Abstract

Using a many-body theory, we discuss some fundamental issues of femtomagnetism in magnetic electronic systems. We address the question of how spin may couple to transient optical coherence during time scales shorter than the photoexcitation duration and the characteristic times of interaction with the lattice. We also discuss the role of the competition between magnetic exchange and spin–orbit interactions in the nonthermal temporal evolution regime. Using density matrix equations of motion, we predict a femtosecond collective spin tilt leading to nonthermal magnetization modulation and all-optical ultrafast switching between different metastable magnetic states of (Ga,Mn)As ferromagnets. This spin dynamics is triggered by carrier coherences and by nonthermal populations photoexcited along the {111} equivalent directions of the Brillouin zone, which can be controlled by tuning the laser frequency/intensity and by using a small magnetic field. We present femtosecond magneto-optical spectroscopy experimental results that agree with our predictions. Our results indicate the possibility of reading the (Ga,Mn)As magnetic memory at THz speeds limited only by the pulse duration.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  7. I. Tudosa, C. Stamm, A. B. Kashuba, F. King, H. C. Siegmann, J. Stöhr, G. Ju, B. Lu, and D. Weller, “The ultimate speed of magnetic switching in granular recording media,” Nature 428, 831–833 (2004).
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  8. Y. Tserkovnyak, A. Brataas, G. E. W. Bauer, and B. I. Halperin, “Nonlocal magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic heterostructures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 1375–1421 (2005).
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  9. J. Wang, C. Sun, Y. Hashimoto, J. Kono, G. A. Khodaparast, L. Cywiński, L. J. Sham, G. D. Sanders, C. J. Stanton, and H. Munekata, “Ultrafast magneto-optics in ferromagnetic IIIV semiconductors,” J. Phys. 18, R501–R530 (2006).
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  11. C. Boeglin, E. Beaurepaire, V. Halté, V. Lopez-Flores, C. Stamm, N. Pontius, H. A. Dürr, and J.-Y. Bigot, “Distinguishing the ultrafast dynamics of spin and orbital moments in solids,” Nature 465, 458–461 (2010).
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    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Wang, L. Cywiński, C. Sun, J. Kono, H. Munekata, and L. J. Sham, “Femtosecond demagnetization and hot-hole relaxation in ferromagnetic Ga1xMnxAs,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 235308 (2008).
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  22. J. Chovan and I. E. Perakis, “Femtosecond control of the magnetization in ferromagnetic semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 085321 (2008).
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  24. E. Beaurepaire, J.-C. Merle, A. Daunois, and J.-Y. Bigot, “Ultrafast spin dynamics in ferromagnetic nickel,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4250–4253 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  25. K. S. Burch, J. Stephens, R. K. Kawakami, D. D. Awschalom, and D. N. Basov, “Ellipsometric study of the electronic structure of Ga1xMnxAs and low-temperature GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 205208 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  26. P. Vogl, H. P. Hjamlarsons, and J. D. Dow, “A semi-empirical tight-binding theory of the electronic structure of semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 44, 365–378 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  27. L. C. Lew, Yan Voon, and L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Tight-binding representation of the optical matrix elements: theory and applications,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 15500–15508 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. Qi, Y. Xu, A. Steigerwald, X. Liu, J. K. Furdyna, I. E. Perakis, and N. H. Tolk, “Ultrafast laser-induced coherent spin dynamics in ferromagnetic Ga1xMnxAs/GaAs structures,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 085304 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. Qi, Y. Xu, N. H. Tolk, X. Liu, J. K. Furdyna, and I. E. Perakis, “Coherent magnetization precession in GaMnAs induced by ultrafast optical excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 112506 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  30. M. Abolfath, T. Jungwirth, J. Brum, and A. H. MacDonald, “Theory of magnetic anisotropy in III1−xMnxV ferromagnets,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 054418 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  31. T. Dietl, H. Ohno, and F. Matsukura, “Hole-mediated ferromagnetism in tetrahedrally coordinated semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 195205 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  32. U. Welp, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, X. Liu, J. K. Furdyna, and T. Wojtowicz, “Magnetic domain structure and magnetic anisotropy in Ga1xMnxAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167206 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  33. D. M. Wang, Y. H. Ren, X. Liu, J. K. Furdyna, M. Grimsditch, and R. Merlin, “Light-induced magnetic precession in (Ga,Mn)As slabs: hybrid standing-wave Damon–Eshbach modes,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 233308 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  34. G. V. Astakhov, A. V. Kimel, G. M. Schott, A. A. Tsvetkov, A. Kirilyuk, D. R. Yakovlev, G. Karczewski, W. Ossau, G. Schmidt, L. W. Molenkamp, and Th. Rasing, “Magnetization manipulation in (Ga,Mn)As by subpicosecond optical excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 152506 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  35. M. D. Kapetanakis, P. C. Lingos, C. Piermarocchi, J. Wang, and I. E. Perakis, “All-optical four-state magnetization reversal in (Ga,Mn)As ferromagnetic semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 091111 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  36. P. Enders, “Special-lines approximation to Brillouin zone integration,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 11, 187–189 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

M. D. Kapetanakis, P. C. Lingos, C. Piermarocchi, J. Wang, and I. E. Perakis, “All-optical four-state magnetization reversal in (Ga,Mn)As ferromagnetic semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 091111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

A. Kirilyuk, A. V. Kimel, and T. Rasing, “Ultrafast optical manipulation of magnetic order,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 2731–2784 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Boeglin, E. Beaurepaire, V. Halté, V. Lopez-Flores, C. Stamm, N. Pontius, H. A. Dürr, and J.-Y. Bigot, “Distinguishing the ultrafast dynamics of spin and orbital moments in solids,” Nature 465, 458–461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

J. Wang, I. Cotoros, D. S. Chemla, X. Liu, J. K. Furdyna, J. Chovan, and I. E. Perakis, “Memory effects in photoinduced femtosecond magnetization rotation in ferromagnetic GaMnAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 021101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Kapetanakis, I. E. Perakis, K. J. Wickey, C. Piermarocchi, and J. Wang, “Femtosecond coherent control of spins in (Ga,Mn)As ferromagnetic semiconductors using light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 047404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Bigot, M. Vomir, and E. Beaurepaire, “Coherent ultrafast magnetism induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Nat. Phys. 5, 515–520 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Morandi, P.-A. Hervieux, and G. Manfredi, “Laser induced ultrafast demagnetization in diluted magnetic semiconductor nanostructures,” Eur. Phys. J. D 52, 155–158 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Qi, Y. Xu, A. Steigerwald, X. Liu, J. K. Furdyna, I. E. Perakis, and N. H. Tolk, “Ultrafast laser-induced coherent spin dynamics in ferromagnetic Ga1xMnxAs/GaAs structures,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 085304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

J. Chovan and I. E. Perakis, “Femtosecond control of the magnetization in ferromagnetic semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 085321 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Kapetanakis and I. E. Perakis, “Spin dynamics in (III,Mn)V ferromagnetic semiconductors: the role of correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 097201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Kapetanakis and I. E. Perakis, “Magnetization relaxation and collective spin excitations in correlated double-exchange ferromagnets,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 155110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, L. Cywiński, C. Sun, J. Kono, H. Munekata, and L. J. Sham, “Femtosecond demagnetization and hot-hole relaxation in ferromagnetic Ga1xMnxAs,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 235308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

L. Cywiński and L. J. Sham, “Ultrafast demagnetization in the sp-d model: a theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 045205 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, I. Cotoros, K. M. Dani, X. Liu, J. K. Furdyna, and D. S. Chemla, “Ultrafast enhancement of ferromagnetism via photoexcited holes in GaMnAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 217401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Qi, Y. Xu, N. H. Tolk, X. Liu, J. K. Furdyna, and I. E. Perakis, “Coherent magnetization precession in GaMnAs induced by ultrafast optical excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 112506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Wang, Y. H. Ren, X. Liu, J. K. Furdyna, M. Grimsditch, and R. Merlin, “Light-induced magnetic precession in (Ga,Mn)As slabs: hybrid standing-wave Damon–Eshbach modes,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 233308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

J. Chovan, E. G. Kavousanaki, and I. E. Perakis, “Ultrafast light-induced magnetization dynamics of ferromagnetic semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, C. Sun, Y. Hashimoto, J. Kono, G. A. Khodaparast, L. Cywiński, L. J. Sham, G. D. Sanders, C. J. Stanton, and H. Munekata, “Ultrafast magneto-optics in ferromagnetic IIIV semiconductors,” J. Phys. 18, R501–R530 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Jungwirth, J. Sinova, J. Maešk, J. Kučera, and A. H. MacDonald, “Theory of ferromagnetic (III,Mn)V semiconductors,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 809–864 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

Y. Tserkovnyak, A. Brataas, G. E. W. Bauer, and B. I. Halperin, “Nonlocal magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic heterostructures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 1375–1421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, C. Sun, J. Kono, A. Oiwa, H. Munekata, L. Cywiński, and L. J. Sham, “Ultrafast quenching of ferromagnetism in InMnAs induced by intense laser irradiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 167401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Astakhov, A. V. Kimel, G. M. Schott, A. A. Tsvetkov, A. Kirilyuk, D. R. Yakovlev, G. Karczewski, W. Ossau, G. Schmidt, L. W. Molenkamp, and Th. Rasing, “Magnetization manipulation in (Ga,Mn)As by subpicosecond optical excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 152506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Bigot, M. Vomir, L. H. F. Andrade, and E. Beaurepaire, “Ultrafast magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic cobalt: the role of the anisotropy,” Chem. Phys. 318, 137–146 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

K. S. Burch, J. Stephens, R. K. Kawakami, D. D. Awschalom, and D. N. Basov, “Ellipsometric study of the electronic structure of Ga1xMnxAs and low-temperature GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 205208 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Tudosa, C. Stamm, A. B. Kashuba, F. King, H. C. Siegmann, J. Stöhr, G. Ju, B. Lu, and D. Weller, “The ultimate speed of magnetic switching in granular recording media,” Nature 428, 831–833 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

H. W. Schumacher, C. Chappert, R. C. Sousa, P. P. Freitas, and J. Miltat, “Quasiballistic magnetization reversal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 017204 (2003).
[CrossRef]

U. Welp, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, X. Liu, J. K. Furdyna, and T. Wojtowicz, “Magnetic domain structure and magnetic anisotropy in Ga1xMnxAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167206 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

Th. Gerrits, H. A. M. van den Berg, J. Hohlfeld, L. Bär, and Th. Rasing, “Ultrafast precessional magnetization reversal by picosecond magnetic field pulse shaping,” Nature 418, 509–512 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

E. L. Nagaev, “Colossal-magnetoresistance materials: manganites and conventional ferromagnetic semiconductors,” Phys. Rep. 346, 387–531 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Abolfath, T. Jungwirth, J. Brum, and A. H. MacDonald, “Theory of magnetic anisotropy in III1−xMnxV ferromagnets,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 054418 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Dietl, H. Ohno, and F. Matsukura, “Hole-mediated ferromagnetism in tetrahedrally coordinated semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 195205 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

E. Beaurepaire, J.-C. Merle, A. Daunois, and J.-Y. Bigot, “Ultrafast spin dynamics in ferromagnetic nickel,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4250–4253 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Enders, “Special-lines approximation to Brillouin zone integration,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 11, 187–189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

L. C. Lew, Yan Voon, and L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Tight-binding representation of the optical matrix elements: theory and applications,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 15500–15508 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

P. Vogl, H. P. Hjamlarsons, and J. D. Dow, “A semi-empirical tight-binding theory of the electronic structure of semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 44, 365–378 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Abolfath, M.

M. Abolfath, T. Jungwirth, J. Brum, and A. H. MacDonald, “Theory of magnetic anisotropy in III1−xMnxV ferromagnets,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 054418 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Andrade, L. H. F.

J.-Y. Bigot, M. Vomir, L. H. F. Andrade, and E. Beaurepaire, “Ultrafast magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic cobalt: the role of the anisotropy,” Chem. Phys. 318, 137–146 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Astakhov, G. V.

G. V. Astakhov, A. V. Kimel, G. M. Schott, A. A. Tsvetkov, A. Kirilyuk, D. R. Yakovlev, G. Karczewski, W. Ossau, G. Schmidt, L. W. Molenkamp, and Th. Rasing, “Magnetization manipulation in (Ga,Mn)As by subpicosecond optical excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 152506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Awschalom, D. D.

K. S. Burch, J. Stephens, R. K. Kawakami, D. D. Awschalom, and D. N. Basov, “Ellipsometric study of the electronic structure of Ga1xMnxAs and low-temperature GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 205208 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bär, L.

Th. Gerrits, H. A. M. van den Berg, J. Hohlfeld, L. Bär, and Th. Rasing, “Ultrafast precessional magnetization reversal by picosecond magnetic field pulse shaping,” Nature 418, 509–512 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Basov, D. N.

K. S. Burch, J. Stephens, R. K. Kawakami, D. D. Awschalom, and D. N. Basov, “Ellipsometric study of the electronic structure of Ga1xMnxAs and low-temperature GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 205208 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, G. E. W.

Y. Tserkovnyak, A. Brataas, G. E. W. Bauer, and B. I. Halperin, “Nonlocal magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic heterostructures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 1375–1421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Beaurepaire, E.

C. Boeglin, E. Beaurepaire, V. Halté, V. Lopez-Flores, C. Stamm, N. Pontius, H. A. Dürr, and J.-Y. Bigot, “Distinguishing the ultrafast dynamics of spin and orbital moments in solids,” Nature 465, 458–461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Bigot, M. Vomir, and E. Beaurepaire, “Coherent ultrafast magnetism induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Nat. Phys. 5, 515–520 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Bigot, M. Vomir, L. H. F. Andrade, and E. Beaurepaire, “Ultrafast magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic cobalt: the role of the anisotropy,” Chem. Phys. 318, 137–146 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Beaurepaire, J.-C. Merle, A. Daunois, and J.-Y. Bigot, “Ultrafast spin dynamics in ferromagnetic nickel,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4250–4253 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bigot, J.-Y.

C. Boeglin, E. Beaurepaire, V. Halté, V. Lopez-Flores, C. Stamm, N. Pontius, H. A. Dürr, and J.-Y. Bigot, “Distinguishing the ultrafast dynamics of spin and orbital moments in solids,” Nature 465, 458–461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Bigot, M. Vomir, and E. Beaurepaire, “Coherent ultrafast magnetism induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Nat. Phys. 5, 515–520 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Bigot, M. Vomir, L. H. F. Andrade, and E. Beaurepaire, “Ultrafast magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic cobalt: the role of the anisotropy,” Chem. Phys. 318, 137–146 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Beaurepaire, J.-C. Merle, A. Daunois, and J.-Y. Bigot, “Ultrafast spin dynamics in ferromagnetic nickel,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4250–4253 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Boeglin, C.

C. Boeglin, E. Beaurepaire, V. Halté, V. Lopez-Flores, C. Stamm, N. Pontius, H. A. Dürr, and J.-Y. Bigot, “Distinguishing the ultrafast dynamics of spin and orbital moments in solids,” Nature 465, 458–461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brataas, A.

Y. Tserkovnyak, A. Brataas, G. E. W. Bauer, and B. I. Halperin, “Nonlocal magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic heterostructures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 1375–1421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brum, J.

M. Abolfath, T. Jungwirth, J. Brum, and A. H. MacDonald, “Theory of magnetic anisotropy in III1−xMnxV ferromagnets,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 054418 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Burch, K. S.

K. S. Burch, J. Stephens, R. K. Kawakami, D. D. Awschalom, and D. N. Basov, “Ellipsometric study of the electronic structure of Ga1xMnxAs and low-temperature GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 205208 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chappert, C.

H. W. Schumacher, C. Chappert, R. C. Sousa, P. P. Freitas, and J. Miltat, “Quasiballistic magnetization reversal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 017204 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chemla, D. S.

J. Wang, I. Cotoros, D. S. Chemla, X. Liu, J. K. Furdyna, J. Chovan, and I. E. Perakis, “Memory effects in photoinduced femtosecond magnetization rotation in ferromagnetic GaMnAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 021101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, I. Cotoros, K. M. Dani, X. Liu, J. K. Furdyna, and D. S. Chemla, “Ultrafast enhancement of ferromagnetism via photoexcited holes in GaMnAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 217401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chovan, J.

J. Wang, I. Cotoros, D. S. Chemla, X. Liu, J. K. Furdyna, J. Chovan, and I. E. Perakis, “Memory effects in photoinduced femtosecond magnetization rotation in ferromagnetic GaMnAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 021101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Chovan and I. E. Perakis, “Femtosecond control of the magnetization in ferromagnetic semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 085321 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Chovan, E. G. Kavousanaki, and I. E. Perakis, “Ultrafast light-induced magnetization dynamics of ferromagnetic semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cotoros, I.

J. Wang, I. Cotoros, D. S. Chemla, X. Liu, J. K. Furdyna, J. Chovan, and I. E. Perakis, “Memory effects in photoinduced femtosecond magnetization rotation in ferromagnetic GaMnAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 021101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, I. Cotoros, K. M. Dani, X. Liu, J. K. Furdyna, and D. S. Chemla, “Ultrafast enhancement of ferromagnetism via photoexcited holes in GaMnAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 217401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cywinski, L.

J. Wang, L. Cywiński, C. Sun, J. Kono, H. Munekata, and L. J. Sham, “Femtosecond demagnetization and hot-hole relaxation in ferromagnetic Ga1xMnxAs,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 235308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Cywiński and L. J. Sham, “Ultrafast demagnetization in the sp-d model: a theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 045205 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, C. Sun, Y. Hashimoto, J. Kono, G. A. Khodaparast, L. Cywiński, L. J. Sham, G. D. Sanders, C. J. Stanton, and H. Munekata, “Ultrafast magneto-optics in ferromagnetic IIIV semiconductors,” J. Phys. 18, R501–R530 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, C. Sun, J. Kono, A. Oiwa, H. Munekata, L. Cywiński, and L. J. Sham, “Ultrafast quenching of ferromagnetism in InMnAs induced by intense laser irradiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 167401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dani, K. M.

J. Wang, I. Cotoros, K. M. Dani, X. Liu, J. K. Furdyna, and D. S. Chemla, “Ultrafast enhancement of ferromagnetism via photoexcited holes in GaMnAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 217401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Daunois, A.

E. Beaurepaire, J.-C. Merle, A. Daunois, and J.-Y. Bigot, “Ultrafast spin dynamics in ferromagnetic nickel,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4250–4253 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dietl, T.

T. Dietl, H. Ohno, and F. Matsukura, “Hole-mediated ferromagnetism in tetrahedrally coordinated semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 195205 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dow, J. D.

P. Vogl, H. P. Hjamlarsons, and J. D. Dow, “A semi-empirical tight-binding theory of the electronic structure of semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 44, 365–378 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Dürr, H. A.

C. Boeglin, E. Beaurepaire, V. Halté, V. Lopez-Flores, C. Stamm, N. Pontius, H. A. Dürr, and J.-Y. Bigot, “Distinguishing the ultrafast dynamics of spin and orbital moments in solids,” Nature 465, 458–461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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J. Wang, L. Cywiński, C. Sun, J. Kono, H. Munekata, and L. J. Sham, “Femtosecond demagnetization and hot-hole relaxation in ferromagnetic Ga1xMnxAs,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 235308 (2008).
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J. Wang, C. Sun, J. Kono, A. Oiwa, H. Munekata, L. Cywiński, and L. J. Sham, “Ultrafast quenching of ferromagnetism in InMnAs induced by intense laser irradiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 167401 (2005).
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J. Qi, Y. Xu, A. Steigerwald, X. Liu, J. K. Furdyna, I. E. Perakis, and N. H. Tolk, “Ultrafast laser-induced coherent spin dynamics in ferromagnetic Ga1xMnxAs/GaAs structures,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 085304 (2009).
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J. Wang, I. Cotoros, D. S. Chemla, X. Liu, J. K. Furdyna, J. Chovan, and I. E. Perakis, “Memory effects in photoinduced femtosecond magnetization rotation in ferromagnetic GaMnAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 021101 (2009).
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J. Wang, I. Cotoros, K. M. Dani, X. Liu, J. K. Furdyna, and D. S. Chemla, “Ultrafast enhancement of ferromagnetism via photoexcited holes in GaMnAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 217401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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C. Boeglin, E. Beaurepaire, V. Halté, V. Lopez-Flores, C. Stamm, N. Pontius, H. A. Dürr, and J.-Y. Bigot, “Distinguishing the ultrafast dynamics of spin and orbital moments in solids,” Nature 465, 458–461 (2010).
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T. Jungwirth, J. Sinova, J. Maešk, J. Kučera, and A. H. MacDonald, “Theory of ferromagnetic (III,Mn)V semiconductors,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 809–864 (2006).
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T. Jungwirth, J. Sinova, J. Maešk, J. Kučera, and A. H. MacDonald, “Theory of ferromagnetic (III,Mn)V semiconductors,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 809–864 (2006).
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H. W. Schumacher, C. Chappert, R. C. Sousa, P. P. Freitas, and J. Miltat, “Quasiballistic magnetization reversal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 017204 (2003).
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G. V. Astakhov, A. V. Kimel, G. M. Schott, A. A. Tsvetkov, A. Kirilyuk, D. R. Yakovlev, G. Karczewski, W. Ossau, G. Schmidt, L. W. Molenkamp, and Th. Rasing, “Magnetization manipulation in (Ga,Mn)As by subpicosecond optical excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 152506 (2005).
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J. Wang, L. Cywiński, C. Sun, J. Kono, H. Munekata, and L. J. Sham, “Femtosecond demagnetization and hot-hole relaxation in ferromagnetic Ga1xMnxAs,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 235308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, C. Sun, Y. Hashimoto, J. Kono, G. A. Khodaparast, L. Cywiński, L. J. Sham, G. D. Sanders, C. J. Stanton, and H. Munekata, “Ultrafast magneto-optics in ferromagnetic IIIV semiconductors,” J. Phys. 18, R501–R530 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, C. Sun, J. Kono, A. Oiwa, H. Munekata, L. Cywiński, and L. J. Sham, “Ultrafast quenching of ferromagnetism in InMnAs induced by intense laser irradiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 167401 (2005).
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J. Wang, C. Sun, J. Kono, A. Oiwa, H. Munekata, L. Cywiński, and L. J. Sham, “Ultrafast quenching of ferromagnetism in InMnAs induced by intense laser irradiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 167401 (2005).
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[CrossRef]

J. Qi, Y. Xu, A. Steigerwald, X. Liu, J. K. Furdyna, I. E. Perakis, and N. H. Tolk, “Ultrafast laser-induced coherent spin dynamics in ferromagnetic Ga1xMnxAs/GaAs structures,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 085304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, I. Cotoros, D. S. Chemla, X. Liu, J. K. Furdyna, J. Chovan, and I. E. Perakis, “Memory effects in photoinduced femtosecond magnetization rotation in ferromagnetic GaMnAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 021101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Kapetanakis, I. E. Perakis, K. J. Wickey, C. Piermarocchi, and J. Wang, “Femtosecond coherent control of spins in (Ga,Mn)As ferromagnetic semiconductors using light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 047404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Kapetanakis and I. E. Perakis, “Spin dynamics in (III,Mn)V ferromagnetic semiconductors: the role of correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 097201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Kapetanakis and I. E. Perakis, “Magnetization relaxation and collective spin excitations in correlated double-exchange ferromagnets,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 155110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Chovan and I. E. Perakis, “Femtosecond control of the magnetization in ferromagnetic semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 085321 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Qi, Y. Xu, N. H. Tolk, X. Liu, J. K. Furdyna, and I. E. Perakis, “Coherent magnetization precession in GaMnAs induced by ultrafast optical excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 112506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Chovan, E. G. Kavousanaki, and I. E. Perakis, “Ultrafast light-induced magnetization dynamics of ferromagnetic semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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M. D. Kapetanakis, P. C. Lingos, C. Piermarocchi, J. Wang, and I. E. Perakis, “All-optical four-state magnetization reversal in (Ga,Mn)As ferromagnetic semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 091111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Kapetanakis, I. E. Perakis, K. J. Wickey, C. Piermarocchi, and J. Wang, “Femtosecond coherent control of spins in (Ga,Mn)As ferromagnetic semiconductors using light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 047404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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C. Boeglin, E. Beaurepaire, V. Halté, V. Lopez-Flores, C. Stamm, N. Pontius, H. A. Dürr, and J.-Y. Bigot, “Distinguishing the ultrafast dynamics of spin and orbital moments in solids,” Nature 465, 458–461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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J. Qi, Y. Xu, A. Steigerwald, X. Liu, J. K. Furdyna, I. E. Perakis, and N. H. Tolk, “Ultrafast laser-induced coherent spin dynamics in ferromagnetic Ga1xMnxAs/GaAs structures,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 085304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Qi, Y. Xu, N. H. Tolk, X. Liu, J. K. Furdyna, and I. E. Perakis, “Coherent magnetization precession in GaMnAs induced by ultrafast optical excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 112506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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L. C. Lew, Yan Voon, and L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Tight-binding representation of the optical matrix elements: theory and applications,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 15500–15508 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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A. Kirilyuk, A. V. Kimel, and T. Rasing, “Ultrafast optical manipulation of magnetic order,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 2731–2784 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rasing, Th.

G. V. Astakhov, A. V. Kimel, G. M. Schott, A. A. Tsvetkov, A. Kirilyuk, D. R. Yakovlev, G. Karczewski, W. Ossau, G. Schmidt, L. W. Molenkamp, and Th. Rasing, “Magnetization manipulation in (Ga,Mn)As by subpicosecond optical excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 152506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Th. Gerrits, H. A. M. van den Berg, J. Hohlfeld, L. Bär, and Th. Rasing, “Ultrafast precessional magnetization reversal by picosecond magnetic field pulse shaping,” Nature 418, 509–512 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ren, Y. H.

D. M. Wang, Y. H. Ren, X. Liu, J. K. Furdyna, M. Grimsditch, and R. Merlin, “Light-induced magnetic precession in (Ga,Mn)As slabs: hybrid standing-wave Damon–Eshbach modes,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 233308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, G. D.

J. Wang, C. Sun, Y. Hashimoto, J. Kono, G. A. Khodaparast, L. Cywiński, L. J. Sham, G. D. Sanders, C. J. Stanton, and H. Munekata, “Ultrafast magneto-optics in ferromagnetic IIIV semiconductors,” J. Phys. 18, R501–R530 (2006).
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G. V. Astakhov, A. V. Kimel, G. M. Schott, A. A. Tsvetkov, A. Kirilyuk, D. R. Yakovlev, G. Karczewski, W. Ossau, G. Schmidt, L. W. Molenkamp, and Th. Rasing, “Magnetization manipulation in (Ga,Mn)As by subpicosecond optical excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 152506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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H. W. Schumacher, C. Chappert, R. C. Sousa, P. P. Freitas, and J. Miltat, “Quasiballistic magnetization reversal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 017204 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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J. Wang, L. Cywiński, C. Sun, J. Kono, H. Munekata, and L. J. Sham, “Femtosecond demagnetization and hot-hole relaxation in ferromagnetic Ga1xMnxAs,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 235308 (2008).
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L. Cywiński and L. J. Sham, “Ultrafast demagnetization in the sp-d model: a theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 045205 (2007).
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J. Wang, C. Sun, Y. Hashimoto, J. Kono, G. A. Khodaparast, L. Cywiński, L. J. Sham, G. D. Sanders, C. J. Stanton, and H. Munekata, “Ultrafast magneto-optics in ferromagnetic IIIV semiconductors,” J. Phys. 18, R501–R530 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, C. Sun, J. Kono, A. Oiwa, H. Munekata, L. Cywiński, and L. J. Sham, “Ultrafast quenching of ferromagnetism in InMnAs induced by intense laser irradiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 167401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Siegmann, H. C.

I. Tudosa, C. Stamm, A. B. Kashuba, F. King, H. C. Siegmann, J. Stöhr, G. Ju, B. Lu, and D. Weller, “The ultimate speed of magnetic switching in granular recording media,” Nature 428, 831–833 (2004).
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T. Jungwirth, J. Sinova, J. Maešk, J. Kučera, and A. H. MacDonald, “Theory of ferromagnetic (III,Mn)V semiconductors,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 809–864 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sousa, R. C.

H. W. Schumacher, C. Chappert, R. C. Sousa, P. P. Freitas, and J. Miltat, “Quasiballistic magnetization reversal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 017204 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stamm, C.

C. Boeglin, E. Beaurepaire, V. Halté, V. Lopez-Flores, C. Stamm, N. Pontius, H. A. Dürr, and J.-Y. Bigot, “Distinguishing the ultrafast dynamics of spin and orbital moments in solids,” Nature 465, 458–461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Tudosa, C. Stamm, A. B. Kashuba, F. King, H. C. Siegmann, J. Stöhr, G. Ju, B. Lu, and D. Weller, “The ultimate speed of magnetic switching in granular recording media,” Nature 428, 831–833 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stanton, C. J.

J. Wang, C. Sun, Y. Hashimoto, J. Kono, G. A. Khodaparast, L. Cywiński, L. J. Sham, G. D. Sanders, C. J. Stanton, and H. Munekata, “Ultrafast magneto-optics in ferromagnetic IIIV semiconductors,” J. Phys. 18, R501–R530 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Steigerwald, A.

J. Qi, Y. Xu, A. Steigerwald, X. Liu, J. K. Furdyna, I. E. Perakis, and N. H. Tolk, “Ultrafast laser-induced coherent spin dynamics in ferromagnetic Ga1xMnxAs/GaAs structures,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 085304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stephens, J.

K. S. Burch, J. Stephens, R. K. Kawakami, D. D. Awschalom, and D. N. Basov, “Ellipsometric study of the electronic structure of Ga1xMnxAs and low-temperature GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 205208 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stöhr, J.

I. Tudosa, C. Stamm, A. B. Kashuba, F. King, H. C. Siegmann, J. Stöhr, G. Ju, B. Lu, and D. Weller, “The ultimate speed of magnetic switching in granular recording media,” Nature 428, 831–833 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Stöhr and H. C. Siegmann, Magnetism: From Fundamentals to Nanoscale Dynamics (Springer, 2006).

Sun, C.

J. Wang, L. Cywiński, C. Sun, J. Kono, H. Munekata, and L. J. Sham, “Femtosecond demagnetization and hot-hole relaxation in ferromagnetic Ga1xMnxAs,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 235308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, C. Sun, Y. Hashimoto, J. Kono, G. A. Khodaparast, L. Cywiński, L. J. Sham, G. D. Sanders, C. J. Stanton, and H. Munekata, “Ultrafast magneto-optics in ferromagnetic IIIV semiconductors,” J. Phys. 18, R501–R530 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, C. Sun, J. Kono, A. Oiwa, H. Munekata, L. Cywiński, and L. J. Sham, “Ultrafast quenching of ferromagnetism in InMnAs induced by intense laser irradiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 167401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tolk, N. H.

J. Qi, Y. Xu, A. Steigerwald, X. Liu, J. K. Furdyna, I. E. Perakis, and N. H. Tolk, “Ultrafast laser-induced coherent spin dynamics in ferromagnetic Ga1xMnxAs/GaAs structures,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 085304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Qi, Y. Xu, N. H. Tolk, X. Liu, J. K. Furdyna, and I. E. Perakis, “Coherent magnetization precession in GaMnAs induced by ultrafast optical excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 112506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tserkovnyak, Y.

Y. Tserkovnyak, A. Brataas, G. E. W. Bauer, and B. I. Halperin, “Nonlocal magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic heterostructures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 1375–1421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tsvetkov, A. A.

G. V. Astakhov, A. V. Kimel, G. M. Schott, A. A. Tsvetkov, A. Kirilyuk, D. R. Yakovlev, G. Karczewski, W. Ossau, G. Schmidt, L. W. Molenkamp, and Th. Rasing, “Magnetization manipulation in (Ga,Mn)As by subpicosecond optical excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 152506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tudosa, I.

I. Tudosa, C. Stamm, A. B. Kashuba, F. King, H. C. Siegmann, J. Stöhr, G. Ju, B. Lu, and D. Weller, “The ultimate speed of magnetic switching in granular recording media,” Nature 428, 831–833 (2004).
[CrossRef]

van den Berg, H. A. M.

Th. Gerrits, H. A. M. van den Berg, J. Hohlfeld, L. Bär, and Th. Rasing, “Ultrafast precessional magnetization reversal by picosecond magnetic field pulse shaping,” Nature 418, 509–512 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.

U. Welp, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, X. Liu, J. K. Furdyna, and T. Wojtowicz, “Magnetic domain structure and magnetic anisotropy in Ga1xMnxAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167206 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vogl, P.

P. Vogl, H. P. Hjamlarsons, and J. D. Dow, “A semi-empirical tight-binding theory of the electronic structure of semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 44, 365–378 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Vomir, M.

J.-Y. Bigot, M. Vomir, and E. Beaurepaire, “Coherent ultrafast magnetism induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Nat. Phys. 5, 515–520 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Bigot, M. Vomir, L. H. F. Andrade, and E. Beaurepaire, “Ultrafast magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic cobalt: the role of the anisotropy,” Chem. Phys. 318, 137–146 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Voon, Yan

L. C. Lew, Yan Voon, and L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Tight-binding representation of the optical matrix elements: theory and applications,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 15500–15508 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D. M.

D. M. Wang, Y. H. Ren, X. Liu, J. K. Furdyna, M. Grimsditch, and R. Merlin, “Light-induced magnetic precession in (Ga,Mn)As slabs: hybrid standing-wave Damon–Eshbach modes,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 233308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

M. D. Kapetanakis, P. C. Lingos, C. Piermarocchi, J. Wang, and I. E. Perakis, “All-optical four-state magnetization reversal in (Ga,Mn)As ferromagnetic semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 091111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Kapetanakis, I. E. Perakis, K. J. Wickey, C. Piermarocchi, and J. Wang, “Femtosecond coherent control of spins in (Ga,Mn)As ferromagnetic semiconductors using light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 047404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, I. Cotoros, D. S. Chemla, X. Liu, J. K. Furdyna, J. Chovan, and I. E. Perakis, “Memory effects in photoinduced femtosecond magnetization rotation in ferromagnetic GaMnAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 021101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, L. Cywiński, C. Sun, J. Kono, H. Munekata, and L. J. Sham, “Femtosecond demagnetization and hot-hole relaxation in ferromagnetic Ga1xMnxAs,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 235308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, I. Cotoros, K. M. Dani, X. Liu, J. K. Furdyna, and D. S. Chemla, “Ultrafast enhancement of ferromagnetism via photoexcited holes in GaMnAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 217401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, C. Sun, Y. Hashimoto, J. Kono, G. A. Khodaparast, L. Cywiński, L. J. Sham, G. D. Sanders, C. J. Stanton, and H. Munekata, “Ultrafast magneto-optics in ferromagnetic IIIV semiconductors,” J. Phys. 18, R501–R530 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, C. Sun, J. Kono, A. Oiwa, H. Munekata, L. Cywiński, and L. J. Sham, “Ultrafast quenching of ferromagnetism in InMnAs induced by intense laser irradiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 167401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weller, D.

I. Tudosa, C. Stamm, A. B. Kashuba, F. King, H. C. Siegmann, J. Stöhr, G. Ju, B. Lu, and D. Weller, “The ultimate speed of magnetic switching in granular recording media,” Nature 428, 831–833 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Welp, U.

U. Welp, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, X. Liu, J. K. Furdyna, and T. Wojtowicz, “Magnetic domain structure and magnetic anisotropy in Ga1xMnxAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167206 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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M. D. Kapetanakis, I. E. Perakis, K. J. Wickey, C. Piermarocchi, and J. Wang, “Femtosecond coherent control of spins in (Ga,Mn)As ferromagnetic semiconductors using light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 047404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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U. Welp, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, X. Liu, J. K. Furdyna, and T. Wojtowicz, “Magnetic domain structure and magnetic anisotropy in Ga1xMnxAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167206 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.

J. Qi, Y. Xu, A. Steigerwald, X. Liu, J. K. Furdyna, I. E. Perakis, and N. H. Tolk, “Ultrafast laser-induced coherent spin dynamics in ferromagnetic Ga1xMnxAs/GaAs structures,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 085304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Qi, Y. Xu, N. H. Tolk, X. Liu, J. K. Furdyna, and I. E. Perakis, “Coherent magnetization precession in GaMnAs induced by ultrafast optical excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 112506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yakovlev, D. R.

G. V. Astakhov, A. V. Kimel, G. M. Schott, A. A. Tsvetkov, A. Kirilyuk, D. R. Yakovlev, G. Karczewski, W. Ossau, G. Schmidt, L. W. Molenkamp, and Th. Rasing, “Magnetization manipulation in (Ga,Mn)As by subpicosecond optical excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 152506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

J. Wang, I. Cotoros, D. S. Chemla, X. Liu, J. K. Furdyna, J. Chovan, and I. E. Perakis, “Memory effects in photoinduced femtosecond magnetization rotation in ferromagnetic GaMnAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 021101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Qi, Y. Xu, N. H. Tolk, X. Liu, J. K. Furdyna, and I. E. Perakis, “Coherent magnetization precession in GaMnAs induced by ultrafast optical excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 112506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Astakhov, A. V. Kimel, G. M. Schott, A. A. Tsvetkov, A. Kirilyuk, D. R. Yakovlev, G. Karczewski, W. Ossau, G. Schmidt, L. W. Molenkamp, and Th. Rasing, “Magnetization manipulation in (Ga,Mn)As by subpicosecond optical excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 152506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Kapetanakis, P. C. Lingos, C. Piermarocchi, J. Wang, and I. E. Perakis, “All-optical four-state magnetization reversal in (Ga,Mn)As ferromagnetic semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 091111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. (1)

J.-Y. Bigot, M. Vomir, L. H. F. Andrade, and E. Beaurepaire, “Ultrafast magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic cobalt: the role of the anisotropy,” Chem. Phys. 318, 137–146 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

O. Morandi, P.-A. Hervieux, and G. Manfredi, “Laser induced ultrafast demagnetization in diluted magnetic semiconductor nanostructures,” Eur. Phys. J. D 52, 155–158 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. (1)

J. Wang, C. Sun, Y. Hashimoto, J. Kono, G. A. Khodaparast, L. Cywiński, L. J. Sham, G. D. Sanders, C. J. Stanton, and H. Munekata, “Ultrafast magneto-optics in ferromagnetic IIIV semiconductors,” J. Phys. 18, R501–R530 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

P. Vogl, H. P. Hjamlarsons, and J. D. Dow, “A semi-empirical tight-binding theory of the electronic structure of semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 44, 365–378 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

J.-Y. Bigot, M. Vomir, and E. Beaurepaire, “Coherent ultrafast magnetism induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Nat. Phys. 5, 515–520 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

C. Boeglin, E. Beaurepaire, V. Halté, V. Lopez-Flores, C. Stamm, N. Pontius, H. A. Dürr, and J.-Y. Bigot, “Distinguishing the ultrafast dynamics of spin and orbital moments in solids,” Nature 465, 458–461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Th. Gerrits, H. A. M. van den Berg, J. Hohlfeld, L. Bär, and Th. Rasing, “Ultrafast precessional magnetization reversal by picosecond magnetic field pulse shaping,” Nature 418, 509–512 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Tudosa, C. Stamm, A. B. Kashuba, F. King, H. C. Siegmann, J. Stöhr, G. Ju, B. Lu, and D. Weller, “The ultimate speed of magnetic switching in granular recording media,” Nature 428, 831–833 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rep. (1)

E. L. Nagaev, “Colossal-magnetoresistance materials: manganites and conventional ferromagnetic semiconductors,” Phys. Rep. 346, 387–531 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (10)

J. Wang, L. Cywiński, C. Sun, J. Kono, H. Munekata, and L. J. Sham, “Femtosecond demagnetization and hot-hole relaxation in ferromagnetic Ga1xMnxAs,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 235308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Cywiński and L. J. Sham, “Ultrafast demagnetization in the sp-d model: a theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 045205 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Lew, Yan Voon, and L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Tight-binding representation of the optical matrix elements: theory and applications,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 15500–15508 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Qi, Y. Xu, A. Steigerwald, X. Liu, J. K. Furdyna, I. E. Perakis, and N. H. Tolk, “Ultrafast laser-induced coherent spin dynamics in ferromagnetic Ga1xMnxAs/GaAs structures,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 085304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Kapetanakis and I. E. Perakis, “Magnetization relaxation and collective spin excitations in correlated double-exchange ferromagnets,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 155110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Chovan and I. E. Perakis, “Femtosecond control of the magnetization in ferromagnetic semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 085321 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Burch, J. Stephens, R. K. Kawakami, D. D. Awschalom, and D. N. Basov, “Ellipsometric study of the electronic structure of Ga1xMnxAs and low-temperature GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 205208 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Wang, Y. H. Ren, X. Liu, J. K. Furdyna, M. Grimsditch, and R. Merlin, “Light-induced magnetic precession in (Ga,Mn)As slabs: hybrid standing-wave Damon–Eshbach modes,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 233308 (2007).
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M. Abolfath, T. Jungwirth, J. Brum, and A. H. MacDonald, “Theory of magnetic anisotropy in III1−xMnxV ferromagnets,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 054418 (2001).
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T. Dietl, H. Ohno, and F. Matsukura, “Hole-mediated ferromagnetism in tetrahedrally coordinated semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 195205 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (8)

U. Welp, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, X. Liu, J. K. Furdyna, and T. Wojtowicz, “Magnetic domain structure and magnetic anisotropy in Ga1xMnxAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167206 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Schumacher, C. Chappert, R. C. Sousa, P. P. Freitas, and J. Miltat, “Quasiballistic magnetization reversal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 017204 (2003).
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J. Chovan, E. G. Kavousanaki, and I. E. Perakis, “Ultrafast light-induced magnetization dynamics of ferromagnetic semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Beaurepaire, J.-C. Merle, A. Daunois, and J.-Y. Bigot, “Ultrafast spin dynamics in ferromagnetic nickel,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4250–4253 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, I. Cotoros, K. M. Dani, X. Liu, J. K. Furdyna, and D. S. Chemla, “Ultrafast enhancement of ferromagnetism via photoexcited holes in GaMnAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 217401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Kapetanakis, I. E. Perakis, K. J. Wickey, C. Piermarocchi, and J. Wang, “Femtosecond coherent control of spins in (Ga,Mn)As ferromagnetic semiconductors using light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 047404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Kapetanakis and I. E. Perakis, “Spin dynamics in (III,Mn)V ferromagnetic semiconductors: the role of correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 097201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, C. Sun, J. Kono, A. Oiwa, H. Munekata, L. Cywiński, and L. J. Sham, “Ultrafast quenching of ferromagnetism in InMnAs induced by intense laser irradiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 167401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (3)

T. Jungwirth, J. Sinova, J. Maešk, J. Kučera, and A. H. MacDonald, “Theory of ferromagnetic (III,Mn)V semiconductors,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 809–864 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Kirilyuk, A. V. Kimel, and T. Rasing, “Ultrafast optical manipulation of magnetic order,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 2731–2784 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tserkovnyak, A. Brataas, G. E. W. Bauer, and B. I. Halperin, “Nonlocal magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic heterostructures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 1375–1421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. Stöhr and H. C. Siegmann, Magnetism: From Fundamentals to Nanoscale Dynamics (Springer, 2006).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Static band structure: (a) calculated bands of Ga(Mn)As along the {111} directions of the BZ. Arrows (2)–(5) show the relevant optical transitions for photoexcitation at ωp3.1eV. The ground state is populated by thermal holes close to the Γ point. (b) Calculated joint eh density of states corresponding to the optical transitions of Fig. 1(a). We included a magnetic field B=0.1T.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Four-state magnetic memory of (III,Mn)V ferromagnets: schematic of easy axes: (a) magnetic field B=0 and (b) B0 points along [001].

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a)–(c) Mn spin dynamics for ωp3eV, B=0.1T, α=0.03, and three different pump fluences. The anisotropy parameters Kc=0.0144meV, Ku=0.0025meV, and Kuz=5Kc extracted from the experiment [32,33] correspond to small magnetic anisotropy fields of 1.7 mT, 0.29 mT, and 8.3 mT, respectively [2]. (d), (e) Angle Θ(t) between S(t) and SGS. (d) Mn spin reorientation on the 100 ps time scale. (e) Subpicosecond dynamics following the 100 fs coherent nonlinear photoexcitation.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Femtosecond control of spin dynamics by tuning the laser frequency ωp around 3.1 eV. Left panel, Mn and hole spin subpicosecond dynamics for two different ωp. Note the change in photoinduced spin direction with laser frequency. Right panel, corresponding photoexcited populations of the four heavy- and light-hole bands. E=2×105V/cm as in the experiment discussed below.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Experimental results for photoexcitation conditions similar to Fig. 4. (a) Subpicosecond temporal profiles of the normalized Kerr (Δθk/θk) and ellipticity (Δηk/ηk) angle changes from equilibrium for magnetic field B=1.0T. The two curves coincide, which indicates that the measured signal reflects the photoinduced magnetization ΔSz/S. (b) Static magnetization at temperature T=5K as a function of the magnetic field, measured at equilibrium under the same experimental conditions as in (a) but without pump photoexcitation. (c) Subpicosecond temporal profile of the photoinduced ΔθkΔSz for SGS along the two in-plane magnetic easy axes. Shaded area: pump–probe cross-correlation. Two distinct temporal regimes of magnetization dynamics are clearly seen: (1) (during the 100 fs pulse) and (2) (many tens of picoseconds). The opposite directions of the out-of-plane photoinduced ΔSz when SGS points along the X or Y easy axes are illustrated in the inset.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Schematic of photoexcited hole spin direction and magnitude with respect to the ground-state Mn spin SGS for different characteristic energy ratios Δpd/ΔSO.

Equations (17)

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H(t)=Hb+ΔHexch(t)+HL(t),
Hb=H0+HSO+Hpd
S(t)=1cViSi=SGS+ΔS(t),
Hexch=Hpd+ΔHexch(t),Hpd=βcSGS·s^h,ΔHexch(t)=βcΔS(t)·s^h,
Δpd=βcS,
Hbe=knεknce^kne^kn,Hbh=knεknvh^knh^kn
HL(t)=nmkdnmk(t)e^kmh^kn+h.c,
tS=γS(t)×Hth(t)βS(t)×Δsh(t)+αSS(t)×tS,
Hth=Eh[S(t)]S.
Eh=Kc(S^x2S^y2+S^x2S^z2+S^y2S^z2)+KuzS^z2KuS^xS^yBSz,
2Kccos3θ(Kc+Kuz)cosθ+BS2=0,sin2ϕ=KuKcsin2θ.
Δsh(t)=1VnksknnhΔh^knh^kn+1Vnnksknnhh^knh^kn,
ith^knh^kn=(εknvεknviΓnnh)h^knh^kn+mdmnk*(t)h^kne^kmmdmnk(t)h^kne^km*+βclΔS(t)·sknlhh^knh^klβclΔS(t)·sknlh*h^klh^kn.
ith^kne^km(εkmc+εknvi/T2)h^kne^km=βcnΔS(t)·sknnhh^kne^kmdmnk(t)[1h^knh^kne^kme^km]+nndmnk(t)h^knh^kn+mmdmnk(t)e^kme^km.
ite^kme^km=(εkmcεkmciΓmme)e^kme^km+ndmn*(t)h^kne^kmndmn(t)h^kne^km*.
1Vk=1(2π)3BZdk1(2π)3βNβNtot4πkβ2dkβ,
Δsh(t)112π2[111]k2dknnsknnhhknhkn.

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