Abstract

Metallic nanoslit arrays exhibit several unique, surprising, and useful properties, such as resonant enhanced transmission and resonant local field enhancements. Here we present both a theoretical study of these static properties, as well as experiments showing the utilization of these features combined with active optical media. We develop an approximated, simple closed-form model for predicting and explaining the general emergence of enhanced transmission resonances through metallic gratings, in various configurations and polarizations. This model is based on an effective index approximation and it unifies in a simple way the underlying mechanism of all forms of enhanced transmission in such structures as emerging from standing wave resonances of the different diffraction orders of periodic structures. The known excitation of surface plasmon polaritons or slit cavity modes emerges as a limiting case of a more general condition. We also use this understanding of the resonant behavior of nanoslit arrays to design and fabricate such structures with embedded nanocrystal quantum dots, and show beaming of nonclassical light to a narrow angle of less than 4 deg, as well as an enhancement of the two-photon upconversion fluorescence process by a factor of 400.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297, 820–822 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. Yu, R. Blanchard, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonics for laser beam shaping,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 9, 11–29 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Y. Nikitin, F. J. Garca-Vidal, and L. Martn-Moreno, “Enhanced optical transmission, beaming and focusing through a subwavelength slit under excitation of dielectric waveguide modes,” J. Opt. A 11, 125702 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167401 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. Livneh, A. Strauss, I. Schwarz, I. Rosenberg, A. Zimran, S. Yochelis, G. Chen, U. Banin, Y. Paltiel, and R. Rapaport, “Highly directional emission and photon beaming from nanocrystal quantum dots embedded in metallic nanoslit arrays,” Nano Lett. 11, 1630–1635 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. J. García-Vidal and L. Martín-Moreno, “Transmission and focusing of light in one-dimensional periodically nanostructured metals,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 155412 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. G. Harats, I. Schwarz, A. Zimran, U. Banin, G. Chen, and R. Rapaport, “Enhancement of two photon processes in quantum dots embedded in subwavelength metallic gratings,” Opt. Express 19, 1617–1625 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. X. Zhang, H. Liu, J. Tian, Y. Song, and L. Wang, “Band-selective optical polarizer based on gold-nanowire plasmonic diffraction gratings,” Nano Lett. 8, 2653–2658 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. C. Chien, C. Y. Lin, J. N. Yih, K. L. Lee, C. W. Chang, P. K. Wei, C. C. Sun, and S. J. Chen, “Coupled waveguide surface plasmon resonance biosensor with subwavelength grating,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 2737–2742 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. A. Porto, F. J. García-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, “Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2845–2848 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. M. J. Treacy, “Dynamical diffraction explanation of the anomalous transmission of light through metallic gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 195105 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, S. Astilean, M. Palamaru, and K. D. Möller, “One-mode model and Airy-like formulae for one-dimensional metallic gratings,” J. Opt. A 2, 48 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. T. Shen and P. M. Platzman, “Properties of a one-dimensional metallophotonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 035101 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. G. Lee and Q.-H. Park, “Coupling of surface plasmon polaritons and light in metallic nanoslits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 103902 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Q. Cao and P. Lalanne, “Negative role of surface plasmons in the transmission of metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 057403 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305, 847–848 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. F. J. García-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 729–787 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. M. Dykhne, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Resonant transmittance through metal films with fabricated and light-induced modulation,” Phys. Rev. B 67, 195402 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. A. Darmanyan and A. V. Zayats, “Light tunneling via resonant surface Plasmon polariton states and the enhanced transmission of periodically nanostructured metal films: an analytical study,” Phys. Rev. B 67, 035424 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. V. Kats and A. Y. Nikitin, “Analytical treatment of anomalous transparency of a modulated metal film due to surface plasmon-polariton excitation,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 235412 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. E. Moreno, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Extraordinary optical transmission without plasmons: the s-polarization case,” J. Opt. A 8, S94 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  23. D. Rosenblatt, A. Sharon, and A. Friesem, “Resonant grating waveguide structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2038–2059 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  24. P. Priambodo, T. Maldonado, and R. Magnusson, “Fabrication and characterization of high-quality waveguide-mode resonant optical filters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3248 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  25. Y. Ding and R. Magnusson, “Resonant leaky-mode spectral-band engineering and device applications,” Opt. Express 12, 5661–5674 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  26. D. Crouse and P. Keshavareddy, “Polarization independent enhanced optical transmission in one-dimensional gratings and device applications,” Opt. Express 15, 1415–1427(2007).
    [CrossRef]
  27. H. Lochbihler, “Enhanced transmission of TE polarized light through wire gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 245427 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord, “Rigorous coupled-wave analysis of metallic surface relief gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1780–1787 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  29. A. Benabbas, V. Halté, and J. Y. Bigot, “Analytical model of the optical response of periodically structured metallic films,” Opt. Express 13, 8730–8745 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. T. Shen, P. B. Catrysse, and S. Fan, “Mechanism for designing metallic metamaterials with a high index of refraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 197401 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  31. That is because, for ideal metals, for each Bloch mode inside the slits, the relative amplitude of each order of m is proportional to the Fourier transform of a rectangular box of width a/d. Since this Fourier transform ∼sinc(adm), we get a rapid decrease in the contributions of higher orders of m for a/d∼0.5. Even for real metals, this approximation still holds, as will be evident from our comparison to rigorous numerical calculations in Section 2 and from calculating the values of Hm (the relative amplitude for different orders of m) for different real metals.
  32. I. Schwarz, N. Livneh, and R. Rapaport, “General closed-form condition for enhanced transmission in subwavelength metallic gratings in both TE and TM polarizations,” Opt. Express 20, 426–439 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  33. M. Guillaumée, A. Y. Nikitin, M. J. K. Klein, L. A. Dunbar, V. Spassov, R. Eckert, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and R. P. Stanley, “Observation of enhanced transmission for s-polarized light through a subwavelength slit,” Opt. Express 18, 9722–9727 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  34. H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett. 11, 637–644(2011).
    [CrossRef]
  35. Y. C. Jun, K. C. Huang, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonic beaming and active control over fluorescent emission,” Nat. Commun. 2, 283 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  36. A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  37. G. Chen, R. Rapaport, D. T. Fuchs, L. Lucas, A. J. Lovinger, S. Vilan, A. Aharoni, and U. Banin, “Optical gain from InAs nanocrystal quantum dots in a polymer matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 251108 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  38. Cao and U. Banin, “Growth and properties of semiconductor core/shell nanocrystals with InAs cores,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9692–9702 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  39. E. Verhagen, L. Kuipers, and A. Polman, “Field enhancement in metallic subwavelength aperture arrays probed by erbium upconversion luminescence,” Opt. Express 17, 14586–14598 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2011 (4)

N. Livneh, A. Strauss, I. Schwarz, I. Rosenberg, A. Zimran, S. Yochelis, G. Chen, U. Banin, Y. Paltiel, and R. Rapaport, “Highly directional emission and photon beaming from nanocrystal quantum dots embedded in metallic nanoslit arrays,” Nano Lett. 11, 1630–1635 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett. 11, 637–644(2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Jun, K. C. Huang, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonic beaming and active control over fluorescent emission,” Nat. Commun. 2, 283 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Harats, I. Schwarz, A. Zimran, U. Banin, G. Chen, and R. Rapaport, “Enhancement of two photon processes in quantum dots embedded in subwavelength metallic gratings,” Opt. Express 19, 1617–1625 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

M. Guillaumée, A. Y. Nikitin, M. J. K. Klein, L. A. Dunbar, V. Spassov, R. Eckert, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and R. P. Stanley, “Observation of enhanced transmission for s-polarized light through a subwavelength slit,” Opt. Express 18, 9722–9727 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Yu, R. Blanchard, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonics for laser beam shaping,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 9, 11–29 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. J. García-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

A. Y. Nikitin, F. J. Garca-Vidal, and L. Martn-Moreno, “Enhanced optical transmission, beaming and focusing through a subwavelength slit under excitation of dielectric waveguide modes,” J. Opt. A 11, 125702 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Verhagen, L. Kuipers, and A. Polman, “Field enhancement in metallic subwavelength aperture arrays probed by erbium upconversion luminescence,” Opt. Express 17, 14586–14598 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Lochbihler, “Enhanced transmission of TE polarized light through wire gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 245427 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

X. Zhang, H. Liu, J. Tian, Y. Song, and L. Wang, “Band-selective optical polarizer based on gold-nanowire plasmonic diffraction gratings,” Nano Lett. 8, 2653–2658 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

F. C. Chien, C. Y. Lin, J. N. Yih, K. L. Lee, C. W. Chang, P. K. Wei, C. C. Sun, and S. J. Chen, “Coupled waveguide surface plasmon resonance biosensor with subwavelength grating,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 2737–2742 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Crouse and P. Keshavareddy, “Polarization independent enhanced optical transmission in one-dimensional gratings and device applications,” Opt. Express 15, 1415–1427(2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

E. Moreno, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Extraordinary optical transmission without plasmons: the s-polarization case,” J. Opt. A 8, S94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

K. G. Lee and Q.-H. Park, “Coupling of surface plasmon polaritons and light in metallic nanoslits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 103902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Shen, P. B. Catrysse, and S. Fan, “Mechanism for designing metallic metamaterials with a high index of refraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 197401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Benabbas, V. Halté, and J. Y. Bigot, “Analytical model of the optical response of periodically structured metallic films,” Opt. Express 13, 8730–8745 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Chen, R. Rapaport, D. T. Fuchs, L. Lucas, A. J. Lovinger, S. Vilan, A. Aharoni, and U. Banin, “Optical gain from InAs nanocrystal quantum dots in a polymer matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 251108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

Y. Ding and R. Magnusson, “Resonant leaky-mode spectral-band engineering and device applications,” Opt. Express 12, 5661–5674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Shen and P. M. Platzman, “Properties of a one-dimensional metallophotonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 035101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305, 847–848 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kats and A. Y. Nikitin, “Analytical treatment of anomalous transparency of a modulated metal film due to surface plasmon-polariton excitation,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 235412 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

P. Priambodo, T. Maldonado, and R. Magnusson, “Fabrication and characterization of high-quality waveguide-mode resonant optical filters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3248 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Dykhne, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Resonant transmittance through metal films with fabricated and light-induced modulation,” Phys. Rev. B 67, 195402 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Darmanyan and A. V. Zayats, “Light tunneling via resonant surface Plasmon polariton states and the enhanced transmission of periodically nanostructured metal films: an analytical study,” Phys. Rev. B 67, 035424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

F. J. García-Vidal and L. Martín-Moreno, “Transmission and focusing of light in one-dimensional periodically nanostructured metals,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 155412 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297, 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Q. Cao and P. Lalanne, “Negative role of surface plasmons in the transmission of metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 057403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. M. J. Treacy, “Dynamical diffraction explanation of the anomalous transmission of light through metallic gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 195105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, S. Astilean, M. Palamaru, and K. D. Möller, “One-mode model and Airy-like formulae for one-dimensional metallic gratings,” J. Opt. A 2, 48 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cao and U. Banin, “Growth and properties of semiconductor core/shell nanocrystals with InAs cores,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9692–9702 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. A. Porto, F. J. García-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, “Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2845–2848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

D. Rosenblatt, A. Sharon, and A. Friesem, “Resonant grating waveguide structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2038–2059 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

Aharoni, A.

G. Chen, R. Rapaport, D. T. Fuchs, L. Lucas, A. J. Lovinger, S. Vilan, A. Aharoni, and U. Banin, “Optical gain from InAs nanocrystal quantum dots in a polymer matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 251108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Aouani, H.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett. 11, 637–644(2011).
[CrossRef]

Astilean, S.

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, S. Astilean, M. Palamaru, and K. D. Möller, “One-mode model and Airy-like formulae for one-dimensional metallic gratings,” J. Opt. A 2, 48 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Banin, U.

N. Livneh, A. Strauss, I. Schwarz, I. Rosenberg, A. Zimran, S. Yochelis, G. Chen, U. Banin, Y. Paltiel, and R. Rapaport, “Highly directional emission and photon beaming from nanocrystal quantum dots embedded in metallic nanoslit arrays,” Nano Lett. 11, 1630–1635 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Harats, I. Schwarz, A. Zimran, U. Banin, G. Chen, and R. Rapaport, “Enhancement of two photon processes in quantum dots embedded in subwavelength metallic gratings,” Opt. Express 19, 1617–1625 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Chen, R. Rapaport, D. T. Fuchs, L. Lucas, A. J. Lovinger, S. Vilan, A. Aharoni, and U. Banin, “Optical gain from InAs nanocrystal quantum dots in a polymer matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 251108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cao and U. Banin, “Growth and properties of semiconductor core/shell nanocrystals with InAs cores,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9692–9702 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Benabbas, A.

Bigot, J. Y.

Blanchard, R.

N. Yu, R. Blanchard, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonics for laser beam shaping,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 9, 11–29 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bonod, N.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett. 11, 637–644(2011).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

Y. C. Jun, K. C. Huang, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonic beaming and active control over fluorescent emission,” Nat. Commun. 2, 283 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cao,

Cao and U. Banin, “Growth and properties of semiconductor core/shell nanocrystals with InAs cores,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9692–9702 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Q.

Q. Cao and P. Lalanne, “Negative role of surface plasmons in the transmission of metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 057403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

N. Yu, R. Blanchard, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonics for laser beam shaping,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 9, 11–29 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Catrysse, P. B.

J. T. Shen, P. B. Catrysse, and S. Fan, “Mechanism for designing metallic metamaterials with a high index of refraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 197401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. W.

F. C. Chien, C. Y. Lin, J. N. Yih, K. L. Lee, C. W. Chang, P. K. Wei, C. C. Sun, and S. J. Chen, “Coupled waveguide surface plasmon resonance biosensor with subwavelength grating,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 2737–2742 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

M. G. Harats, I. Schwarz, A. Zimran, U. Banin, G. Chen, and R. Rapaport, “Enhancement of two photon processes in quantum dots embedded in subwavelength metallic gratings,” Opt. Express 19, 1617–1625 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Livneh, A. Strauss, I. Schwarz, I. Rosenberg, A. Zimran, S. Yochelis, G. Chen, U. Banin, Y. Paltiel, and R. Rapaport, “Highly directional emission and photon beaming from nanocrystal quantum dots embedded in metallic nanoslit arrays,” Nano Lett. 11, 1630–1635 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Chen, R. Rapaport, D. T. Fuchs, L. Lucas, A. J. Lovinger, S. Vilan, A. Aharoni, and U. Banin, “Optical gain from InAs nanocrystal quantum dots in a polymer matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 251108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. J.

F. C. Chien, C. Y. Lin, J. N. Yih, K. L. Lee, C. W. Chang, P. K. Wei, C. C. Sun, and S. J. Chen, “Coupled waveguide surface plasmon resonance biosensor with subwavelength grating,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 2737–2742 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chien, F. C.

F. C. Chien, C. Y. Lin, J. N. Yih, K. L. Lee, C. W. Chang, P. K. Wei, C. C. Sun, and S. J. Chen, “Coupled waveguide surface plasmon resonance biosensor with subwavelength grating,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 2737–2742 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Crouse, D.

Curto, A. G.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Darmanyan, S. A.

S. A. Darmanyan and A. V. Zayats, “Light tunneling via resonant surface Plasmon polariton states and the enhanced transmission of periodically nanostructured metal films: an analytical study,” Phys. Rev. B 67, 035424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Degiron, A.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297, 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, E.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett. 11, 637–644(2011).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297, 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Diehl, L.

N. Yu, R. Blanchard, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonics for laser beam shaping,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 9, 11–29 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Y.

Dunbar, L. A.

Dykhne, A. M.

A. M. Dykhne, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Resonant transmittance through metal films with fabricated and light-induced modulation,” Phys. Rev. B 67, 195402 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett. 11, 637–644(2011).
[CrossRef]

F. J. García-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297, 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eckert, R.

Edamura, T.

N. Yu, R. Blanchard, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonics for laser beam shaping,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 9, 11–29 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fan, J.

N. Yu, R. Blanchard, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonics for laser beam shaping,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 9, 11–29 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

J. T. Shen, P. B. Catrysse, and S. Fan, “Mechanism for designing metallic metamaterials with a high index of refraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 197401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Friesem, A.

D. Rosenblatt, A. Sharon, and A. Friesem, “Resonant grating waveguide structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2038–2059 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fuchs, D. T.

G. Chen, R. Rapaport, D. T. Fuchs, L. Lucas, A. J. Lovinger, S. Vilan, A. Aharoni, and U. Banin, “Optical gain from InAs nanocrystal quantum dots in a polymer matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 251108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Furuta, S.

N. Yu, R. Blanchard, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonics for laser beam shaping,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 9, 11–29 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Garca-Vidal, F. J.

A. Y. Nikitin, F. J. Garca-Vidal, and L. Martn-Moreno, “Enhanced optical transmission, beaming and focusing through a subwavelength slit under excitation of dielectric waveguide modes,” J. Opt. A 11, 125702 (2009).
[CrossRef]

García-Vidal, F. J.

M. Guillaumée, A. Y. Nikitin, M. J. K. Klein, L. A. Dunbar, V. Spassov, R. Eckert, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and R. P. Stanley, “Observation of enhanced transmission for s-polarized light through a subwavelength slit,” Opt. Express 18, 9722–9727 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. J. García-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Moreno, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Extraordinary optical transmission without plasmons: the s-polarization case,” J. Opt. A 8, S94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305, 847–848 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. J. García-Vidal and L. Martín-Moreno, “Transmission and focusing of light in one-dimensional periodically nanostructured metals,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 155412 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297, 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Porto, F. J. García-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, “Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2845–2848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K.

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Guillaumée, M.

Halté, V.

Harats, M. G.

Huang, K. C.

Y. C. Jun, K. C. Huang, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonic beaming and active control over fluorescent emission,” Nat. Commun. 2, 283 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hugonin, J. P.

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, S. Astilean, M. Palamaru, and K. D. Möller, “One-mode model and Airy-like formulae for one-dimensional metallic gratings,” J. Opt. A 2, 48 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jun, Y. C.

Y. C. Jun, K. C. Huang, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonic beaming and active control over fluorescent emission,” Nat. Commun. 2, 283 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kan, H.

N. Yu, R. Blanchard, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonics for laser beam shaping,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 9, 11–29 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kats, A. V.

A. V. Kats and A. Y. Nikitin, “Analytical treatment of anomalous transparency of a modulated metal film due to surface plasmon-polariton excitation,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 235412 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Keshavareddy, P.

Klein, M. J. K.

Kreuzer, M. P.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuipers, L.

F. J. García-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Verhagen, L. Kuipers, and A. Polman, “Field enhancement in metallic subwavelength aperture arrays probed by erbium upconversion luminescence,” Opt. Express 17, 14586–14598 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lalanne, P.

Q. Cao and P. Lalanne, “Negative role of surface plasmons in the transmission of metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 057403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, S. Astilean, M. Palamaru, and K. D. Möller, “One-mode model and Airy-like formulae for one-dimensional metallic gratings,” J. Opt. A 2, 48 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. G.

K. G. Lee and Q.-H. Park, “Coupling of surface plasmon polaritons and light in metallic nanoslits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 103902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. L.

F. C. Chien, C. Y. Lin, J. N. Yih, K. L. Lee, C. W. Chang, P. K. Wei, C. C. Sun, and S. J. Chen, “Coupled waveguide surface plasmon resonance biosensor with subwavelength grating,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 2737–2742 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lezec, H. J.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297, 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. Y.

F. C. Chien, C. Y. Lin, J. N. Yih, K. L. Lee, C. W. Chang, P. K. Wei, C. C. Sun, and S. J. Chen, “Coupled waveguide surface plasmon resonance biosensor with subwavelength grating,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 2737–2742 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Linke, R. A.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297, 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

X. Zhang, H. Liu, J. Tian, Y. Song, and L. Wang, “Band-selective optical polarizer based on gold-nanowire plasmonic diffraction gratings,” Nano Lett. 8, 2653–2658 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Livneh, N.

I. Schwarz, N. Livneh, and R. Rapaport, “General closed-form condition for enhanced transmission in subwavelength metallic gratings in both TE and TM polarizations,” Opt. Express 20, 426–439 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Livneh, A. Strauss, I. Schwarz, I. Rosenberg, A. Zimran, S. Yochelis, G. Chen, U. Banin, Y. Paltiel, and R. Rapaport, “Highly directional emission and photon beaming from nanocrystal quantum dots embedded in metallic nanoslit arrays,” Nano Lett. 11, 1630–1635 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lochbihler, H.

H. Lochbihler, “Enhanced transmission of TE polarized light through wire gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 245427 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lovinger, A. J.

G. Chen, R. Rapaport, D. T. Fuchs, L. Lucas, A. J. Lovinger, S. Vilan, A. Aharoni, and U. Banin, “Optical gain from InAs nanocrystal quantum dots in a polymer matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 251108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lucas, L.

G. Chen, R. Rapaport, D. T. Fuchs, L. Lucas, A. J. Lovinger, S. Vilan, A. Aharoni, and U. Banin, “Optical gain from InAs nanocrystal quantum dots in a polymer matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 251108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Magnusson, R.

Y. Ding and R. Magnusson, “Resonant leaky-mode spectral-band engineering and device applications,” Opt. Express 12, 5661–5674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Priambodo, T. Maldonado, and R. Magnusson, “Fabrication and characterization of high-quality waveguide-mode resonant optical filters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3248 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mahboub, O.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett. 11, 637–644(2011).
[CrossRef]

Maldonado, T.

P. Priambodo, T. Maldonado, and R. Magnusson, “Fabrication and characterization of high-quality waveguide-mode resonant optical filters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3248 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Martín-Moreno, L.

F. J. García-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Guillaumée, A. Y. Nikitin, M. J. K. Klein, L. A. Dunbar, V. Spassov, R. Eckert, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and R. P. Stanley, “Observation of enhanced transmission for s-polarized light through a subwavelength slit,” Opt. Express 18, 9722–9727 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Moreno, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Extraordinary optical transmission without plasmons: the s-polarization case,” J. Opt. A 8, S94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305, 847–848 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. J. García-Vidal and L. Martín-Moreno, “Transmission and focusing of light in one-dimensional periodically nanostructured metals,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 155412 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297, 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Martn-Moreno, L.

A. Y. Nikitin, F. J. Garca-Vidal, and L. Martn-Moreno, “Enhanced optical transmission, beaming and focusing through a subwavelength slit under excitation of dielectric waveguide modes,” J. Opt. A 11, 125702 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moharam, M. G.

Möller, K. D.

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, S. Astilean, M. Palamaru, and K. D. Möller, “One-mode model and Airy-like formulae for one-dimensional metallic gratings,” J. Opt. A 2, 48 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, E.

E. Moreno, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Extraordinary optical transmission without plasmons: the s-polarization case,” J. Opt. A 8, S94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nikitin, A. Y.

M. Guillaumée, A. Y. Nikitin, M. J. K. Klein, L. A. Dunbar, V. Spassov, R. Eckert, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and R. P. Stanley, “Observation of enhanced transmission for s-polarized light through a subwavelength slit,” Opt. Express 18, 9722–9727 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Nikitin, F. J. Garca-Vidal, and L. Martn-Moreno, “Enhanced optical transmission, beaming and focusing through a subwavelength slit under excitation of dielectric waveguide modes,” J. Opt. A 11, 125702 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kats and A. Y. Nikitin, “Analytical treatment of anomalous transparency of a modulated metal film due to surface plasmon-polariton excitation,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 235412 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Palamaru, M.

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, S. Astilean, M. Palamaru, and K. D. Möller, “One-mode model and Airy-like formulae for one-dimensional metallic gratings,” J. Opt. A 2, 48 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Paltiel, Y.

N. Livneh, A. Strauss, I. Schwarz, I. Rosenberg, A. Zimran, S. Yochelis, G. Chen, U. Banin, Y. Paltiel, and R. Rapaport, “Highly directional emission and photon beaming from nanocrystal quantum dots embedded in metallic nanoslit arrays,” Nano Lett. 11, 1630–1635 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Park, Q.-H.

K. G. Lee and Q.-H. Park, “Coupling of surface plasmon polaritons and light in metallic nanoslits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 103902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305, 847–848 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Porto, F. J. García-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, “Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2845–2848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pflugl, C.

N. Yu, R. Blanchard, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonics for laser beam shaping,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 9, 11–29 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Platzman, P. M.

J. T. Shen and P. M. Platzman, “Properties of a one-dimensional metallophotonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 035101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

Popov, E.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett. 11, 637–644(2011).
[CrossRef]

Porto, J. A.

J. A. Porto, F. J. García-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, “Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2845–2848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Priambodo, P.

P. Priambodo, T. Maldonado, and R. Magnusson, “Fabrication and characterization of high-quality waveguide-mode resonant optical filters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3248 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Quidant, R.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rapaport, R.

I. Schwarz, N. Livneh, and R. Rapaport, “General closed-form condition for enhanced transmission in subwavelength metallic gratings in both TE and TM polarizations,” Opt. Express 20, 426–439 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Harats, I. Schwarz, A. Zimran, U. Banin, G. Chen, and R. Rapaport, “Enhancement of two photon processes in quantum dots embedded in subwavelength metallic gratings,” Opt. Express 19, 1617–1625 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Livneh, A. Strauss, I. Schwarz, I. Rosenberg, A. Zimran, S. Yochelis, G. Chen, U. Banin, Y. Paltiel, and R. Rapaport, “Highly directional emission and photon beaming from nanocrystal quantum dots embedded in metallic nanoslit arrays,” Nano Lett. 11, 1630–1635 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Chen, R. Rapaport, D. T. Fuchs, L. Lucas, A. J. Lovinger, S. Vilan, A. Aharoni, and U. Banin, “Optical gain from InAs nanocrystal quantum dots in a polymer matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 251108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rigneault, H.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett. 11, 637–644(2011).
[CrossRef]

Rosenberg, I.

N. Livneh, A. Strauss, I. Schwarz, I. Rosenberg, A. Zimran, S. Yochelis, G. Chen, U. Banin, Y. Paltiel, and R. Rapaport, “Highly directional emission and photon beaming from nanocrystal quantum dots embedded in metallic nanoslit arrays,” Nano Lett. 11, 1630–1635 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rosenblatt, D.

D. Rosenblatt, A. Sharon, and A. Friesem, “Resonant grating waveguide structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2038–2059 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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A. M. Dykhne, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Resonant transmittance through metal films with fabricated and light-induced modulation,” Phys. Rev. B 67, 195402 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schwarz, I.

Shalaev, V. M.

A. M. Dykhne, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Resonant transmittance through metal films with fabricated and light-induced modulation,” Phys. Rev. B 67, 195402 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sharon, A.

D. Rosenblatt, A. Sharon, and A. Friesem, “Resonant grating waveguide structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2038–2059 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shen, J. T.

J. T. Shen, P. B. Catrysse, and S. Fan, “Mechanism for designing metallic metamaterials with a high index of refraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 197401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Shen and P. M. Platzman, “Properties of a one-dimensional metallophotonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 035101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y.

X. Zhang, H. Liu, J. Tian, Y. Song, and L. Wang, “Band-selective optical polarizer based on gold-nanowire plasmonic diffraction gratings,” Nano Lett. 8, 2653–2658 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Spassov, V.

Stanley, R. P.

Strauss, A.

N. Livneh, A. Strauss, I. Schwarz, I. Rosenberg, A. Zimran, S. Yochelis, G. Chen, U. Banin, Y. Paltiel, and R. Rapaport, “Highly directional emission and photon beaming from nanocrystal quantum dots embedded in metallic nanoslit arrays,” Nano Lett. 11, 1630–1635 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C. C.

F. C. Chien, C. Y. Lin, J. N. Yih, K. L. Lee, C. W. Chang, P. K. Wei, C. C. Sun, and S. J. Chen, “Coupled waveguide surface plasmon resonance biosensor with subwavelength grating,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 2737–2742 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Taminiau, T. H.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thio, T.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tian, J.

X. Zhang, H. Liu, J. Tian, Y. Song, and L. Wang, “Band-selective optical polarizer based on gold-nanowire plasmonic diffraction gratings,” Nano Lett. 8, 2653–2658 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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M. M. J. Treacy, “Dynamical diffraction explanation of the anomalous transmission of light through metallic gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 195105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Verhagen, E.

Vilan, S.

G. Chen, R. Rapaport, D. T. Fuchs, L. Lucas, A. J. Lovinger, S. Vilan, A. Aharoni, and U. Banin, “Optical gain from InAs nanocrystal quantum dots in a polymer matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 251108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Volpe, G.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

X. Zhang, H. Liu, J. Tian, Y. Song, and L. Wang, “Band-selective optical polarizer based on gold-nanowire plasmonic diffraction gratings,” Nano Lett. 8, 2653–2658 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. J.

N. Yu, R. Blanchard, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonics for laser beam shaping,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 9, 11–29 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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F. C. Chien, C. Y. Lin, J. N. Yih, K. L. Lee, C. W. Chang, P. K. Wei, C. C. Sun, and S. J. Chen, “Coupled waveguide surface plasmon resonance biosensor with subwavelength grating,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 2737–2742 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wenger, J.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett. 11, 637–644(2011).
[CrossRef]

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yamanishi, M.

N. Yu, R. Blanchard, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonics for laser beam shaping,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 9, 11–29 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yih, J. N.

F. C. Chien, C. Y. Lin, J. N. Yih, K. L. Lee, C. W. Chang, P. K. Wei, C. C. Sun, and S. J. Chen, “Coupled waveguide surface plasmon resonance biosensor with subwavelength grating,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 2737–2742 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yochelis, S.

N. Livneh, A. Strauss, I. Schwarz, I. Rosenberg, A. Zimran, S. Yochelis, G. Chen, U. Banin, Y. Paltiel, and R. Rapaport, “Highly directional emission and photon beaming from nanocrystal quantum dots embedded in metallic nanoslit arrays,” Nano Lett. 11, 1630–1635 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yu, N.

N. Yu, R. Blanchard, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonics for laser beam shaping,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 9, 11–29 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zayats, A. V.

S. A. Darmanyan and A. V. Zayats, “Light tunneling via resonant surface Plasmon polariton states and the enhanced transmission of periodically nanostructured metal films: an analytical study,” Phys. Rev. B 67, 035424 (2003).
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Other (1)

That is because, for ideal metals, for each Bloch mode inside the slits, the relative amplitude of each order of m is proportional to the Fourier transform of a rectangular box of width a/d. Since this Fourier transform ∼sinc(adm), we get a rapid decrease in the contributions of higher orders of m for a/d∼0.5. Even for real metals, this approximation still holds, as will be evident from our comparison to rigorous numerical calculations in Section 2 and from calculating the values of Hm (the relative amplitude for different orders of m) for different real metals.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Cross section of a general metallic NSA configuration. The incident plane wave vector and the transmitted wave vector are represented by the arrows. All the relevant physical parameters are explained in the text.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic illustration of the EBC model. (a) Numerically calculated near-field intensity in a unit cell of the grating at a wavelength corresponding to an ET maximum in three different configurations, as explained in the text. The rectangular gray area indicates the metal and the white line marks the boundary of the dielectric layer n2 (when present). (b) Corresponding EBC model mapping. The same model applies to all the configurations; the only difference is the area in which the standing wave appears in the structure, depicted schematically for each configuration.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Numerically calculated zero-order transmission in the TM polarization with no added thin dielectric layer, in the symmetric configuration n1=n3=ns, for different wavelengths and grating thicknesses. The dotted white lines are the transmission maxima according to the EBC model for m=1 (the first diffraction order) only. The yellow line is the first transmission maximum according to the EBC model with all the diffraction orders taken into account. The periodicity is d=0.9μm and the slit width is a=0.35μm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Numerically calculated zero-order transmission in the TE polarization, with an added thin dielectric layer n2. The dotted white lines correspond to the predicted ET wavelengths according to the EBC model. The black dashed lines mark the boundaries between the different wavelength regimes. The periodicity is d=0.9μm, a=0.35μm, w2=0.93μm, n1=n3=1, and n2=1.52.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Schematic diagram of the reference sample: NQDs in a polymer layer without a grating. (b) Schematic diagram of the NSA with the NQDs. (c) Angular emission from the reference sample at different wavelengths, normalized to the maximum emission intensity into 0 deg. (d) TE polarized angular emission from the reference sample at different wavelengths, normalized to the NQDs emission spectrum. The dashed curves are a guide to the eye for the emission maxima. (e), (f) Cross sections of the emission in λ=1.17μm, of the reference sample and of the NSA sample, correspondingly, as marked by the straight dotted–dashed line in (c) and (d). Note the intensities of (e) and (f) are of the same scale. The red curve is a Gaussian fit to the angular emission with a 3.4 deg FWHM. Inset: calculated near-field intensity of one unit cell of the NSA for TE polarized light directed to zero angle at λ=1.17μm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Second-order correlation (g(2)(τ)) histogram of NQDs on a NSA with a nonresonant, 100 fs pulsed laser excitation, showing antibunching around τ=0. (b) Count integration of (a) over each signal peak separately.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Calculated spatially averaged enhancement profile of the sample (blue curve), γcalc(λ), and example of the measured spectral profile of an excitation pulse (green curve), P(λ). (b) Experimental (green dots) and calculated γ2 extracted from Eq. (13) (blue squares). The dashed–dotted curves are guides to the eye.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Number of photons absorbed per second per pixel of a device that consists of an NSA on GaAs slab is shown as a function of the incoming NIR intensity at the ET resonance maximum. The green dashed line represents a rate of one photon/pixel that can be achieved with an impinging intensity as low as 0.2mW/cm2.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Summary of the Different Cases in Fig. 2

Equations (16)

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×[1μ(r)×E(r)]k2ϵ(r)E(r)=0,
×[1ϵ(r)×H(r)]k2μ(r)H(r)=0,
ΔE(r)+k2ϵμE(r)=0,ΔH(r)+k2ϵμH(r)=0,
H(j)(r)=mHmjei[(kx+gm)x+kz(j)z]y^,
H(r)=jψ(j)mHmjei[(kx+gm)x+kz(j)z]y^,
H1,3(r)=mAm1,3ei[(kx+gm)x+kz1,3z]y^,
H(r)=mHmei[(kx+gm)x+kzpropz]y^,
neff=(kzprop)2+g2k.
2kzpropw2ϕ122ϕ23=2πl,
ϕ12=ϕ23=tan1((χ2+1)χ21),
kzprop=μϵc2ω2γ2,
w=λ0l2ns,
I0I1dII2=0Leffσ(2)γcalcdz,
IUCI02σ(2)γcalcLeff1+I0σ(2)γcalcLeffI02σ(2)γcalcLeff,
γen2IUCIrefγcalc2.
γavg2(λ)=γen2(λ)P(λλ)dλP(λ)dλ.

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