Abstract

Single-mode laser action has been reported previously in a gain-guided, index antiguided fiber using a scalable side pumping scheme. In this paper we demonstrate the role of transverse mode competition on laser oscillation in such a fiber laser. It enables single, lowest-order mode lasing with a beam quality of M2<2 when using a combination of large fiber core radius and low output coupler reflectivity previously considered to rule out gain-guided index antiguided lasing with such beam quality. In addition, the larger core radii fibers and low output coupler reflectivity enables improved slope efficiency. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results are presented demonstrating mode competition governed lasing in a gain-guided, index antiguided fiber.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Limpert, O. Schmidt, J. Rothhardt, F. Röser, T. Schreiber, A. Tünnermann, S. Ermeneux, P. Yvernault, and F. Salin, “Extended single-mode photonic crystal fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 14, 2715–2720 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. H. Liu, G. Chang, N. Litchinister, D. Guertin, N. Jacobson, K. Tankala, and A. Galvanauskas, “Chirally coupled core fibers at 1550 nm and 1064 nm for effectively single-mode core size scaling,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Application Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CTuBB3.
  3. A. Galvanauskas, M. Y. Cheng, K. C. Liao, and K. H. Liao, “High peak power pulse amplification in large-core Yb-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 559–566 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. V. Sudesh, T. McComb, Y. Chen, M. Bass, M. Richardson, J. Ballato, and A. E. Siegman, “Diode-pumped 200 μm diameter core, gain-guided, index-antiguided single mode fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 369–372 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. A. E. Siegman, Y. Chen, V. Sudesh, M. Richardson, M. Bass, P. Foy, W. Hawkins, and J. Ballato, “Confined propagation and near single-mode laser oscillation in a gain-guided, index antiguided optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251101 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. http://www.rp-photonics.com/effective_mode_area.html .
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    [CrossRef]
  17. http://www.dilas.com .
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  21. W. Li, M. Lu, Z. Yang, H. Guo, P. I. Wang, and B. Peng, “Fabrication and characterization of Yb3+-doped gain-guided index-antiguided fiber with D-shaped inner cladding,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 1498–1501 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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2011

2010

2008

V. Sudesh, T. McComb, Y. Chen, M. Bass, M. Richardson, J. Ballato, and A. E. Siegman, “Diode-pumped 200 μm diameter core, gain-guided, index-antiguided single mode fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 369–372 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

J. Limpert, O. Schmidt, J. Rothhardt, F. Röser, T. Schreiber, A. Tünnermann, S. Ermeneux, P. Yvernault, and F. Salin, “Extended single-mode photonic crystal fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 14, 2715–2720 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Siegman, Y. Chen, V. Sudesh, M. Richardson, M. Bass, P. Foy, W. Hawkins, and J. Ballato, “Confined propagation and near single-mode laser oscillation in a gain-guided, index antiguided optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003

2001

2000

Ballato, J.

V. Sudesh, T. McComb, Y. Chen, M. Bass, M. Richardson, J. Ballato, and A. E. Siegman, “Diode-pumped 200 μm diameter core, gain-guided, index-antiguided single mode fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 369–372 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, V. Sudesh, T. McComb, M. Richardson, M. Bass, and J. Ballato, “Lasing in a gain-guided index antiguided fiber,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1683–1688 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Siegman, Y. Chen, V. Sudesh, M. Richardson, M. Bass, P. Foy, W. Hawkins, and J. Ballato, “Confined propagation and near single-mode laser oscillation in a gain-guided, index antiguided optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Sudesh, T. McComb, M. Richardson, W. Hageman, M. Bass, J. Ballato, and A. E. Siegman, “Waveguide-pumping gain guided index antiguided fiber laser,” U.S. patent 7,668,211 (23February2010).

Bass, M.

W. Hageman, Y. Chen, X. Wang, L. Gao, G. Kim, M. Richardson, and M. Bass, “Scalable side-pumped, gain-guided index-antiguided fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 2451–2459 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Sudesh, T. McComb, Y. Chen, M. Bass, M. Richardson, J. Ballato, and A. E. Siegman, “Diode-pumped 200 μm diameter core, gain-guided, index-antiguided single mode fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 369–372 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, V. Sudesh, T. McComb, M. Richardson, M. Bass, and J. Ballato, “Lasing in a gain-guided index antiguided fiber,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1683–1688 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, T. McComb, V. Sudesh, M. Richardson, and M. Bass, “Very large-core, single-mode, gain-guided, index-antiguided fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2505–2507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Siegman, Y. Chen, V. Sudesh, M. Richardson, M. Bass, P. Foy, W. Hawkins, and J. Ballato, “Confined propagation and near single-mode laser oscillation in a gain-guided, index antiguided optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Sudesh, T. McComb, M. Richardson, W. Hageman, M. Bass, J. Ballato, and A. E. Siegman, “Waveguide-pumping gain guided index antiguided fiber laser,” U.S. patent 7,668,211 (23February2010).

Chang, G.

C. H. Liu, G. Chang, N. Litchinister, D. Guertin, N. Jacobson, K. Tankala, and A. Galvanauskas, “Chirally coupled core fibers at 1550 nm and 1064 nm for effectively single-mode core size scaling,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Application Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CTuBB3.

Chen, Y.

W. Hageman, Y. Chen, X. Wang, L. Gao, G. Kim, M. Richardson, and M. Bass, “Scalable side-pumped, gain-guided index-antiguided fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 2451–2459 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Sudesh, T. McComb, Y. Chen, M. Bass, M. Richardson, J. Ballato, and A. E. Siegman, “Diode-pumped 200 μm diameter core, gain-guided, index-antiguided single mode fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 369–372 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, V. Sudesh, T. McComb, M. Richardson, M. Bass, and J. Ballato, “Lasing in a gain-guided index antiguided fiber,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1683–1688 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, T. McComb, V. Sudesh, M. Richardson, and M. Bass, “Very large-core, single-mode, gain-guided, index-antiguided fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2505–2507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Siegman, Y. Chen, V. Sudesh, M. Richardson, M. Bass, P. Foy, W. Hawkins, and J. Ballato, “Confined propagation and near single-mode laser oscillation in a gain-guided, index antiguided optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, M. Y.

A. Galvanauskas, M. Y. Cheng, K. C. Liao, and K. H. Liao, “High peak power pulse amplification in large-core Yb-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 559–566 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, K. S.

Ermeneux, S.

Foy, P.

A. E. Siegman, Y. Chen, V. Sudesh, M. Richardson, M. Bass, P. Foy, W. Hawkins, and J. Ballato, “Confined propagation and near single-mode laser oscillation in a gain-guided, index antiguided optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Galvanauskas, A.

A. Galvanauskas, M. Y. Cheng, K. C. Liao, and K. H. Liao, “High peak power pulse amplification in large-core Yb-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 559–566 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Liu, G. Chang, N. Litchinister, D. Guertin, N. Jacobson, K. Tankala, and A. Galvanauskas, “Chirally coupled core fibers at 1550 nm and 1064 nm for effectively single-mode core size scaling,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Application Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CTuBB3.

Gao, L.

Goldberg, L.

Guertin, D.

C. H. Liu, G. Chang, N. Litchinister, D. Guertin, N. Jacobson, K. Tankala, and A. Galvanauskas, “Chirally coupled core fibers at 1550 nm and 1064 nm for effectively single-mode core size scaling,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Application Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CTuBB3.

Guo, H.

Hageman, W.

W. Hageman, Y. Chen, X. Wang, L. Gao, G. Kim, M. Richardson, and M. Bass, “Scalable side-pumped, gain-guided index-antiguided fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 2451–2459 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Sudesh, T. McComb, M. Richardson, W. Hageman, M. Bass, J. Ballato, and A. E. Siegman, “Waveguide-pumping gain guided index antiguided fiber laser,” U.S. patent 7,668,211 (23February2010).

Hawkins, W.

A. E. Siegman, Y. Chen, V. Sudesh, M. Richardson, M. Bass, P. Foy, W. Hawkins, and J. Ballato, “Confined propagation and near single-mode laser oscillation in a gain-guided, index antiguided optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jacobson, N.

C. H. Liu, G. Chang, N. Litchinister, D. Guertin, N. Jacobson, K. Tankala, and A. Galvanauskas, “Chirally coupled core fibers at 1550 nm and 1064 nm for effectively single-mode core size scaling,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Application Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CTuBB3.

Katzir, A.

Kim, G.

Kliner, D. A. V.

Koechner, W.

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, 5th revised and updated ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1999).

Koplow, J. P.

Li, W.

Liao, K. C.

A. Galvanauskas, M. Y. Cheng, K. C. Liao, and K. H. Liao, “High peak power pulse amplification in large-core Yb-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 559–566 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liao, K. H.

A. Galvanauskas, M. Y. Cheng, K. C. Liao, and K. H. Liao, “High peak power pulse amplification in large-core Yb-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 559–566 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Limpert, J.

Litchinister, N.

C. H. Liu, G. Chang, N. Litchinister, D. Guertin, N. Jacobson, K. Tankala, and A. Galvanauskas, “Chirally coupled core fibers at 1550 nm and 1064 nm for effectively single-mode core size scaling,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Application Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CTuBB3.

Liu, C. H.

C. H. Liu, G. Chang, N. Litchinister, D. Guertin, N. Jacobson, K. Tankala, and A. Galvanauskas, “Chirally coupled core fibers at 1550 nm and 1064 nm for effectively single-mode core size scaling,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Application Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CTuBB3.

Lu, M.

McComb, T.

V. Sudesh, T. McComb, Y. Chen, M. Bass, M. Richardson, J. Ballato, and A. E. Siegman, “Diode-pumped 200 μm diameter core, gain-guided, index-antiguided single mode fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 369–372 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, T. McComb, V. Sudesh, M. Richardson, and M. Bass, “Very large-core, single-mode, gain-guided, index-antiguided fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2505–2507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, V. Sudesh, T. McComb, M. Richardson, M. Bass, and J. Ballato, “Lasing in a gain-guided index antiguided fiber,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1683–1688 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Sudesh, T. McComb, M. Richardson, W. Hageman, M. Bass, J. Ballato, and A. E. Siegman, “Waveguide-pumping gain guided index antiguided fiber laser,” U.S. patent 7,668,211 (23February2010).

Millo, A.

Naeh, I.

Peng, B.

Rastogi, V.

Richardson, M.

W. Hageman, Y. Chen, X. Wang, L. Gao, G. Kim, M. Richardson, and M. Bass, “Scalable side-pumped, gain-guided index-antiguided fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 2451–2459 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Sudesh, T. McComb, Y. Chen, M. Bass, M. Richardson, J. Ballato, and A. E. Siegman, “Diode-pumped 200 μm diameter core, gain-guided, index-antiguided single mode fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 369–372 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, V. Sudesh, T. McComb, M. Richardson, M. Bass, and J. Ballato, “Lasing in a gain-guided index antiguided fiber,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1683–1688 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, T. McComb, V. Sudesh, M. Richardson, and M. Bass, “Very large-core, single-mode, gain-guided, index-antiguided fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2505–2507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Siegman, Y. Chen, V. Sudesh, M. Richardson, M. Bass, P. Foy, W. Hawkins, and J. Ballato, “Confined propagation and near single-mode laser oscillation in a gain-guided, index antiguided optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Sudesh, T. McComb, M. Richardson, W. Hageman, M. Bass, J. Ballato, and A. E. Siegman, “Waveguide-pumping gain guided index antiguided fiber laser,” U.S. patent 7,668,211 (23February2010).

Röser, F.

Rothhardt, J.

Salin, F.

Schmidt, O.

Schreiber, T.

Siegman, A. E.

V. Sudesh, T. McComb, Y. Chen, M. Bass, M. Richardson, J. Ballato, and A. E. Siegman, “Diode-pumped 200 μm diameter core, gain-guided, index-antiguided single mode fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 369–372 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Siegman, “Gain-guided, index-antiguided fiber lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1677–1682 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Siegman, Y. Chen, V. Sudesh, M. Richardson, M. Bass, P. Foy, W. Hawkins, and J. Ballato, “Confined propagation and near single-mode laser oscillation in a gain-guided, index antiguided optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Siegman, “Propagating modes in gain-guided optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 1617–1628 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Sudesh, T. McComb, M. Richardson, W. Hageman, M. Bass, J. Ballato, and A. E. Siegman, “Waveguide-pumping gain guided index antiguided fiber laser,” U.S. patent 7,668,211 (23February2010).

Sudesh, V.

V. Sudesh, T. McComb, Y. Chen, M. Bass, M. Richardson, J. Ballato, and A. E. Siegman, “Diode-pumped 200 μm diameter core, gain-guided, index-antiguided single mode fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 369–372 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, T. McComb, V. Sudesh, M. Richardson, and M. Bass, “Very large-core, single-mode, gain-guided, index-antiguided fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2505–2507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, V. Sudesh, T. McComb, M. Richardson, M. Bass, and J. Ballato, “Lasing in a gain-guided index antiguided fiber,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1683–1688 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Siegman, Y. Chen, V. Sudesh, M. Richardson, M. Bass, P. Foy, W. Hawkins, and J. Ballato, “Confined propagation and near single-mode laser oscillation in a gain-guided, index antiguided optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Sudesh, T. McComb, M. Richardson, W. Hageman, M. Bass, J. Ballato, and A. E. Siegman, “Waveguide-pumping gain guided index antiguided fiber laser,” U.S. patent 7,668,211 (23February2010).

Tankala, K.

C. H. Liu, G. Chang, N. Litchinister, D. Guertin, N. Jacobson, K. Tankala, and A. Galvanauskas, “Chirally coupled core fibers at 1550 nm and 1064 nm for effectively single-mode core size scaling,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Application Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CTuBB3.

Tünnermann, A.

Wang, P. I.

Wang, X.

Yang, Z.

Yvernault, P.

Appl. Phys. B

V. Sudesh, T. McComb, Y. Chen, M. Bass, M. Richardson, J. Ballato, and A. E. Siegman, “Diode-pumped 200 μm diameter core, gain-guided, index-antiguided single mode fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 369–372 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. E. Siegman, Y. Chen, V. Sudesh, M. Richardson, M. Bass, P. Foy, W. Hawkins, and J. Ballato, “Confined propagation and near single-mode laser oscillation in a gain-guided, index antiguided optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

A. Galvanauskas, M. Y. Cheng, K. C. Liao, and K. H. Liao, “High peak power pulse amplification in large-core Yb-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 559–566 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

C. H. Liu, G. Chang, N. Litchinister, D. Guertin, N. Jacobson, K. Tankala, and A. Galvanauskas, “Chirally coupled core fibers at 1550 nm and 1064 nm for effectively single-mode core size scaling,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Application Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CTuBB3.

http://www.dilas.com .

http://www.kigre.com .

http://www.rp-photonics.com/beam_quality.html .

V. Sudesh, T. McComb, M. Richardson, W. Hageman, M. Bass, J. Ballato, and A. E. Siegman, “Waveguide-pumping gain guided index antiguided fiber laser,” U.S. patent 7,668,211 (23February2010).

http://www.rp-photonics.com/effective_mode_area.html .

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beam_propagation_method .

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Runge-Kutta_methods .

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, 5th revised and updated ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1999).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Calculated intensity profile of (a) LP01, (b) LP11, (c) LP02, and (d) LP12 modes in a gg iag fiber with a core diameter of 200 μm. The dotted circle indicates the core–cladding boundary. Dark red indicates highest intensity, and dark blue indicates no intensity in that region.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Calculated gain coefficient distribution along the length of the fiber laser using a 90% R output coupler.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Calculated gain coefficient distribution along the length of the fiber laser using a 50% R output coupler.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Sketch of gg iag fiber laser experiment; TR and PR are two mirrors for total reflection and partial reflection, respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured single lowest-order mode patterns lasing from gg iag fiber laser using a 45% R output coupler. The core diameters are (a) 100, (b) 200, and (c) 300 μm. These images were obtained when the beam diameter was about 0.5 cm in each case.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Calculated Quantities for a 200 μm Core Diameter gg iag Fiber Laser

Tables Icon

Table 2. Quantities Measured for 100, 200, and 300 μm Core Diameter gg iag Fiber Lasersα

Equations (19)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

2E+k02n˜2E=0,
gmgthm,
gthm=g2I(β˜m),
gth01=133.82n03(Δn)λ2(2π)2a3,
gth11=862.22n03(Δn)λ2(2π)2a3,
gm(z)dz=ln(R1,R2)+α0+2gthml.
goscm=lnR1R2+α02l+gthm.
gm(z)dz=2goscml.
gm(z)=g011+Pl(z)/Plsat.
Am=(SImds)2S(Im)2ds,
Pl(z)=mPm+(z)+mPm(z).
dPm+(z)dz=+Pm+(z)[gm(z)gthm],
dPm(z)dz=Pm(z)[gm(z)gthm],
Poutm=Pm+(L)(1R2).
g01g11=A01A11>1,
gosc01gosc11=lnR1R2+α02l+gth01lnR1R2+α02l+gth11<1.
g11(z)dz=gosc01gosc11A11A012gosc11l<2gosc11l.
Γ=2gosc11lg11(z)dz2gosc11l.
Γ=862.22n03(Δn)133.82n03(Δn)lnR1R2+α02l/λ2(2π)2a3+862.22n03(Δn)

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