Abstract

We report CW blue laser operation at 469.2, 471, and 473 nm by efficient intracavity second-harmonic generation and sum-frequency generation of the R2Z5 (938.5 nm) and R1Z5 (946 nm) F43/2I49/2 intermultiplet transitions in Nd:YAG with an LiB3O5 nonlinear crystal. Single-wavelength laser operation at 469.2 nm and multiwavelength operation at 469.2, 471, and 473 nm are obtained with maximum output powers of 1.4 and 0.15 W, respectively, by using a glass etalon as frequency selector. The 469 nm blue laser is an efficient pumping source of Pr3+-doped materials.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2011 (3)

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

F. Cornacchia, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, A. Richter, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Efficient visible laser emission of GaN laser diode pumped Pr-doped fluoride scheelite crystals,” Opt. Express 16, 15932–15941 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Khiari, M. Velazquez, R. Moncorgé, J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, A. Ferrier, and M. Diaf, “Red luminescence analysis of Pr3+ doped fluoride crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 451, 128–131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

S. G. P. Strohmaier, H. J. Eichler, C. Czeranowsky, B. Ileri, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Diode pumped Nd:GSAG and Nd:YGG laser at 942 and 935 nm,” Opt. Commun. 275, 170–172 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Li, D. Li, and Z. Zhang, “Efficient generation of blue light by intracavity frequency doubling of a cw Nd:YAG laser with LBO,” Opt. Laser Technol. 39, 1421–1425 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Richter, E. Heumann, G. Huber, V. Ostroumov, and W. Seelert, “Power scaling of semiconductor laser pumped praseodymium-lasers,” Opt. Express 15, 5172–5178 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, J. Bengoechea, and U. Weichmann, “Diode-pumped Pr3+:KY3F10 red laser,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1462–1464 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Hashimoto and F. Kannari, “High-power GaN diode-pumped continuous wave Pr3+-doped LiYF4 laser,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2493–2495 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

S. Bjurshagen, D. Evekull, and R. Koch, “Generation of blue light at 469 nm by efficient frequency doubling of diode pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Electron. Lett. 38, 324–325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

R. Koch, W. A. Clarkson, and D. C. Hanna, “Diode pumped CW Nd:YAG laser operating at 938.5 nm,” Electron. Lett. 32, 553–554 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

T. Y. Fan, “Heat generation in Nd:YAG and Yb:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1457–1459 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

S. Singh, R. G. Smith, and L. G. Van Uitert, “Stimulated emission cross section and fluorescent quantum efficiency of Nd3+ in yttrium aluminium garnet at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 10, 2566–2572 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

Barnes, N. P.

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, R. L. Hutcheson, R. W. Equall, and B. Di Bartolo, “Spectroscopy and lasing characteristics of Nd-doped Y3GaxAl(5-x)O12 materials: application toward a compositionally tuned 0.94 μm laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2794–2801 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Braud, F. S. Ermeneux, Y. Sun, R. L. Cone, R. W. Equall, R. L. Hutcheson, C. Maunier, R. Moncorgé, N. P. Barnes, H. G. Gallagher, and T. P. Han, “Nd-doped mixed scandium garnets for improved laser performance and compositional tuning from 937 to 946 nm,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. Marshall, ed., Vol. 50 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper ME12.

Bengoechea, J.

Bin, L.

Bjurshagen, S.

S. Bjurshagen, D. Evekull, and R. Koch, “Generation of blue light at 469 nm by efficient frequency doubling of diode pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Electron. Lett. 38, 324–325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Braud, A.

A. Braud, F. S. Ermeneux, Y. Sun, R. L. Cone, R. W. Equall, R. L. Hutcheson, C. Maunier, R. Moncorgé, N. P. Barnes, H. G. Gallagher, and T. P. Han, “Nd-doped mixed scandium garnets for improved laser performance and compositional tuning from 937 to 946 nm,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. Marshall, ed., Vol. 50 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper ME12.

Bretenaker, F.

Cai, Z.

Cai, Z. P.

B. Xu, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, R. Soulard, Z. P. Cai, and R. Moncorgé, “Efficient diode-pumped Nd:GGG laser operation at 933.6 and 937.3 nm,” Appl. Phys. B, 106, 19–24 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Camy, P.

B. Xu, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, R. Soulard, Z. P. Cai, and R. Moncorgé, “Efficient diode-pumped Nd:GGG laser operation at 933.6 and 937.3 nm,” Appl. Phys. B, 106, 19–24 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Xu, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, Z. Cai, and R. Moncorgé, “Visible laser operation of Pr3+-doped fluoride crystals pumped by a 469 nm blue laser,” Opt. Express 19, 1191–1197 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Khiari, M. Velazquez, R. Moncorgé, J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, A. Ferrier, and M. Diaf, “Red luminescence analysis of Pr3+ doped fluoride crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 451, 128–131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, J. Bengoechea, and U. Weichmann, “Diode-pumped Pr3+:KY3F10 red laser,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1462–1464 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

Clarkson, W. A.

R. Koch, W. A. Clarkson, and D. C. Hanna, “Diode pumped CW Nd:YAG laser operating at 938.5 nm,” Electron. Lett. 32, 553–554 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cone, R. L.

A. Braud, F. S. Ermeneux, Y. Sun, R. L. Cone, R. W. Equall, R. L. Hutcheson, C. Maunier, R. Moncorgé, N. P. Barnes, H. G. Gallagher, and T. P. Han, “Nd-doped mixed scandium garnets for improved laser performance and compositional tuning from 937 to 946 nm,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. Marshall, ed., Vol. 50 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper ME12.

Cornacchia, F.

Czeranowsky, C.

S. G. P. Strohmaier, H. J. Eichler, C. Czeranowsky, B. Ileri, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Diode pumped Nd:GSAG and Nd:YGG laser at 942 and 935 nm,” Opt. Commun. 275, 170–172 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Czeranowsky, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “All solid state continuous wave frequency-doubled Nd:YAG-BiBO laser with 2.8 W output power at 473 nm,” Opt. Lett. 28, 432–434 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Di Bartolo, B.

Di Lieto, A.

Diaf, M.

S. Khiari, M. Velazquez, R. Moncorgé, J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, A. Ferrier, and M. Diaf, “Red luminescence analysis of Pr3+ doped fluoride crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 451, 128–131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Doualan, J. L.

B. Xu, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, R. Soulard, Z. P. Cai, and R. Moncorgé, “Efficient diode-pumped Nd:GGG laser operation at 933.6 and 937.3 nm,” Appl. Phys. B, 106, 19–24 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Xu, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, Z. Cai, and R. Moncorgé, “Visible laser operation of Pr3+-doped fluoride crystals pumped by a 469 nm blue laser,” Opt. Express 19, 1191–1197 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Khiari, M. Velazquez, R. Moncorgé, J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, A. Ferrier, and M. Diaf, “Red luminescence analysis of Pr3+ doped fluoride crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 451, 128–131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, J. Bengoechea, and U. Weichmann, “Diode-pumped Pr3+:KY3F10 red laser,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1462–1464 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eichler, H. J.

S. G. P. Strohmaier, H. J. Eichler, C. Czeranowsky, B. Ileri, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Diode pumped Nd:GSAG and Nd:YGG laser at 942 and 935 nm,” Opt. Commun. 275, 170–172 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Equall, R. W.

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, R. L. Hutcheson, R. W. Equall, and B. Di Bartolo, “Spectroscopy and lasing characteristics of Nd-doped Y3GaxAl(5-x)O12 materials: application toward a compositionally tuned 0.94 μm laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2794–2801 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Braud, F. S. Ermeneux, Y. Sun, R. L. Cone, R. W. Equall, R. L. Hutcheson, C. Maunier, R. Moncorgé, N. P. Barnes, H. G. Gallagher, and T. P. Han, “Nd-doped mixed scandium garnets for improved laser performance and compositional tuning from 937 to 946 nm,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. Marshall, ed., Vol. 50 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper ME12.

Ermeneux, F. S.

A. Braud, F. S. Ermeneux, Y. Sun, R. L. Cone, R. W. Equall, R. L. Hutcheson, C. Maunier, R. Moncorgé, N. P. Barnes, H. G. Gallagher, and T. P. Han, “Nd-doped mixed scandium garnets for improved laser performance and compositional tuning from 937 to 946 nm,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. Marshall, ed., Vol. 50 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper ME12.

Evekull, D.

S. Bjurshagen, D. Evekull, and R. Koch, “Generation of blue light at 469 nm by efficient frequency doubling of diode pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Electron. Lett. 38, 324–325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fan, T. Y.

T. Y. Fan, “Heat generation in Nd:YAG and Yb:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1457–1459 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ferrier, A.

S. Khiari, M. Velazquez, R. Moncorgé, J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, A. Ferrier, and M. Diaf, “Red luminescence analysis of Pr3+ doped fluoride crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 451, 128–131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, H. G.

A. Braud, F. S. Ermeneux, Y. Sun, R. L. Cone, R. W. Equall, R. L. Hutcheson, C. Maunier, R. Moncorgé, N. P. Barnes, H. G. Gallagher, and T. P. Han, “Nd-doped mixed scandium garnets for improved laser performance and compositional tuning from 937 to 946 nm,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. Marshall, ed., Vol. 50 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper ME12.

Gao, J.

Goldner, Ph.

Han, T. P.

A. Braud, F. S. Ermeneux, Y. Sun, R. L. Cone, R. W. Equall, R. L. Hutcheson, C. Maunier, R. Moncorgé, N. P. Barnes, H. G. Gallagher, and T. P. Han, “Nd-doped mixed scandium garnets for improved laser performance and compositional tuning from 937 to 946 nm,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. Marshall, ed., Vol. 50 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper ME12.

Hanna, D. C.

R. Koch, W. A. Clarkson, and D. C. Hanna, “Diode pumped CW Nd:YAG laser operating at 938.5 nm,” Electron. Lett. 32, 553–554 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, K.

Hercher, M.

Heumann, E.

Huber, G.

Hutcheson, R. L.

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, R. L. Hutcheson, R. W. Equall, and B. Di Bartolo, “Spectroscopy and lasing characteristics of Nd-doped Y3GaxAl(5-x)O12 materials: application toward a compositionally tuned 0.94 μm laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2794–2801 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Braud, F. S. Ermeneux, Y. Sun, R. L. Cone, R. W. Equall, R. L. Hutcheson, C. Maunier, R. Moncorgé, N. P. Barnes, H. G. Gallagher, and T. P. Han, “Nd-doped mixed scandium garnets for improved laser performance and compositional tuning from 937 to 946 nm,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. Marshall, ed., Vol. 50 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper ME12.

Ileri, B.

S. G. P. Strohmaier, H. J. Eichler, C. Czeranowsky, B. Ileri, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Diode pumped Nd:GSAG and Nd:YGG laser at 942 and 935 nm,” Opt. Commun. 275, 170–172 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kannari, F.

Khiari, S.

S. Khiari, M. Velazquez, R. Moncorgé, J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, A. Ferrier, and M. Diaf, “Red luminescence analysis of Pr3+ doped fluoride crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 451, 128–131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Koch, R.

S. Bjurshagen, D. Evekull, and R. Koch, “Generation of blue light at 469 nm by efficient frequency doubling of diode pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Electron. Lett. 38, 324–325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Koch, W. A. Clarkson, and D. C. Hanna, “Diode pumped CW Nd:YAG laser operating at 938.5 nm,” Electron. Lett. 32, 553–554 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lee, A. J.

Li, D.

P. Li, D. Li, and Z. Zhang, “Efficient generation of blue light by intracavity frequency doubling of a cw Nd:YAG laser with LBO,” Opt. Laser Technol. 39, 1421–1425 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, P.

P. Li, D. Li, and Z. Zhang, “Efficient generation of blue light by intracavity frequency doubling of a cw Nd:YAG laser with LBO,” Opt. Laser Technol. 39, 1421–1425 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

Ling, Z.

Maunier, C.

A. Braud, F. S. Ermeneux, Y. Sun, R. L. Cone, R. W. Equall, R. L. Hutcheson, C. Maunier, R. Moncorgé, N. P. Barnes, H. G. Gallagher, and T. P. Han, “Nd-doped mixed scandium garnets for improved laser performance and compositional tuning from 937 to 946 nm,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. Marshall, ed., Vol. 50 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper ME12.

Mhibik, O.

Moncorgé, R.

B. Xu, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, Z. Cai, and R. Moncorgé, “Visible laser operation of Pr3+-doped fluoride crystals pumped by a 469 nm blue laser,” Opt. Express 19, 1191–1197 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Xu, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, R. Soulard, Z. P. Cai, and R. Moncorgé, “Efficient diode-pumped Nd:GGG laser operation at 933.6 and 937.3 nm,” Appl. Phys. B, 106, 19–24 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Khiari, M. Velazquez, R. Moncorgé, J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, A. Ferrier, and M. Diaf, “Red luminescence analysis of Pr3+ doped fluoride crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 451, 128–131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, J. Bengoechea, and U. Weichmann, “Diode-pumped Pr3+:KY3F10 red laser,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1462–1464 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Braud, F. S. Ermeneux, Y. Sun, R. L. Cone, R. W. Equall, R. L. Hutcheson, C. Maunier, R. Moncorgé, N. P. Barnes, H. G. Gallagher, and T. P. Han, “Nd-doped mixed scandium garnets for improved laser performance and compositional tuning from 937 to 946 nm,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. Marshall, ed., Vol. 50 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper ME12.

Ostroumov, V.

Pabœuf, D.

Parisi, D.

Pask, H. M.

Petermann, K.

S. G. P. Strohmaier, H. J. Eichler, C. Czeranowsky, B. Ileri, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Diode pumped Nd:GSAG and Nd:YGG laser at 942 and 935 nm,” Opt. Commun. 275, 170–172 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Piper, J. A.

Qu, D.

Quan, Z.

Richter, A.

Seelert, W.

Singh, S.

S. Singh, R. G. Smith, and L. G. Van Uitert, “Stimulated emission cross section and fluorescent quantum efficiency of Nd3+ in yttrium aluminium garnet at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 10, 2566–2572 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. G.

S. Singh, R. G. Smith, and L. G. Van Uitert, “Stimulated emission cross section and fluorescent quantum efficiency of Nd3+ in yttrium aluminium garnet at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 10, 2566–2572 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Soulard, R.

B. Xu, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, R. Soulard, Z. P. Cai, and R. Moncorgé, “Efficient diode-pumped Nd:GGG laser operation at 933.6 and 937.3 nm,” Appl. Phys. B, 106, 19–24 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Spence, D. J.

Strohmaier, S. G. P.

S. G. P. Strohmaier, H. J. Eichler, C. Czeranowsky, B. Ileri, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Diode pumped Nd:GSAG and Nd:YGG laser at 942 and 935 nm,” Opt. Commun. 275, 170–172 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

A. Braud, F. S. Ermeneux, Y. Sun, R. L. Cone, R. W. Equall, R. L. Hutcheson, C. Maunier, R. Moncorgé, N. P. Barnes, H. G. Gallagher, and T. P. Han, “Nd-doped mixed scandium garnets for improved laser performance and compositional tuning from 937 to 946 nm,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. Marshall, ed., Vol. 50 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper ME12.

Tonelli, M.

Van Uitert, L. G.

S. Singh, R. G. Smith, and L. G. Van Uitert, “Stimulated emission cross section and fluorescent quantum efficiency of Nd3+ in yttrium aluminium garnet at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 10, 2566–2572 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Velazquez, M.

S. Khiari, M. Velazquez, R. Moncorgé, J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, A. Ferrier, and M. Diaf, “Red luminescence analysis of Pr3+ doped fluoride crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 451, 128–131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, B. M.

Wang, Y.

Weichmann, U.

Xu, B.

B. Xu, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, R. Soulard, Z. P. Cai, and R. Moncorgé, “Efficient diode-pumped Nd:GGG laser operation at 933.6 and 937.3 nm,” Appl. Phys. B, 106, 19–24 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Xu, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, Z. Cai, and R. Moncorgé, “Visible laser operation of Pr3+-doped fluoride crystals pumped by a 469 nm blue laser,” Opt. Express 19, 1191–1197 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yan, R.

Yao, Y.

Yu, J.

Yu, X.

Zhang, K.

Zhang, Z.

P. Li, D. Li, and Z. Zhang, “Efficient generation of blue light by intracavity frequency doubling of a cw Nd:YAG laser with LBO,” Opt. Laser Technol. 39, 1421–1425 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

B. Xu, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, R. Soulard, Z. P. Cai, and R. Moncorgé, “Efficient diode-pumped Nd:GGG laser operation at 933.6 and 937.3 nm,” Appl. Phys. B, 106, 19–24 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Laser experimental setup. LD, laser diode; f1, focal lengths; S1, coating on the YAG surface; HR, high reflection; HT, high transmission; M1, mirror 1; M2, mirror 2.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Simulations of normalized frequency conversion efficiencies at 469, 471, and 473 nm for the LBO crystal used in the experiments.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Nd:YAG luminescence spectrum versus calculated etalon transmission with a tilted angle of 8.8 ° .

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Output power curves for single-wavelength and multiwavelength laser operation versus incident pump power.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) 938.5 nm laser line selected with the glass etalon, (b) second-harmonic line generated at 469.2 nm, (c) simultaneous dual-wavelength lasing at 938.5 and 946 nm, and (d) simultaneous operation at 469, 471, and 473 nm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

471.16 nm emission resulting from SFG of 946 and 938.5 nm, obtained by tilting the glass etalon.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

X and Y diameters of the output laser beam at 469.2 nm as a function of their Z -axis location.

Equations (2)

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P 2 ω = 2 l 2 η 3 ω 2 d eff 2 P ω 2 A sin c 2 ( Δ k l 2 ) ,
Δ k = Δ k ( Δ ϕ , Δ λ , Δ T ) Δ k ( 0 ) + ( Δ k ) T | p m Δ T + ( Δ k ) ϕ | p m Δ ϕ + ( Δ k ) λ | p m Δ λ ,

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