pcool/Pp (right axis).

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Eg(R)=Egbulk+2π22mehR2,
P(R)=1D2πexp((RR¯)22D2),
dni(1)dt=PpλpAeffhc[ni(0)σai(λp)ni(1)σei(λp)]ni(1)τeff,ni=ni(0)+ni(1),
Picool=AeffL[PpAeff(ni(0)σai(λp)ni(1)σei(λp))+hcλFi1τrni(1)hcλFi1τnrni(1)],
Picool=AeffLNσai(λp)Isi[λpλFi(2η1)1]1+σei(λp)σai(λp)+AeffIsiPp,
2πRLeσB(Tr4Ts4)=Pcool,
ηicool=ηextηabsλpλFi1,
ηext=ηeWr/(ηeWr+Wnr).
Wnr=W0(1eEpkBT)np,
W0=BeaΔE

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