Abstract

In this paper, we experimentally show the effect of waveguide discontinuity on the propagation of the surface plasmon in metal stripes and tapered terminations. Dual-plane leakage microscopy and near-field microscopy were performed on Au stripes with varied widths to image the surface plasmon intensity distribution in real and reciprocal spaces. We unambiguously demonstrate that edge diffraction is the limiting process determining the cutoff conditions of the surface plasmon mode. Finally, we determine the optimal tapered geometry leading to the highest transmission.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  30. J. Berthelot, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Excitation of a one-dimensional evanescent wave by conical edge diffraction of surface plasmon,” Opt. Express 19, 5303–5312 (2011).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

2010 (5)

R. M. Briggs, J. Grandidier, S. P. Burgos, E. Feigenbaum, and H. A. Atwater, “Efficient coupling between dielectric-loaded plasmonic and silicon photonic waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10, 4851–4857 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides on a finite-width metal strip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photon. 4, 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fang, Z. Li, Y. Huang, S. Zhang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and H. Xu, “Branched silver nanowires as controllable plasmon routers,” Nano Lett. 10, 1950–1954 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9, 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Daia, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461, 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Verhagen, M. Spasenovic´, A. Polman, and L. K. Kuipers, “Nanowire plasmon excitation by adiabatic mode transformation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203904 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (7)

T. Holmgaard, S. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, B. Bolger, and A. Zayats, “Efficient excitation of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguide modes at telecommunication wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 165431 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Verhagen, A. Polman, and L. Kuipers, “Nanofocusing in laterally tapered plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 16, 45–57 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Bend- and splitting loss of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 16, 13585–13592 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 023901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. List, and J. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photon. 2, 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths: excitation and characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011124 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: figures of merit and mode characterization by image and fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides: bends and directional couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sorensen, E. A. Demler, and M. D. Lukin, “A single-photon transistor using nanoscale surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 807–812 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. G. de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, “Adaptive subwavelength control of nano-optical fields,” Nature 446, 301–304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, and M. L. Brongersma, “Near-field characterization of guided polariton propagation and cutoff in surface plasmon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 165415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (5)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Weeber, M. U. González, A.-L. Baudrion, and A. Dereux, “Surface plasmon routing along right angle bent metal strips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Zia, M. D. Selker, and M. L. Brongersma, “Leaky and bound modes of surface plasmon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 165431 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Bouhelier and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon rainbow jet,” Opt. Lett. 30, 884–886 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Zia, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric waveguide model for guided surface polaritons,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1473–1475 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

M. I. Stockman, “Nanofocusing of optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 137404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J.-C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and A. Dereux, “Optical near-field distributions of surface plasmon waveguide modes,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 115401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guides by thin lossy metal films of finite width: bound modes of asymmetric structure,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 125417 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. Weeber, “Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 51–53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 045411 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. Bouhelier, T. Huser, H. Tamaru, H.-J. Güntherodt, and D. W. Pohl, “Plasmon transmissivity and reflectivity of narrow grooves in a silver film,” J. Microsc. 194, 571–573(1999).
[CrossRef]

Aeschlimann, M.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. G. de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, “Adaptive subwavelength control of nano-optical fields,” Nature 446, 301–304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

R. M. Briggs, J. Grandidier, S. P. Burgos, E. Feigenbaum, and H. A. Atwater, “Efficient coupling between dielectric-loaded plasmonic and silicon photonic waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10, 4851–4857 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Aussenegg, F.

D. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. List, and J. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photon. 2, 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Aussenegg, F. R.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides: bends and directional couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. Weeber, “Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 51–53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bartal, G.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Daia, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461, 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baudrion, A.-L.

J.-C. Weeber, M. U. González, A.-L. Baudrion, and A. Dereux, “Surface plasmon routing along right angle bent metal strips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, M.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. G. de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, “Adaptive subwavelength control of nano-optical fields,” Nature 446, 301–304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bayer, D.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. G. de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, “Adaptive subwavelength control of nano-optical fields,” Nature 446, 301–304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Berini, P.

P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guides by thin lossy metal films of finite width: bound modes of asymmetric structure,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 125417 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Berthelot, J.

Bolger, B.

T. Holmgaard, S. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, B. Bolger, and A. Zayats, “Efficient excitation of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguide modes at telecommunication wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 165431 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bouhelier, A.

J. Berthelot, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Excitation of a one-dimensional evanescent wave by conical edge diffraction of surface plasmon,” Opt. Express 19, 5303–5312 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides on a finite-width metal strip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9, 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: figures of merit and mode characterization by image and fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Bouhelier and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon rainbow jet,” Opt. Lett. 30, 884–886 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Bouhelier, T. Huser, H. Tamaru, H.-J. Güntherodt, and D. W. Pohl, “Plasmon transmissivity and reflectivity of narrow grooves in a silver film,” J. Microsc. 194, 571–573(1999).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S.

T. Holmgaard, S. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, B. Bolger, and A. Zayats, “Efficient excitation of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguide modes at telecommunication wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 165431 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photon. 4, 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Bend- and splitting loss of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 16, 13585–13592 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths: excitation and characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011124 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 023901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Briggs, R. M.

R. M. Briggs, J. Grandidier, S. P. Burgos, E. Feigenbaum, and H. A. Atwater, “Efficient coupling between dielectric-loaded plasmonic and silicon photonic waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10, 4851–4857 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brixner, T.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. G. de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, “Adaptive subwavelength control of nano-optical fields,” Nature 446, 301–304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, and M. L. Brongersma, “Near-field characterization of guided polariton propagation and cutoff in surface plasmon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 165415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Zia, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric waveguide model for guided surface polaritons,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1473–1475 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Zia, M. D. Selker, and M. L. Brongersma, “Leaky and bound modes of surface plasmon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 165431 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Burgos, S. P.

R. M. Briggs, J. Grandidier, S. P. Burgos, E. Feigenbaum, and H. A. Atwater, “Efficient coupling between dielectric-loaded plasmonic and silicon photonic waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10, 4851–4857 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chandran, A.

Chang, D. E.

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sorensen, E. A. Demler, and M. D. Lukin, “A single-photon transistor using nanoscale surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 807–812 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

Colas des Francs, G.

J. Berthelot, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Excitation of a one-dimensional evanescent wave by conical edge diffraction of surface plasmon,” Opt. Express 19, 5303–5312 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides on a finite-width metal strip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9, 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: figures of merit and mode characterization by image and fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Curto, A. G.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Daia, L.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Daia, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461, 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef]

de Abajo, F. J. G.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. G. de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, “Adaptive subwavelength control of nano-optical fields,” Nature 446, 301–304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Demler, E. A.

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sorensen, E. A. Demler, and M. D. Lukin, “A single-photon transistor using nanoscale surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 807–812 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

J. Berthelot, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Excitation of a one-dimensional evanescent wave by conical edge diffraction of surface plasmon,” Opt. Express 19, 5303–5312 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides on a finite-width metal strip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9, 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Bend- and splitting loss of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 16, 13585–13592 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Holmgaard, S. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, B. Bolger, and A. Zayats, “Efficient excitation of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguide modes at telecommunication wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 165431 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths: excitation and characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011124 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: figures of merit and mode characterization by image and fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Weeber, M. U. González, A.-L. Baudrion, and A. Dereux, “Surface plasmon routing along right angle bent metal strips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and A. Dereux, “Optical near-field distributions of surface plasmon waveguide modes,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 115401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 045411 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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D. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. List, and J. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photon. 2, 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides: bends and directional couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. Weeber, “Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 51–53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Drezet, A.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Y.

Y. Fang, Z. Li, Y. Huang, S. Zhang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and H. Xu, “Branched silver nanowires as controllable plasmon routers,” Nano Lett. 10, 1950–1954 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Feigenbaum, E.

R. M. Briggs, J. Grandidier, S. P. Burgos, E. Feigenbaum, and H. A. Atwater, “Efficient coupling between dielectric-loaded plasmonic and silicon photonic waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10, 4851–4857 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Felidj, N.

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. Weeber, “Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 51–53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Finot, C.

J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9, 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Galler, N.

D. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. List, and J. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photon. 2, 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

García-Vidal, F. J.

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 023901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gladden, C.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Daia, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461, 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef]

González, M. U.

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Weeber, M. U. González, A.-L. Baudrion, and A. Dereux, “Surface plasmon routing along right angle bent metal strips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Goudonnet, J. P.

J.-C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 045411 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gramotnev, D. K.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photon. 4, 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grandidier, J.

R. M. Briggs, J. Grandidier, S. P. Burgos, E. Feigenbaum, and H. A. Atwater, “Efficient coupling between dielectric-loaded plasmonic and silicon photonic waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10, 4851–4857 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides on a finite-width metal strip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9, 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: figures of merit and mode characterization by image and fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Güntherodt, H.-J.

A. Bouhelier, T. Huser, H. Tamaru, H.-J. Güntherodt, and D. W. Pohl, “Plasmon transmissivity and reflectivity of narrow grooves in a silver film,” J. Microsc. 194, 571–573(1999).
[CrossRef]

Halas, N. J.

Y. Fang, Z. Li, Y. Huang, S. Zhang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and H. Xu, “Branched silver nanowires as controllable plasmon routers,” Nano Lett. 10, 1950–1954 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hohenau, A.

D. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. List, and J. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photon. 2, 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides: bends and directional couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Holmgaard, T.

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths: excitation and characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011124 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Holmgaard, S. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, B. Bolger, and A. Zayats, “Efficient excitation of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguide modes at telecommunication wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 165431 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Bend- and splitting loss of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 16, 13585–13592 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

Y. Fang, Z. Li, Y. Huang, S. Zhang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and H. Xu, “Branched silver nanowires as controllable plasmon routers,” Nano Lett. 10, 1950–1954 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huser, T.

A. Bouhelier, T. Huser, H. Tamaru, H.-J. Güntherodt, and D. W. Pohl, “Plasmon transmissivity and reflectivity of narrow grooves in a silver film,” J. Microsc. 194, 571–573(1999).
[CrossRef]

Koller, D.

D. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. List, and J. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photon. 2, 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krasavin, A. V.

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Bend- and splitting loss of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 16, 13585–13592 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Holmgaard, S. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, B. Bolger, and A. Zayats, “Efficient excitation of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguide modes at telecommunication wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 165431 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krenn, J.

D. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. List, and J. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photon. 2, 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krenn, J. R.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides: bends and directional couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. Weeber, “Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 51–53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 045411 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kreuzer, M. P.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuipers, L.

Kuipers, L. K.

E. Verhagen, M. Spasenovic´, A. Polman, and L. K. Kuipers, “Nanowire plasmon excitation by adiabatic mode transformation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203904 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lacroute, Y.

J.-C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and A. Dereux, “Optical near-field distributions of surface plasmon waveguide modes,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 115401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 045411 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lamprecht, B.

J.-C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 045411 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. Weeber, “Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 51–53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Leitner, A.

D. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. List, and J. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photon. 2, 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides: bends and directional couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. Weeber, “Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 51–53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

Y. Fang, Z. Li, Y. Huang, S. Zhang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and H. Xu, “Branched silver nanowires as controllable plasmon routers,” Nano Lett. 10, 1950–1954 (2010).
[CrossRef]

List, E.

D. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. List, and J. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photon. 2, 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lukin, M. D.

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sorensen, E. A. Demler, and M. D. Lukin, “A single-photon transistor using nanoscale surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 807–812 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ma, R.-M.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Daia, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461, 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Markey, L.

J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides on a finite-width metal strip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9, 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Bend- and splitting loss of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 16, 13585–13592 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Holmgaard, S. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, B. Bolger, and A. Zayats, “Efficient excitation of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguide modes at telecommunication wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 165431 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths: excitation and characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011124 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: figures of merit and mode characterization by image and fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Martín-Moreno, L.

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 023901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Massenot, S.

J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides on a finite-width metal strip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9, 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: figures of merit and mode characterization by image and fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, E.

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 023901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nordlander, P.

Y. Fang, Z. Li, Y. Huang, S. Zhang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and H. Xu, “Branched silver nanowires as controllable plasmon routers,” Nano Lett. 10, 1950–1954 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

L. Novotny and N. F. Van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photon. 5, 83–90 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Oulton, R. F.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Daia, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461, 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, W.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. G. de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, “Adaptive subwavelength control of nano-optical fields,” Nature 446, 301–304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

A. Bouhelier, T. Huser, H. Tamaru, H.-J. Güntherodt, and D. W. Pohl, “Plasmon transmissivity and reflectivity of narrow grooves in a silver film,” J. Microsc. 194, 571–573(1999).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

E. Verhagen, M. Spasenovic´, A. Polman, and L. K. Kuipers, “Nanowire plasmon excitation by adiabatic mode transformation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203904 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Verhagen, A. Polman, and L. Kuipers, “Nanofocusing in laterally tapered plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 16, 45–57 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Quidant, R.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springler-Verlag, 1988).

Reil, F.

D. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. List, and J. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photon. 2, 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Renger, J.

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rodrigo, S. G.

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 023901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rohmer, M.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. G. de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, “Adaptive subwavelength control of nano-optical fields,” Nature 446, 301–304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Salerno, M.

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. Weeber, “Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 51–53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schider, G.

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. Weeber, “Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 51–53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schuller, J. A.

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, and M. L. Brongersma, “Near-field characterization of guided polariton propagation and cutoff in surface plasmon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 165415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Selker, M. D.

R. Zia, M. D. Selker, and M. L. Brongersma, “Leaky and bound modes of surface plasmon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 165431 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sorensen, A. S.

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sorensen, E. A. Demler, and M. D. Lukin, “A single-photon transistor using nanoscale surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 807–812 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sorger, V. J.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Daia, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461, 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Spasenovic´, M.

E. Verhagen, M. Spasenovic´, A. Polman, and L. K. Kuipers, “Nanowire plasmon excitation by adiabatic mode transformation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203904 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Spindler, C.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. G. de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, “Adaptive subwavelength control of nano-optical fields,” Nature 446, 301–304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Steeb, F.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. G. de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, “Adaptive subwavelength control of nano-optical fields,” Nature 446, 301–304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Steinberger, B.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides: bends and directional couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, A. L.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, M. I.

M. I. Stockman, “Nanofocusing of optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 137404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tamaru, H.

A. Bouhelier, T. Huser, H. Tamaru, H.-J. Güntherodt, and D. W. Pohl, “Plasmon transmissivity and reflectivity of narrow grooves in a silver film,” J. Microsc. 194, 571–573(1999).
[CrossRef]

Taminiau, T. H.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Van Hulst, N. F.

L. Novotny and N. F. Van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photon. 5, 83–90 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Verhagen, E.

E. Verhagen, M. Spasenovic´, A. Polman, and L. K. Kuipers, “Nanowire plasmon excitation by adiabatic mode transformation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203904 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Verhagen, A. Polman, and L. Kuipers, “Nanofocusing in laterally tapered plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 16, 45–57 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Volkov, V. S.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Volpe, G.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Weeber, J.

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. Weeber, “Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 51–53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Weeber, J.-C.

J. Berthelot, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Excitation of a one-dimensional evanescent wave by conical edge diffraction of surface plasmon,” Opt. Express 19, 5303–5312 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides on a finite-width metal strip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9, 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: figures of merit and mode characterization by image and fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Weeber, M. U. González, A.-L. Baudrion, and A. Dereux, “Surface plasmon routing along right angle bent metal strips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and A. Dereux, “Optical near-field distributions of surface plasmon waveguide modes,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 115401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 045411 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wiederrecht, G. P.

Xu, H.

Y. Fang, Z. Li, Y. Huang, S. Zhang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and H. Xu, “Branched silver nanowires as controllable plasmon routers,” Nano Lett. 10, 1950–1954 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zayats, A.

T. Holmgaard, S. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, B. Bolger, and A. Zayats, “Efficient excitation of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguide modes at telecommunication wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 165431 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zayats, A. V.

Zentgraf, T.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Daia, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461, 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

Y. Fang, Z. Li, Y. Huang, S. Zhang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and H. Xu, “Branched silver nanowires as controllable plasmon routers,” Nano Lett. 10, 1950–1954 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Daia, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461, 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zia, R.

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, and M. L. Brongersma, “Near-field characterization of guided polariton propagation and cutoff in surface plasmon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 165415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Zia, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric waveguide model for guided surface polaritons,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1473–1475 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Zia, M. D. Selker, and M. L. Brongersma, “Leaky and bound modes of surface plasmon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 165431 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

J.-C. Weeber, M. U. González, A.-L. Baudrion, and A. Dereux, “Surface plasmon routing along right angle bent metal strips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides: bends and directional couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths: excitation and characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011124 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. Weeber, “Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 51–53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides on a finite-width metal strip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

A. Bouhelier, T. Huser, H. Tamaru, H.-J. Güntherodt, and D. W. Pohl, “Plasmon transmissivity and reflectivity of narrow grooves in a silver film,” J. Microsc. 194, 571–573(1999).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (3)

R. M. Briggs, J. Grandidier, S. P. Burgos, E. Feigenbaum, and H. A. Atwater, “Efficient coupling between dielectric-loaded plasmonic and silicon photonic waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10, 4851–4857 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9, 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fang, Z. Li, Y. Huang, S. Zhang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and H. Xu, “Branched silver nanowires as controllable plasmon routers,” Nano Lett. 10, 1950–1954 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (3)

L. Novotny and N. F. Van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photon. 5, 83–90 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photon. 4, 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. List, and J. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photon. 2, 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sorensen, E. A. Demler, and M. D. Lukin, “A single-photon transistor using nanoscale surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 807–812 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Daia, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461, 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. G. de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, “Adaptive subwavelength control of nano-optical fields,” Nature 446, 301–304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (7)

R. Zia, M. D. Selker, and M. L. Brongersma, “Leaky and bound modes of surface plasmon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 165431 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and A. Dereux, “Optical near-field distributions of surface plasmon waveguide modes,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 115401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 045411 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Holmgaard, S. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, B. Bolger, and A. Zayats, “Efficient excitation of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguide modes at telecommunication wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 165431 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guides by thin lossy metal films of finite width: bound modes of asymmetric structure,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 125417 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: figures of merit and mode characterization by image and fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, and M. L. Brongersma, “Near-field characterization of guided polariton propagation and cutoff in surface plasmon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 165415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 023901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Verhagen, M. Spasenovic´, A. Polman, and L. K. Kuipers, “Nanowire plasmon excitation by adiabatic mode transformation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203904 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Stockman, “Nanofocusing of optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 137404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springler-Verlag, 1988).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Scanning electron micrograph of the SPP waveguides connected to a launching Au pad: (a) straight terminations, (b) tapered terminations with an angle of 20°. Note the grating used to excite the plasmon in (b) to circumvent the geometrical constraints of near-field imaging.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Leakage images of a surface plasmon propagating in an Au stripe before being radiatively scattered out by the end face for w=2μm (left image) and w=1μm (right image). The interaction of the mode with the edges creates a high intensity region located at the discontinuity. (b) Partial Fourier plane image displaying the wave vector distribution corresponding to the w=1μm wide stripe. The maximum value (1.49) is given by the N.A. of the objective. The distribution of the illumination wave vectors is indicated by the dotted circle. The SPP signature is visible as a dark line within the illumination wave vectors. Interaction of the SPP with the edges is responsible for the two bright lines at a constant ky/ko value. Logarithmic color scale.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Normalized intensity of the edge line extracted from Fourier plane analysis and measured surface plasmon width δkspp as a function of the lateral dimension of the stripe waveguides. Inset: Propagation length Lspp inferred from δkspp. (b) Intensity profiles taken along the x-direction at y=8μm from the excitation spot for various widths of the stripes. The physical footprint of the stripe is schematically represented by the shaded areas (off-scaled vertically for clarity).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Computed lateral distributions of the surface plasmon electric field for different widths w of Au stripe. λ=800nm, Au thickness=50nm. The insets display a magnified area around the left-hand-side corner. The high field magnitude located at the corner is readily visible. (b) Normalized electric field magnitude integrated in a 27nm×27nm area around the corners as a function of waveguide width.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Leakage images of a surface plasmon propagating in an Au stripe (w=2μm), terminated by a taper with an opening angle θ of 45° (left image) and 10° (right image), (b) corresponding partial Fourier plane θ=10°. Note the two inclined lines, the signature of diffraction at the edges of the taper.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Near-field images of selected waveguides and tapers. (a) Topography of a 3.5μm wide stripe terminated by a 70° taper, (b) corresponding near-field optical map, and (c) optical profile taken at the end of the taper in (b); (d) topography of a 3.5μm wide stripe terminated by a 20° taper, (e) corresponding near-field optical map, and (f) optical profile taken at the end of the taper in (e).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Near-field intensity measured at the taper extremity, (b) confinement parameter as a function of stripe width for different taper angles.

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