Abstract

In this work we study the effect of thin-film deposition on the quality factor (Q) of silicon nanobeam cavities. We observe an average increase in the Q of 38±31% in one sample and investigate the dependence of this increase on the initial nanobeam hole sizes. We note that this process can be used to modify cavities that have larger than optimal hole sizes following fabrication. Additionally, the technique allows the tuning of the cavity mode wavelength and the incorporation of new materials, without significantly degrading Q.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  5. X. Yang, C. J. Chen, C. A. Husko, and C. W. Wong, “Digital resonance tuning of high-Q/Vm silicon photonic crystal nanocavities by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 161114 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Schartner, S. Kalchmair, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Post-fabrication fine-tuning of photonic crystal quantum well infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231117 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Graugnard, D. P. Gaillot, S. N. Dunham, C. W. Neff, T. Yamashita, and C. J. Summers, “Photonic band tuning in two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181108 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Solehmainen, M. Kapulainen, P. Heimala, and K. Polamo, “Erbium-doped waveguides fabricated with atomic layer deposition method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 194–196 (2004).
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    [CrossRef]
  11. I.-K. Hwang, S.-K. Kim, J.-K. Yang, S.-H. Kim, S.-H. Lee, and Y.-H. Lee, “Curved-microfiber photon coupling for photonic crystal light emitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 131107 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. D. Gaillot, E. Graugnard, J. Blair, and C. Summers, “Dispersion control in two-dimensional superlattice photonic crystal slab waveguides by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181123 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Säynätjoki, L. Karvonen, T. Alasaarela, X. Tu, T. Y. Liow, M. Hiltunen, A. Tervonen, G. Q. Lo, and S. Honkanen, “Low-loss silicon slot waveguides and couplers fabricated with optical lithography and atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Express 19, 26275–26282 (2011).
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  18. T. Alasaarela, T. Saastamoinen, J. Hiltunen, A. Säynätjoki, A. Tervonen, P. Stenberg, M. Kuittinen, and S. Honkanen, “Atomic layer deposited titanium dioxide and its application in resonant waveguide grating,” Appl. Opt. 49, 4321–4325 (2010).
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    [CrossRef]

2011

2010

2009

S. Schartner, S. Kalchmair, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Post-fabrication fine-tuning of photonic crystal quantum well infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

D. Gaillot, E. Graugnard, J. Blair, and C. Summers, “Dispersion control in two-dimensional superlattice photonic crystal slab waveguides by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Yang, C. J. Chen, C. A. Husko, and C. W. Wong, “Digital resonance tuning of high-Q/Vm silicon photonic crystal nanocavities by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 161114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

J. J. Wang, A. Nikolov, and Q. Wu, “Nano- and microlens arrays grown using atomic-layer deposition,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2650–2652 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Graugnard, D. P. Gaillot, S. N. Dunham, C. W. Neff, T. Yamashita, and C. J. Summers, “Photonic band tuning in two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and A. Scherer, “Vacuum Rabi splitting in semiconductors,” Nat. Phys. 2, 81–90 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

S. Moser, J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Scanning a photonic crystal slab nanocavity by condensation of xenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 052101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I.-K. Hwang, S.-K. Kim, J.-K. Yang, S.-H. Kim, S.-H. Lee, and Y.-H. Lee, “Curved-microfiber photon coupling for photonic crystal light emitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 131107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. W. McCutcheon, G. W. Rieger, I. W. Cheung, J. F. Young, D. Dalacu, S. Frédérick, P. J. Poole, G. C. Aers, and R. L. Williams, “Resonant scattering and second-harmonic spectroscopy of planar photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Puurunen, “Surface chemistry of atomic layer deposition: A case study for the trimethylaluminum/water process,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 121301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wang, X. Deng, R. Varghese, and A. Nikolov, “Filling high aspect-ratio nano-structures by atomic layer deposition and its applications in nano-optic devices and integrations,” J. Vac. Sci. 23, 3209–3213 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

K. Solehmainen, M. Kapulainen, P. Heimala, and K. Polamo, “Erbium-doped waveguides fabricated with atomic layer deposition method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 194–196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Aers, G. C.

M. W. McCutcheon, G. W. Rieger, I. W. Cheung, J. F. Young, D. Dalacu, S. Frédérick, P. J. Poole, G. C. Aers, and R. L. Williams, “Resonant scattering and second-harmonic spectroscopy of planar photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Alasaarela, T.

Alloatti, L.

Andrews, A. M.

S. Schartner, S. Kalchmair, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Post-fabrication fine-tuning of photonic crystal quantum well infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Berman, P. R.

P. R. Berman, Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics (Academic, 1994).

Blair, J.

D. Gaillot, E. Graugnard, J. Blair, and C. Summers, “Dispersion control in two-dimensional superlattice photonic crystal slab waveguides by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. J.

X. Yang, C. J. Chen, C. A. Husko, and C. W. Wong, “Digital resonance tuning of high-Q/Vm silicon photonic crystal nanocavities by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 161114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, I. W.

M. W. McCutcheon, G. W. Rieger, I. W. Cheung, J. F. Young, D. Dalacu, S. Frédérick, P. J. Poole, G. C. Aers, and R. L. Williams, “Resonant scattering and second-harmonic spectroscopy of planar photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dalacu, D.

M. W. McCutcheon, G. W. Rieger, I. W. Cheung, J. F. Young, D. Dalacu, S. Frédérick, P. J. Poole, G. C. Aers, and R. L. Williams, “Resonant scattering and second-harmonic spectroscopy of planar photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Deng, X.

J. J. Wang, X. Deng, R. Varghese, and A. Nikolov, “Filling high aspect-ratio nano-structures by atomic layer deposition and its applications in nano-optic devices and integrations,” J. Vac. Sci. 23, 3209–3213 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Deppe, D. G.

S. Moser, J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Scanning a photonic crystal slab nanocavity by condensation of xenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 052101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dunham, S. N.

E. Graugnard, D. P. Gaillot, S. N. Dunham, C. W. Neff, T. Yamashita, and C. J. Summers, “Photonic band tuning in two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Frédérick, S.

M. W. McCutcheon, G. W. Rieger, I. W. Cheung, J. F. Young, D. Dalacu, S. Frédérick, P. J. Poole, G. C. Aers, and R. L. Williams, “Resonant scattering and second-harmonic spectroscopy of planar photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Freude, W.

Gaillot, D.

D. Gaillot, E. Graugnard, J. Blair, and C. Summers, “Dispersion control in two-dimensional superlattice photonic crystal slab waveguides by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gaillot, D. P.

E. Graugnard, D. P. Gaillot, S. N. Dunham, C. W. Neff, T. Yamashita, and C. J. Summers, “Photonic band tuning in two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gehl, M.

Gibbs, H. M.

B. C. Richards, J. Hendrickson, J. D. Olitzky, R. Gibson, M. Gehl, K. Kieu, U. K. Khankhoje, A. Homyk, A. Scherer, J.-Y. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, “Characterization of 1D photonic crystal nanobeam cavities using curved microfiber,” Opt. Express 18, 20558–20564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and A. Scherer, “Vacuum Rabi splitting in semiconductors,” Nat. Phys. 2, 81–90 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Moser, J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Scanning a photonic crystal slab nanocavity by condensation of xenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 052101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, R.

Graugnard, E.

D. Gaillot, E. Graugnard, J. Blair, and C. Summers, “Dispersion control in two-dimensional superlattice photonic crystal slab waveguides by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Graugnard, D. P. Gaillot, S. N. Dunham, C. W. Neff, T. Yamashita, and C. J. Summers, “Photonic band tuning in two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Heimala, P.

K. Solehmainen, M. Kapulainen, P. Heimala, and K. Polamo, “Erbium-doped waveguides fabricated with atomic layer deposition method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 194–196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hendrickson, J.

B. C. Richards, J. Hendrickson, J. D. Olitzky, R. Gibson, M. Gehl, K. Kieu, U. K. Khankhoje, A. Homyk, A. Scherer, J.-Y. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, “Characterization of 1D photonic crystal nanobeam cavities using curved microfiber,” Opt. Express 18, 20558–20564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Moser, J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Scanning a photonic crystal slab nanocavity by condensation of xenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 052101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hiltunen, J.

Hiltunen, M.

Homyk, A.

Honkanen, S.

Husko, C. A.

X. Yang, C. J. Chen, C. A. Husko, and C. W. Wong, “Digital resonance tuning of high-Q/Vm silicon photonic crystal nanocavities by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 161114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, I.-K.

I.-K. Hwang, S.-K. Kim, J.-K. Yang, S.-H. Kim, S.-H. Lee, and Y.-H. Lee, “Curved-microfiber photon coupling for photonic crystal light emitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 131107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kalchmair, S.

S. Schartner, S. Kalchmair, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Post-fabrication fine-tuning of photonic crystal quantum well infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kapulainen, M.

K. Solehmainen, M. Kapulainen, P. Heimala, and K. Polamo, “Erbium-doped waveguides fabricated with atomic layer deposition method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 194–196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Karvonen, L.

Kawasaki, K.

Khankhoje, U. K.

Khitrova, G.

B. C. Richards, J. Hendrickson, J. D. Olitzky, R. Gibson, M. Gehl, K. Kieu, U. K. Khankhoje, A. Homyk, A. Scherer, J.-Y. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, “Characterization of 1D photonic crystal nanobeam cavities using curved microfiber,” Opt. Express 18, 20558–20564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and A. Scherer, “Vacuum Rabi splitting in semiconductors,” Nat. Phys. 2, 81–90 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Moser, J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Scanning a photonic crystal slab nanocavity by condensation of xenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 052101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kieu, K.

Kim, J.-Y.

Kim, S.-H.

I.-K. Hwang, S.-K. Kim, J.-K. Yang, S.-H. Kim, S.-H. Lee, and Y.-H. Lee, “Curved-microfiber photon coupling for photonic crystal light emitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 131107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-K.

I.-K. Hwang, S.-K. Kim, J.-K. Yang, S.-H. Kim, S.-H. Lee, and Y.-H. Lee, “Curved-microfiber photon coupling for photonic crystal light emitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 131107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kira, M.

G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and A. Scherer, “Vacuum Rabi splitting in semiconductors,” Nat. Phys. 2, 81–90 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Klang, P.

S. Schartner, S. Kalchmair, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Post-fabrication fine-tuning of photonic crystal quantum well infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Koch, S. W.

G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and A. Scherer, “Vacuum Rabi splitting in semiconductors,” Nat. Phys. 2, 81–90 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Korn, D.

Kuittinen, M.

Kuramochi, E.

Lee, S.-H.

I.-K. Hwang, S.-K. Kim, J.-K. Yang, S.-H. Kim, S.-H. Lee, and Y.-H. Lee, “Curved-microfiber photon coupling for photonic crystal light emitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 131107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-H.

Leuthold, J.

Liow, T. Y.

Lo, G. Q.

McCutcheon, M. W.

M. W. McCutcheon, G. W. Rieger, I. W. Cheung, J. F. Young, D. Dalacu, S. Frédérick, P. J. Poole, G. C. Aers, and R. L. Williams, “Resonant scattering and second-harmonic spectroscopy of planar photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moser, S.

S. Moser, J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Scanning a photonic crystal slab nanocavity by condensation of xenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 052101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Neff, C. W.

E. Graugnard, D. P. Gaillot, S. N. Dunham, C. W. Neff, T. Yamashita, and C. J. Summers, “Photonic band tuning in two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nikolov, A.

J. J. Wang, A. Nikolov, and Q. Wu, “Nano- and microlens arrays grown using atomic-layer deposition,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2650–2652 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wang, X. Deng, R. Varghese, and A. Nikolov, “Filling high aspect-ratio nano-structures by atomic layer deposition and its applications in nano-optic devices and integrations,” J. Vac. Sci. 23, 3209–3213 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Notomi, M.

Olitzky, J. D.

Palmer, R.

Polamo, K.

K. Solehmainen, M. Kapulainen, P. Heimala, and K. Polamo, “Erbium-doped waveguides fabricated with atomic layer deposition method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 194–196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Poole, P. J.

M. W. McCutcheon, G. W. Rieger, I. W. Cheung, J. F. Young, D. Dalacu, S. Frédérick, P. J. Poole, G. C. Aers, and R. L. Williams, “Resonant scattering and second-harmonic spectroscopy of planar photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Puurunen, R. L.

R. L. Puurunen, “Surface chemistry of atomic layer deposition: A case study for the trimethylaluminum/water process,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 121301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Richards, B. C.

B. C. Richards, J. Hendrickson, J. D. Olitzky, R. Gibson, M. Gehl, K. Kieu, U. K. Khankhoje, A. Homyk, A. Scherer, J.-Y. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, “Characterization of 1D photonic crystal nanobeam cavities using curved microfiber,” Opt. Express 18, 20558–20564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Moser, J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Scanning a photonic crystal slab nanocavity by condensation of xenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 052101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rieger, G. W.

M. W. McCutcheon, G. W. Rieger, I. W. Cheung, J. F. Young, D. Dalacu, S. Frédérick, P. J. Poole, G. C. Aers, and R. L. Williams, “Resonant scattering and second-harmonic spectroscopy of planar photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Roh, Y.-G.

Saastamoinen, T.

Säynätjoki, A.

Schartner, S.

S. Schartner, S. Kalchmair, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Post-fabrication fine-tuning of photonic crystal quantum well infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

B. C. Richards, J. Hendrickson, J. D. Olitzky, R. Gibson, M. Gehl, K. Kieu, U. K. Khankhoje, A. Homyk, A. Scherer, J.-Y. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, “Characterization of 1D photonic crystal nanobeam cavities using curved microfiber,” Opt. Express 18, 20558–20564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and A. Scherer, “Vacuum Rabi splitting in semiconductors,” Nat. Phys. 2, 81–90 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Moser, J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Scanning a photonic crystal slab nanocavity by condensation of xenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 052101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schrenk, W.

S. Schartner, S. Kalchmair, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Post-fabrication fine-tuning of photonic crystal quantum well infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shchekin, O. B.

S. Moser, J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Scanning a photonic crystal slab nanocavity by condensation of xenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 052101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Solehmainen, K.

K. Solehmainen, M. Kapulainen, P. Heimala, and K. Polamo, “Erbium-doped waveguides fabricated with atomic layer deposition method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 194–196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stenberg, P.

Strasser, G.

S. Schartner, S. Kalchmair, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Post-fabrication fine-tuning of photonic crystal quantum well infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Summers, C.

D. Gaillot, E. Graugnard, J. Blair, and C. Summers, “Dispersion control in two-dimensional superlattice photonic crystal slab waveguides by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Summers, C. J.

E. Graugnard, D. P. Gaillot, S. N. Dunham, C. W. Neff, T. Yamashita, and C. J. Summers, “Photonic band tuning in two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sweet, J.

S. Moser, J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Scanning a photonic crystal slab nanocavity by condensation of xenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 052101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tanabe, T.

Taniyama, H.

Tervonen, A.

Tu, X.

Vahala, K.

K. Vahala, Optical Microcavities (World Scientific, 2004).

Varghese, R.

J. J. Wang, X. Deng, R. Varghese, and A. Nikolov, “Filling high aspect-ratio nano-structures by atomic layer deposition and its applications in nano-optic devices and integrations,” J. Vac. Sci. 23, 3209–3213 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. J.

J. J. Wang, A. Nikolov, and Q. Wu, “Nano- and microlens arrays grown using atomic-layer deposition,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2650–2652 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wang, X. Deng, R. Varghese, and A. Nikolov, “Filling high aspect-ratio nano-structures by atomic layer deposition and its applications in nano-optic devices and integrations,” J. Vac. Sci. 23, 3209–3213 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Williams, R. L.

M. W. McCutcheon, G. W. Rieger, I. W. Cheung, J. F. Young, D. Dalacu, S. Frédérick, P. J. Poole, G. C. Aers, and R. L. Williams, “Resonant scattering and second-harmonic spectroscopy of planar photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221110 (2005).
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J. J. Wang, A. Nikolov, and Q. Wu, “Nano- and microlens arrays grown using atomic-layer deposition,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2650–2652 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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E. Graugnard, D. P. Gaillot, S. N. Dunham, C. W. Neff, T. Yamashita, and C. J. Summers, “Photonic band tuning in two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.-K.

I.-K. Hwang, S.-K. Kim, J.-K. Yang, S.-H. Kim, S.-H. Lee, and Y.-H. Lee, “Curved-microfiber photon coupling for photonic crystal light emitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 131107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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X. Yang, C. J. Chen, C. A. Husko, and C. W. Wong, “Digital resonance tuning of high-Q/Vm silicon photonic crystal nanocavities by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 161114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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S. Moser, J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Scanning a photonic crystal slab nanocavity by condensation of xenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 052101 (2005).
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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

I.-K. Hwang, S.-K. Kim, J.-K. Yang, S.-H. Kim, S.-H. Lee, and Y.-H. Lee, “Curved-microfiber photon coupling for photonic crystal light emitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 131107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. W. McCutcheon, G. W. Rieger, I. W. Cheung, J. F. Young, D. Dalacu, S. Frédérick, P. J. Poole, G. C. Aers, and R. L. Williams, “Resonant scattering and second-harmonic spectroscopy of planar photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221110 (2005).
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Opt. Express

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P. R. Berman, Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics (Academic, 1994).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the 1D nanobeam cavity with overlay of normalized electric field energy density.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SEM images of the cavity region of a silicon nanobeam (a) before and (b) after deposition of 20 nm Al2O3 by ALD.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Q of several cavities after ALD plotted against the Q measured before ALD, for 20 nm of (a) Al2O3 and (b) TiO2. The solid line has a slope of 1 and represents no change in the Q, while the dotted line represents the average change of 38% for Al2O3 and 1.3% for TiO2.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Crossed polarizer resonant scattering measurement of a cavity (a) before and (b) after being coated with 20 nm of Al2O3, yielding a measured Q of 107,000 before and 212,000 after. The before data were collected prior to the O2 plasma etch, which removed the mask residue and shifted the cavity peak to shorter wavelength by 6.5 nm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) FDTD simulation of the Q prior to ALD coating, showing the expected peak around 0 nm offset. The 0 nm offset corresponds to a hole radius of 0.3 times the lattice constant. (b) Plot of the average measured Q of several cavities prior to ALD coating versus the hole radius offset, showing a trend of higher Q for cavities with smaller holes (more negative offset). Dose refers to the dosage used during electron beam lithography.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Plot of the average percent change in the Q of the cavities from Fig. 4 versus the initial hole radius offset, showing a trend of greater increase for cavities that began with larger holes (more positive offset). The FDTD results are plotted for comparison.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Plot of the average shift in wavelength of the cavity mode following ALD versus the hole radius offset, along with the FDTD simulation results.

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