Abstract

Continuous wave terahertz spectroscopy based on photomixing offers the attractive feature of detecting both amplitude and phase of the terahertz radiation. Experimentally, it is challenging to achieve sufficient accuracy at a high data acquisition rate. We use two fiber stretchers as fast phase modulators in a symmetric setup. Compared to a mechanical delay stage, the fiber stretchers are rather fast (1kHz), which enables us to record a spectrum up to 1.8 THz with a step size of 1 GHz in only 10 min. We achieve a stability of the optical path difference of around 10 μm and use low-doped Si as an example to demonstrate the performance of our spectrometer.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. J. Deninger, T. Göbel, D. Schönherr, T. Kinder, A. Roggenbuck, M. Köberle, F. Lison, T. Müller-Wirts, and P. Meissner, “Precisely tunable continuous-wave terahertz source with interferometric frequency control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 044702 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Roggenbuck, H. Schmitz, A. Deninger, I. Cámara Mayorga, J. Hemberger, R. Güsten, and M. Grüninger, “Coherent broadband continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy on solid-state samples,” New J. Phys. 12, 043017 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3824–3826 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Nahata, J. T. Yardley, and T. F. Heinz, “Free-space electro-optic detection of continuous-wave terahertz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2524–2526 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, H. G. Roskos, and S. Czasch, “Continuous-wave all-optoelectronic terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3003–3005 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, B. E. Cole, C. Baker, M. J. Evans, I. V. Bradley, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Phase sensitive continuous-wave THz imaging using diode lasers,” Electron. Lett. 40, 143–145 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Mendis, C. Sydlo, J. Sigmund, M. Feiginov, P. Meissner, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Coherent generation and detection of continuous terahertz waves using two photomixers driven by laser diodes,” Int. J. Infrared Milli. Waves 26, 201–207 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, D. Bigourd, F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, J. F. Lampin, K. Blary, and D. Lippens, “THz media characterization by means of coherent homodyne detection, results and potential applications,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 395–399 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. P. Gorshunov, A. A. Volkov, A. S. Prokhorov, I. E. Spektor, J. Akimitsu, M. Dressel, G. Nieuwenhuys, S. Tomic, and S. Uchida, “Terahertz BWO spectroscopy of conductors and superconductors,” Quantum Electron. 37, 916–923 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Kozlov and A. Volkov, “Coherent Source Submillimeter Wave Spectroscopy,” in Millimeter and Submillimeter Wave Spectroscopy of Solids, G. Grüner, ed., Topics in Applied Physics (Springer, 1998), Vol. 74, pp. 51–110.
  11. A. M. Sinyukov, Z. Liu, Y. L. Hor, K. Su, R. B. Barat, D. E. Gary, Z.-H. Michalopoulou, I. Zorych, J. F. Federici, and D. Zimdars, “Rapid-phase modulation of terahertz radiation for high-speed terahertz imaging and spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1593–1595 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Göbel, D. Schoenherr, C. Sydlo, M. Feiginov, P. Meissner, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Continuous-wave terahertz system with electro-optical terahertz phase control,” Electron. Lett. 44, 863–864 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Göbel, D. Schoenherr, C. Sydlo, M. Feiginov, P. Meissner, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Single-sampling-point coherent detection in continuous-wave photomixing terahertz systems,” Electron. Lett. 45, 65–66 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. I. Cámara Mayorga, E. A. Michael, A. Schmitz, P. van der Wal, R. Güsten, K. Maier, and A. Dewald, “Terahertz photomixing in high energy oxygen- and nitrogen-ion-implanted GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 031107 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. The opening angle was measured using the knife-edge method; i.e., a metallic edge was translated through the THz beam perpendicular to the propagation direction. The total power behind the edge was focused onto the detector by using two lenses, and a Gaussian beam profile was assumed for the data analysis.
  16. G. Ghosh, “Temperature dispersion of refractive indexes in some silicate fiber glasses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 431–433 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Chang, C.-C. Hsu, T.-H. Huang, W.-C. Chuang, Y.-S. Tsai, J.-Y. Shieh, and C.-Y. Leung, “Heterodyne interferometric measurement of the thermo-optic coefficient of single mode fiber,” Chin. J. Phys. 38, 437–442 (2000).
  18. A. Roggenbuck, A. Deninger, I. Cámara Mayorga, H. Schmitz, J. Hemberger, F. Lison, and M. Grüninger, “CW terahertz spectrometer with high-precision frequency control,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CMX3.
  19. T. Jeon and D. Grischkowsky, “Nature of conduction in doped silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1106–1109 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. Van Exter, and Ch. Fattinger, “Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2006–2015 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

2010

A. Roggenbuck, H. Schmitz, A. Deninger, I. Cámara Mayorga, J. Hemberger, R. Güsten, and M. Grüninger, “Coherent broadband continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy on solid-state samples,” New J. Phys. 12, 043017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

T. Göbel, D. Schoenherr, C. Sydlo, M. Feiginov, P. Meissner, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Single-sampling-point coherent detection in continuous-wave photomixing terahertz systems,” Electron. Lett. 45, 65–66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

T. Göbel, D. Schoenherr, C. Sydlo, M. Feiginov, P. Meissner, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Continuous-wave terahertz system with electro-optical terahertz phase control,” Electron. Lett. 44, 863–864 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Sinyukov, Z. Liu, Y. L. Hor, K. Su, R. B. Barat, D. E. Gary, Z.-H. Michalopoulou, I. Zorych, J. F. Federici, and D. Zimdars, “Rapid-phase modulation of terahertz radiation for high-speed terahertz imaging and spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1593–1595 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Deninger, T. Göbel, D. Schönherr, T. Kinder, A. Roggenbuck, M. Köberle, F. Lison, T. Müller-Wirts, and P. Meissner, “Precisely tunable continuous-wave terahertz source with interferometric frequency control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 044702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, D. Bigourd, F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, J. F. Lampin, K. Blary, and D. Lippens, “THz media characterization by means of coherent homodyne detection, results and potential applications,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 395–399 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Gorshunov, A. A. Volkov, A. S. Prokhorov, I. E. Spektor, J. Akimitsu, M. Dressel, G. Nieuwenhuys, S. Tomic, and S. Uchida, “Terahertz BWO spectroscopy of conductors and superconductors,” Quantum Electron. 37, 916–923 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Cámara Mayorga, E. A. Michael, A. Schmitz, P. van der Wal, R. Güsten, K. Maier, and A. Dewald, “Terahertz photomixing in high energy oxygen- and nitrogen-ion-implanted GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 031107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

R. Mendis, C. Sydlo, J. Sigmund, M. Feiginov, P. Meissner, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Coherent generation and detection of continuous terahertz waves using two photomixers driven by laser diodes,” Int. J. Infrared Milli. Waves 26, 201–207 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, B. E. Cole, C. Baker, M. J. Evans, I. V. Bradley, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Phase sensitive continuous-wave THz imaging using diode lasers,” Electron. Lett. 40, 143–145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, H. G. Roskos, and S. Czasch, “Continuous-wave all-optoelectronic terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3003–3005 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

S. Chang, C.-C. Hsu, T.-H. Huang, W.-C. Chuang, Y.-S. Tsai, J.-Y. Shieh, and C.-Y. Leung, “Heterodyne interferometric measurement of the thermo-optic coefficient of single mode fiber,” Chin. J. Phys. 38, 437–442 (2000).

1999

A. Nahata, J. T. Yardley, and T. F. Heinz, “Free-space electro-optic detection of continuous-wave terahertz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2524–2526 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3824–3826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

T. Jeon and D. Grischkowsky, “Nature of conduction in doped silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1106–1109 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994

G. Ghosh, “Temperature dispersion of refractive indexes in some silicate fiber glasses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 431–433 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990

Akimitsu, J.

B. P. Gorshunov, A. A. Volkov, A. S. Prokhorov, I. E. Spektor, J. Akimitsu, M. Dressel, G. Nieuwenhuys, S. Tomic, and S. Uchida, “Terahertz BWO spectroscopy of conductors and superconductors,” Quantum Electron. 37, 916–923 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baker, C.

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, B. E. Cole, C. Baker, M. J. Evans, I. V. Bradley, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Phase sensitive continuous-wave THz imaging using diode lasers,” Electron. Lett. 40, 143–145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barat, R. B.

Bauer, T.

K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, H. G. Roskos, and S. Czasch, “Continuous-wave all-optoelectronic terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3003–3005 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bigourd, D.

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, D. Bigourd, F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, J. F. Lampin, K. Blary, and D. Lippens, “THz media characterization by means of coherent homodyne detection, results and potential applications,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 395–399 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Blary, K.

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, D. Bigourd, F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, J. F. Lampin, K. Blary, and D. Lippens, “THz media characterization by means of coherent homodyne detection, results and potential applications,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 395–399 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bocquet, R.

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, D. Bigourd, F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, J. F. Lampin, K. Blary, and D. Lippens, “THz media characterization by means of coherent homodyne detection, results and potential applications,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 395–399 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, I. V.

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, B. E. Cole, C. Baker, M. J. Evans, I. V. Bradley, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Phase sensitive continuous-wave THz imaging using diode lasers,” Electron. Lett. 40, 143–145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Calawa, S.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3824–3826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cámara Mayorga, I.

A. Roggenbuck, H. Schmitz, A. Deninger, I. Cámara Mayorga, J. Hemberger, R. Güsten, and M. Grüninger, “Coherent broadband continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy on solid-state samples,” New J. Phys. 12, 043017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Cámara Mayorga, E. A. Michael, A. Schmitz, P. van der Wal, R. Güsten, K. Maier, and A. Dewald, “Terahertz photomixing in high energy oxygen- and nitrogen-ion-implanted GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 031107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Roggenbuck, A. Deninger, I. Cámara Mayorga, H. Schmitz, J. Hemberger, F. Lison, and M. Grüninger, “CW terahertz spectrometer with high-precision frequency control,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CMX3.

Chang, S.

S. Chang, C.-C. Hsu, T.-H. Huang, W.-C. Chuang, Y.-S. Tsai, J.-Y. Shieh, and C.-Y. Leung, “Heterodyne interferometric measurement of the thermo-optic coefficient of single mode fiber,” Chin. J. Phys. 38, 437–442 (2000).

Chuang, W.-C.

S. Chang, C.-C. Hsu, T.-H. Huang, W.-C. Chuang, Y.-S. Tsai, J.-Y. Shieh, and C.-Y. Leung, “Heterodyne interferometric measurement of the thermo-optic coefficient of single mode fiber,” Chin. J. Phys. 38, 437–442 (2000).

Cole, B. E.

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, B. E. Cole, C. Baker, M. J. Evans, I. V. Bradley, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Phase sensitive continuous-wave THz imaging using diode lasers,” Electron. Lett. 40, 143–145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cuisset, A.

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, D. Bigourd, F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, J. F. Lampin, K. Blary, and D. Lippens, “THz media characterization by means of coherent homodyne detection, results and potential applications,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 395–399 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Czasch, S.

K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, H. G. Roskos, and S. Czasch, “Continuous-wave all-optoelectronic terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3003–3005 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Davies, A. G.

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, B. E. Cole, C. Baker, M. J. Evans, I. V. Bradley, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Phase sensitive continuous-wave THz imaging using diode lasers,” Electron. Lett. 40, 143–145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Deninger, A.

A. Roggenbuck, H. Schmitz, A. Deninger, I. Cámara Mayorga, J. Hemberger, R. Güsten, and M. Grüninger, “Coherent broadband continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy on solid-state samples,” New J. Phys. 12, 043017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Roggenbuck, A. Deninger, I. Cámara Mayorga, H. Schmitz, J. Hemberger, F. Lison, and M. Grüninger, “CW terahertz spectrometer with high-precision frequency control,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CMX3.

Deninger, A. J.

A. J. Deninger, T. Göbel, D. Schönherr, T. Kinder, A. Roggenbuck, M. Köberle, F. Lison, T. Müller-Wirts, and P. Meissner, “Precisely tunable continuous-wave terahertz source with interferometric frequency control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 044702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dewald, A.

I. Cámara Mayorga, E. A. Michael, A. Schmitz, P. van der Wal, R. Güsten, K. Maier, and A. Dewald, “Terahertz photomixing in high energy oxygen- and nitrogen-ion-implanted GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 031107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dinatale, W. F.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3824–3826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dressel, M.

B. P. Gorshunov, A. A. Volkov, A. S. Prokhorov, I. E. Spektor, J. Akimitsu, M. Dressel, G. Nieuwenhuys, S. Tomic, and S. Uchida, “Terahertz BWO spectroscopy of conductors and superconductors,” Quantum Electron. 37, 916–923 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Duerr, E. K.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3824–3826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Evans, M. J.

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, B. E. Cole, C. Baker, M. J. Evans, I. V. Bradley, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Phase sensitive continuous-wave THz imaging using diode lasers,” Electron. Lett. 40, 143–145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fattinger, Ch.

Federici, J. F.

Feiginov, M.

T. Göbel, D. Schoenherr, C. Sydlo, M. Feiginov, P. Meissner, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Single-sampling-point coherent detection in continuous-wave photomixing terahertz systems,” Electron. Lett. 45, 65–66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Göbel, D. Schoenherr, C. Sydlo, M. Feiginov, P. Meissner, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Continuous-wave terahertz system with electro-optical terahertz phase control,” Electron. Lett. 44, 863–864 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Mendis, C. Sydlo, J. Sigmund, M. Feiginov, P. Meissner, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Coherent generation and detection of continuous terahertz waves using two photomixers driven by laser diodes,” Int. J. Infrared Milli. Waves 26, 201–207 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gary, D. E.

Ghosh, G.

G. Ghosh, “Temperature dispersion of refractive indexes in some silicate fiber glasses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 431–433 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Göbel, T.

T. Göbel, D. Schoenherr, C. Sydlo, M. Feiginov, P. Meissner, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Single-sampling-point coherent detection in continuous-wave photomixing terahertz systems,” Electron. Lett. 45, 65–66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Deninger, T. Göbel, D. Schönherr, T. Kinder, A. Roggenbuck, M. Köberle, F. Lison, T. Müller-Wirts, and P. Meissner, “Precisely tunable continuous-wave terahertz source with interferometric frequency control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 044702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Göbel, D. Schoenherr, C. Sydlo, M. Feiginov, P. Meissner, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Continuous-wave terahertz system with electro-optical terahertz phase control,” Electron. Lett. 44, 863–864 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gorshunov, B. P.

B. P. Gorshunov, A. A. Volkov, A. S. Prokhorov, I. E. Spektor, J. Akimitsu, M. Dressel, G. Nieuwenhuys, S. Tomic, and S. Uchida, “Terahertz BWO spectroscopy of conductors and superconductors,” Quantum Electron. 37, 916–923 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, I. S.

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, B. E. Cole, C. Baker, M. J. Evans, I. V. Bradley, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Phase sensitive continuous-wave THz imaging using diode lasers,” Electron. Lett. 40, 143–145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

Grüninger, M.

A. Roggenbuck, H. Schmitz, A. Deninger, I. Cámara Mayorga, J. Hemberger, R. Güsten, and M. Grüninger, “Coherent broadband continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy on solid-state samples,” New J. Phys. 12, 043017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Roggenbuck, A. Deninger, I. Cámara Mayorga, H. Schmitz, J. Hemberger, F. Lison, and M. Grüninger, “CW terahertz spectrometer with high-precision frequency control,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CMX3.

Güsten, R.

A. Roggenbuck, H. Schmitz, A. Deninger, I. Cámara Mayorga, J. Hemberger, R. Güsten, and M. Grüninger, “Coherent broadband continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy on solid-state samples,” New J. Phys. 12, 043017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Cámara Mayorga, E. A. Michael, A. Schmitz, P. van der Wal, R. Güsten, K. Maier, and A. Dewald, “Terahertz photomixing in high energy oxygen- and nitrogen-ion-implanted GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 031107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hartnagel, H. L.

T. Göbel, D. Schoenherr, C. Sydlo, M. Feiginov, P. Meissner, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Single-sampling-point coherent detection in continuous-wave photomixing terahertz systems,” Electron. Lett. 45, 65–66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Göbel, D. Schoenherr, C. Sydlo, M. Feiginov, P. Meissner, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Continuous-wave terahertz system with electro-optical terahertz phase control,” Electron. Lett. 44, 863–864 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Mendis, C. Sydlo, J. Sigmund, M. Feiginov, P. Meissner, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Coherent generation and detection of continuous terahertz waves using two photomixers driven by laser diodes,” Int. J. Infrared Milli. Waves 26, 201–207 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Heinz, T. F.

A. Nahata, J. T. Yardley, and T. F. Heinz, “Free-space electro-optic detection of continuous-wave terahertz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2524–2526 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hemberger, J.

A. Roggenbuck, H. Schmitz, A. Deninger, I. Cámara Mayorga, J. Hemberger, R. Güsten, and M. Grüninger, “Coherent broadband continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy on solid-state samples,” New J. Phys. 12, 043017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Roggenbuck, A. Deninger, I. Cámara Mayorga, H. Schmitz, J. Hemberger, F. Lison, and M. Grüninger, “CW terahertz spectrometer with high-precision frequency control,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CMX3.

Hindle, F.

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, D. Bigourd, F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, J. F. Lampin, K. Blary, and D. Lippens, “THz media characterization by means of coherent homodyne detection, results and potential applications,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 395–399 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hor, Y. L.

Hsu, C.-C.

S. Chang, C.-C. Hsu, T.-H. Huang, W.-C. Chuang, Y.-S. Tsai, J.-Y. Shieh, and C.-Y. Leung, “Heterodyne interferometric measurement of the thermo-optic coefficient of single mode fiber,” Chin. J. Phys. 38, 437–442 (2000).

Huang, T.-H.

S. Chang, C.-C. Hsu, T.-H. Huang, W.-C. Chuang, Y.-S. Tsai, J.-Y. Shieh, and C.-Y. Leung, “Heterodyne interferometric measurement of the thermo-optic coefficient of single mode fiber,” Chin. J. Phys. 38, 437–442 (2000).

Jeon, T.

T. Jeon and D. Grischkowsky, “Nature of conduction in doped silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1106–1109 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S.

Kinder, T.

A. J. Deninger, T. Göbel, D. Schönherr, T. Kinder, A. Roggenbuck, M. Köberle, F. Lison, T. Müller-Wirts, and P. Meissner, “Precisely tunable continuous-wave terahertz source with interferometric frequency control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 044702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Köberle, M.

A. J. Deninger, T. Göbel, D. Schönherr, T. Kinder, A. Roggenbuck, M. Köberle, F. Lison, T. Müller-Wirts, and P. Meissner, “Precisely tunable continuous-wave terahertz source with interferometric frequency control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 044702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kozlov, G.

G. Kozlov and A. Volkov, “Coherent Source Submillimeter Wave Spectroscopy,” in Millimeter and Submillimeter Wave Spectroscopy of Solids, G. Grüner, ed., Topics in Applied Physics (Springer, 1998), Vol. 74, pp. 51–110.

Lampin, J. F.

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, D. Bigourd, F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, J. F. Lampin, K. Blary, and D. Lippens, “THz media characterization by means of coherent homodyne detection, results and potential applications,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 395–399 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leonhardt, R.

K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, H. G. Roskos, and S. Czasch, “Continuous-wave all-optoelectronic terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3003–3005 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leung, C.-Y.

S. Chang, C.-C. Hsu, T.-H. Huang, W.-C. Chuang, Y.-S. Tsai, J.-Y. Shieh, and C.-Y. Leung, “Heterodyne interferometric measurement of the thermo-optic coefficient of single mode fiber,” Chin. J. Phys. 38, 437–442 (2000).

Linfield, E. H.

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, B. E. Cole, C. Baker, M. J. Evans, I. V. Bradley, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Phase sensitive continuous-wave THz imaging using diode lasers,” Electron. Lett. 40, 143–145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lippens, D.

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, D. Bigourd, F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, J. F. Lampin, K. Blary, and D. Lippens, “THz media characterization by means of coherent homodyne detection, results and potential applications,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 395–399 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lison, F.

A. J. Deninger, T. Göbel, D. Schönherr, T. Kinder, A. Roggenbuck, M. Köberle, F. Lison, T. Müller-Wirts, and P. Meissner, “Precisely tunable continuous-wave terahertz source with interferometric frequency control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 044702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Roggenbuck, A. Deninger, I. Cámara Mayorga, H. Schmitz, J. Hemberger, F. Lison, and M. Grüninger, “CW terahertz spectrometer with high-precision frequency control,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CMX3.

Liu, Z.

Löffler, T.

K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, H. G. Roskos, and S. Czasch, “Continuous-wave all-optoelectronic terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3003–3005 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Maier, K.

I. Cámara Mayorga, E. A. Michael, A. Schmitz, P. van der Wal, R. Güsten, K. Maier, and A. Dewald, “Terahertz photomixing in high energy oxygen- and nitrogen-ion-implanted GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 031107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Matton, S.

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, D. Bigourd, F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, J. F. Lampin, K. Blary, and D. Lippens, “THz media characterization by means of coherent homodyne detection, results and potential applications,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 395–399 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McIntosh, K. A.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3824–3826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Meissner, P.

T. Göbel, D. Schoenherr, C. Sydlo, M. Feiginov, P. Meissner, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Single-sampling-point coherent detection in continuous-wave photomixing terahertz systems,” Electron. Lett. 45, 65–66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Deninger, T. Göbel, D. Schönherr, T. Kinder, A. Roggenbuck, M. Köberle, F. Lison, T. Müller-Wirts, and P. Meissner, “Precisely tunable continuous-wave terahertz source with interferometric frequency control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 044702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Göbel, D. Schoenherr, C. Sydlo, M. Feiginov, P. Meissner, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Continuous-wave terahertz system with electro-optical terahertz phase control,” Electron. Lett. 44, 863–864 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Mendis, C. Sydlo, J. Sigmund, M. Feiginov, P. Meissner, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Coherent generation and detection of continuous terahertz waves using two photomixers driven by laser diodes,” Int. J. Infrared Milli. Waves 26, 201–207 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mendis, R.

R. Mendis, C. Sydlo, J. Sigmund, M. Feiginov, P. Meissner, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Coherent generation and detection of continuous terahertz waves using two photomixers driven by laser diodes,” Int. J. Infrared Milli. Waves 26, 201–207 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Michael, E. A.

I. Cámara Mayorga, E. A. Michael, A. Schmitz, P. van der Wal, R. Güsten, K. Maier, and A. Dewald, “Terahertz photomixing in high energy oxygen- and nitrogen-ion-implanted GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 031107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Michalopoulou, Z.-H.

Missous, M.

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, B. E. Cole, C. Baker, M. J. Evans, I. V. Bradley, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Phase sensitive continuous-wave THz imaging using diode lasers,” Electron. Lett. 40, 143–145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Molvar, K. A.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3824–3826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mouret, G.

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, D. Bigourd, F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, J. F. Lampin, K. Blary, and D. Lippens, “THz media characterization by means of coherent homodyne detection, results and potential applications,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 395–399 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Müller-Wirts, T.

A. J. Deninger, T. Göbel, D. Schönherr, T. Kinder, A. Roggenbuck, M. Köberle, F. Lison, T. Müller-Wirts, and P. Meissner, “Precisely tunable continuous-wave terahertz source with interferometric frequency control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 044702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nahata, A.

A. Nahata, J. T. Yardley, and T. F. Heinz, “Free-space electro-optic detection of continuous-wave terahertz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2524–2526 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nieuwenhuys, G.

B. P. Gorshunov, A. A. Volkov, A. S. Prokhorov, I. E. Spektor, J. Akimitsu, M. Dressel, G. Nieuwenhuys, S. Tomic, and S. Uchida, “Terahertz BWO spectroscopy of conductors and superconductors,” Quantum Electron. 37, 916–923 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Prokhorov, A. S.

B. P. Gorshunov, A. A. Volkov, A. S. Prokhorov, I. E. Spektor, J. Akimitsu, M. Dressel, G. Nieuwenhuys, S. Tomic, and S. Uchida, “Terahertz BWO spectroscopy of conductors and superconductors,” Quantum Electron. 37, 916–923 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Quast, H.

K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, H. G. Roskos, and S. Czasch, “Continuous-wave all-optoelectronic terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3003–3005 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Roggenbuck, A.

A. Roggenbuck, H. Schmitz, A. Deninger, I. Cámara Mayorga, J. Hemberger, R. Güsten, and M. Grüninger, “Coherent broadband continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy on solid-state samples,” New J. Phys. 12, 043017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Deninger, T. Göbel, D. Schönherr, T. Kinder, A. Roggenbuck, M. Köberle, F. Lison, T. Müller-Wirts, and P. Meissner, “Precisely tunable continuous-wave terahertz source with interferometric frequency control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 044702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Roggenbuck, A. Deninger, I. Cámara Mayorga, H. Schmitz, J. Hemberger, F. Lison, and M. Grüninger, “CW terahertz spectrometer with high-precision frequency control,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CMX3.

Roskos, H. G.

K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, H. G. Roskos, and S. Czasch, “Continuous-wave all-optoelectronic terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3003–3005 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schmitz, A.

I. Cámara Mayorga, E. A. Michael, A. Schmitz, P. van der Wal, R. Güsten, K. Maier, and A. Dewald, “Terahertz photomixing in high energy oxygen- and nitrogen-ion-implanted GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 031107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schmitz, H.

A. Roggenbuck, H. Schmitz, A. Deninger, I. Cámara Mayorga, J. Hemberger, R. Güsten, and M. Grüninger, “Coherent broadband continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy on solid-state samples,” New J. Phys. 12, 043017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Roggenbuck, A. Deninger, I. Cámara Mayorga, H. Schmitz, J. Hemberger, F. Lison, and M. Grüninger, “CW terahertz spectrometer with high-precision frequency control,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CMX3.

Schoenherr, D.

T. Göbel, D. Schoenherr, C. Sydlo, M. Feiginov, P. Meissner, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Single-sampling-point coherent detection in continuous-wave photomixing terahertz systems,” Electron. Lett. 45, 65–66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Göbel, D. Schoenherr, C. Sydlo, M. Feiginov, P. Meissner, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Continuous-wave terahertz system with electro-optical terahertz phase control,” Electron. Lett. 44, 863–864 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schönherr, D.

A. J. Deninger, T. Göbel, D. Schönherr, T. Kinder, A. Roggenbuck, M. Köberle, F. Lison, T. Müller-Wirts, and P. Meissner, “Precisely tunable continuous-wave terahertz source with interferometric frequency control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 044702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shieh, J.-Y.

S. Chang, C.-C. Hsu, T.-H. Huang, W.-C. Chuang, Y.-S. Tsai, J.-Y. Shieh, and C.-Y. Leung, “Heterodyne interferometric measurement of the thermo-optic coefficient of single mode fiber,” Chin. J. Phys. 38, 437–442 (2000).

Siebert, K. J.

K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, H. G. Roskos, and S. Czasch, “Continuous-wave all-optoelectronic terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3003–3005 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sigmund, J.

R. Mendis, C. Sydlo, J. Sigmund, M. Feiginov, P. Meissner, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Coherent generation and detection of continuous terahertz waves using two photomixers driven by laser diodes,” Int. J. Infrared Milli. Waves 26, 201–207 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sinyukov, A. M.

Spektor, I. E.

B. P. Gorshunov, A. A. Volkov, A. S. Prokhorov, I. E. Spektor, J. Akimitsu, M. Dressel, G. Nieuwenhuys, S. Tomic, and S. Uchida, “Terahertz BWO spectroscopy of conductors and superconductors,” Quantum Electron. 37, 916–923 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Su, K.

Sydlo, C.

T. Göbel, D. Schoenherr, C. Sydlo, M. Feiginov, P. Meissner, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Single-sampling-point coherent detection in continuous-wave photomixing terahertz systems,” Electron. Lett. 45, 65–66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Göbel, D. Schoenherr, C. Sydlo, M. Feiginov, P. Meissner, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Continuous-wave terahertz system with electro-optical terahertz phase control,” Electron. Lett. 44, 863–864 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Mendis, C. Sydlo, J. Sigmund, M. Feiginov, P. Meissner, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Coherent generation and detection of continuous terahertz waves using two photomixers driven by laser diodes,” Int. J. Infrared Milli. Waves 26, 201–207 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, M.

K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, H. G. Roskos, and S. Czasch, “Continuous-wave all-optoelectronic terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3003–3005 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tomic, S.

B. P. Gorshunov, A. A. Volkov, A. S. Prokhorov, I. E. Spektor, J. Akimitsu, M. Dressel, G. Nieuwenhuys, S. Tomic, and S. Uchida, “Terahertz BWO spectroscopy of conductors and superconductors,” Quantum Electron. 37, 916–923 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tribe, W. R.

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, B. E. Cole, C. Baker, M. J. Evans, I. V. Bradley, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Phase sensitive continuous-wave THz imaging using diode lasers,” Electron. Lett. 40, 143–145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, Y.-S.

S. Chang, C.-C. Hsu, T.-H. Huang, W.-C. Chuang, Y.-S. Tsai, J.-Y. Shieh, and C.-Y. Leung, “Heterodyne interferometric measurement of the thermo-optic coefficient of single mode fiber,” Chin. J. Phys. 38, 437–442 (2000).

Uchida, S.

B. P. Gorshunov, A. A. Volkov, A. S. Prokhorov, I. E. Spektor, J. Akimitsu, M. Dressel, G. Nieuwenhuys, S. Tomic, and S. Uchida, “Terahertz BWO spectroscopy of conductors and superconductors,” Quantum Electron. 37, 916–923 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van der Wal, P.

I. Cámara Mayorga, E. A. Michael, A. Schmitz, P. van der Wal, R. Güsten, K. Maier, and A. Dewald, “Terahertz photomixing in high energy oxygen- and nitrogen-ion-implanted GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 031107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Van Exter, M.

Verghese, S.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3824–3826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Volkov, A.

G. Kozlov and A. Volkov, “Coherent Source Submillimeter Wave Spectroscopy,” in Millimeter and Submillimeter Wave Spectroscopy of Solids, G. Grüner, ed., Topics in Applied Physics (Springer, 1998), Vol. 74, pp. 51–110.

Volkov, A. A.

B. P. Gorshunov, A. A. Volkov, A. S. Prokhorov, I. E. Spektor, J. Akimitsu, M. Dressel, G. Nieuwenhuys, S. Tomic, and S. Uchida, “Terahertz BWO spectroscopy of conductors and superconductors,” Quantum Electron. 37, 916–923 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yardley, J. T.

A. Nahata, J. T. Yardley, and T. F. Heinz, “Free-space electro-optic detection of continuous-wave terahertz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2524–2526 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zimdars, D.

Zorych, I.

Appl. Phys. B

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, D. Bigourd, F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, J. F. Lampin, K. Blary, and D. Lippens, “THz media characterization by means of coherent homodyne detection, results and potential applications,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 395–399 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3824–3826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Nahata, J. T. Yardley, and T. F. Heinz, “Free-space electro-optic detection of continuous-wave terahertz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2524–2526 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, H. G. Roskos, and S. Czasch, “Continuous-wave all-optoelectronic terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3003–3005 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Cámara Mayorga, E. A. Michael, A. Schmitz, P. van der Wal, R. Güsten, K. Maier, and A. Dewald, “Terahertz photomixing in high energy oxygen- and nitrogen-ion-implanted GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 031107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chin. J. Phys.

S. Chang, C.-C. Hsu, T.-H. Huang, W.-C. Chuang, Y.-S. Tsai, J.-Y. Shieh, and C.-Y. Leung, “Heterodyne interferometric measurement of the thermo-optic coefficient of single mode fiber,” Chin. J. Phys. 38, 437–442 (2000).

Electron. Lett.

T. Göbel, D. Schoenherr, C. Sydlo, M. Feiginov, P. Meissner, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Continuous-wave terahertz system with electro-optical terahertz phase control,” Electron. Lett. 44, 863–864 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Göbel, D. Schoenherr, C. Sydlo, M. Feiginov, P. Meissner, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Single-sampling-point coherent detection in continuous-wave photomixing terahertz systems,” Electron. Lett. 45, 65–66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, B. E. Cole, C. Baker, M. J. Evans, I. V. Bradley, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Phase sensitive continuous-wave THz imaging using diode lasers,” Electron. Lett. 40, 143–145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

G. Ghosh, “Temperature dispersion of refractive indexes in some silicate fiber glasses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 431–433 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Infrared Milli. Waves

R. Mendis, C. Sydlo, J. Sigmund, M. Feiginov, P. Meissner, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Coherent generation and detection of continuous terahertz waves using two photomixers driven by laser diodes,” Int. J. Infrared Milli. Waves 26, 201–207 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

New J. Phys.

A. Roggenbuck, H. Schmitz, A. Deninger, I. Cámara Mayorga, J. Hemberger, R. Güsten, and M. Grüninger, “Coherent broadband continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy on solid-state samples,” New J. Phys. 12, 043017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

T. Jeon and D. Grischkowsky, “Nature of conduction in doped silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1106–1109 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Quantum Electron.

B. P. Gorshunov, A. A. Volkov, A. S. Prokhorov, I. E. Spektor, J. Akimitsu, M. Dressel, G. Nieuwenhuys, S. Tomic, and S. Uchida, “Terahertz BWO spectroscopy of conductors and superconductors,” Quantum Electron. 37, 916–923 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

A. J. Deninger, T. Göbel, D. Schönherr, T. Kinder, A. Roggenbuck, M. Köberle, F. Lison, T. Müller-Wirts, and P. Meissner, “Precisely tunable continuous-wave terahertz source with interferometric frequency control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 044702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other

G. Kozlov and A. Volkov, “Coherent Source Submillimeter Wave Spectroscopy,” in Millimeter and Submillimeter Wave Spectroscopy of Solids, G. Grüner, ed., Topics in Applied Physics (Springer, 1998), Vol. 74, pp. 51–110.

A. Roggenbuck, A. Deninger, I. Cámara Mayorga, H. Schmitz, J. Hemberger, F. Lison, and M. Grüninger, “CW terahertz spectrometer with high-precision frequency control,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CMX3.

The opening angle was measured using the knife-edge method; i.e., a metallic edge was translated through the THz beam perpendicular to the propagation direction. The total power behind the edge was focused onto the detector by using two lenses, and a Gaussian beam profile was assumed for the data analysis.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Detected photocurrent at 100 GHz while the optical path difference ΔL=ΔL(s=0)+s(t) is step-scanned with either a fiber stretcher in the path of the optical beat (red, open circles) or a mechanical delay stage in the terahertz path (black squares). The lines represent cosine fits. The phase shift between the two data sets is caused by the difference of ΔL(s=0) in the two setups. The small deviations from a cosine shape in the delay-stage data are due to standing waves in the terahertz path.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Setup of the terahertz spectrometer for a face-to-face configuration of the two photomixers.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Voltage U at the fiber stretcher and terahertz photocurrent Iph at the receiver photomixer as a function of time for a terahertz frequency of 600 GHz. Here, the frequency of the voltage modulation is fs=800Hz and the photocurrent is averaged over 240 periods (corresponding to 300ms).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The terahertz photocurrent Iph (same data as in Fig. 3) now plotted as a function of the voltage U at the fiber stretcher, which is proportional to the change s of the optical path difference. A cosine fit with λ=c/ν500μm describes the data excellently (red line).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Drift of the optical path difference ΔL versus time. The data points and error bars represent the mean value and standard deviation of about 20 consecutive values of ΔL measured within about 10 s at constant frequency. Small diamonds show the drift of ΔL averaged over all frequencies. Inset: Short-term (10 s) uncertainty of the optical path difference ΔL versus frequency ν, calculated for each frequency from about 15 values (error bars in the main panel). Error bars in the inset represent the standard deviation.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Terahertz photocurrent Iph at about 100 GHz (left) and 600 GHz (right) measured either using the fiber stretchers (red) or the frequency-scanning method with constant ΔL (black). In the latter case, the period of the interference fringes depends on ΔL. A reasonable effective frequency resolution requires a small period and thus a rather large ΔL (about 0.6 m for this data set), which again is unfavorable for a high phase accuracy. The modulation of the envelope with about 2 GHz can be attributed to multiple reflections between the photomixers, which here have been used in a face-to-face setup with a distance of about 8 cm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Transmittance (top panel) of a single crystal of Si and effective optical path length introduced by the sample (bottom panel) at 300 K. Inset: refractive index n (left axis, solid lines) and extinction coefficient k (right axis, dashed lines) as derived from a Drude model (red) and from a fit of small frequency ranges (black).

Equations (1)

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IphETHzcos(Δφ)=ETHzcos(2πΔLν/c),

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