Abstract

Detection of continuous-wave (CW) terahertz (THz) radiation is demonstrated using a large-area microstructured photomixer. The photomixer, which has interdigitated electrodes, is utilized in an incoherent detection scheme without any focusing optics for the incoming THz radiation. The large-area microstructured photomixer is driven at a high laser power of 900 mW, which results in an increased responsivity of 120 mA/W, in comparison with conventional small-area photomixer detectors. By mapping out the receiving pattern of the photomixer detector, we show that the large-area photomixer is capable of scanning the incident THz beam by changing the incidence angles of the CW laser beams used in the photomixing detection process. We demonstrate a scan range of ±50°. Moreover, the optimum spot size of the laser beams illuminating the photomixer detector for maximizing the responsivity of the detector is specified.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. R. Brown, J. Bjarnason, T. L. J. Chan, D. C. Driscoll, M. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Room temperature, THz photomixing sweep oscillator and its application to spectroscopic transmission through organic materials,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 5333–5342 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Luukanen and J. P. Pekola, “A superconducting antenna-coupled hot-spot microbolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3970–3972 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Zmuidzinas and P. L. Richards, “Superconducting detectors and mixers for millimeter and submillimeter astrophysics,” Proc. IEEE 92, 1597–1616 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. Liu, J. L. Hesler, H. Xu, A. W. Lichtenberger, and R. M. Weikle, “A broadband quasi-optical terahertz detector utilizing a zero bias Schottky diode,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 20, 504–506 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Sydlo, O. Cojocari, D. Schherr, T. Goebel, P. Meissner, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Fast THz detectors based on InGaAs Schottky diodes,” Frequenz 62, 107–110 (2008).
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  7. A. Hammar, S. Cherednichenko, S. Bevilacqua, V. Drakinskiy, and J. Stake, “Terahertz direct detection in YBa2Cu3O7 microbolometers,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 390–394 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Cherednichenko, A. Hammar, S. Bevilacqua, V. Drakinskiy, J. Stake, and A. Kalabukhov, “A room temperature bolometer for terahertz coherent and incoherent detection,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 395–402 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. C. Dyer, S. Preu, G. R. Aizin, J. Mikalopas, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, J. M. Hensley, N. Q. Vinh, A. C. Gossard, M. S. Sherwin, S. J. Allen, and E. A. Shaner, “Enhanced performance of resonant sub-terahertz detection in a plasmonic cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 083506 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Lisauskas, U. Pfeiffer, E. Ojefors, P. Haring Bolivar, D. Glaab, and H. G. Roskos, “Rational design of high-responsivity detectors of terahertz radiation based on distributed self-mixing in silicon field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 114511 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Kim, J. D. Zimmerman, P. Focardi, A. C. Gossard, D. H. Wu, and M. S. Sherwin, “Room temperature terahertz detection based on bulk plasmons in antenna-coupled GaAs field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 253508 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, B. E. Cole, C. Baker, M. J. Evans, I. V. Bradley, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Phase sensitive continuous-wave THz imaging using diode lasers,” Electron. Lett. 40, 143–145 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. E. Bjarnason and E. R. Brown, “Sensitivity measurement and analysis of an ErAs:GaAs coherent photomixing transceiver,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 134105 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3824–3826 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. I. S. Gregory, M. J. Evans, H. Page, S. Malik, I. Farrer, and H. E. Beere, “Analysis of photomixer receiver for continuous-wave terahertz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 154103 (2007).
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    [CrossRef]
  20. K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3-D imaging at 4- and 25  m range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 56, 2771–2778 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  21. C. am Weg, W. von Spiegel, R. Henneberger, R. Zimmermann, T. Loeffler, and H. Roskos, “Fast active THz cameras with ranging capabilities,” J. Infrared Millimeter Terahertz Waves 30, 1281–1296 (2009).
  22. D. Saeedkia, R. R. Mansour, and S. Safavi-Naeini, “Analysis and design of a continuous-wave terahertz photoconductive photomixer array source,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53, 4044–4050 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. Winnerl, “Scalable microstructured photoconductive terahertz emitters,” J. Infrared Millimeter Terahertz Waves 33, 431–454 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. Gupta, “Subpicosecond carrier lifetime in GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3276–3278 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, “High-intensity terahertz radiation from a microstructured large-area photoconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121114 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (3)

G. C. Dyer, S. Preu, G. R. Aizin, J. Mikalopas, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, J. M. Hensley, N. Q. Vinh, A. C. Gossard, M. S. Sherwin, S. J. Allen, and E. A. Shaner, “Enhanced performance of resonant sub-terahertz detection in a plasmonic cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 083506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Winnerl, “Scalable microstructured photoconductive terahertz emitters,” J. Infrared Millimeter Terahertz Waves 33, 431–454 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Eshaghi, M. Shahabadi, and L. Chrostowski, “Radiation characteristics of large-area photomixer used for generation of continuous-wave terahertz radiation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 813–817 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

A. Hammar, S. Cherednichenko, S. Bevilacqua, V. Drakinskiy, and J. Stake, “Terahertz direct detection in YBa2Cu3O7 microbolometers,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 390–394 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Cherednichenko, A. Hammar, S. Bevilacqua, V. Drakinskiy, J. Stake, and A. Kalabukhov, “A room temperature bolometer for terahertz coherent and incoherent detection,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 395–402 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

L. Liu, J. L. Hesler, H. Xu, A. W. Lichtenberger, and R. M. Weikle, “A broadband quasi-optical terahertz detector utilizing a zero bias Schottky diode,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 20, 504–506 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Su, Z. Liu, R. B. Barat, D. E. Gray, Z.-H. Michalopoulou, and J. F. Federici, “Two-dimensional interferometric and synthetic aperture imaging with a hybrid terahertz/millimeter wave system,” Appl. Opt. 49, E13–E19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

C. am Weg, W. von Spiegel, R. Henneberger, R. Zimmermann, T. Loeffler, and H. Roskos, “Fast active THz cameras with ranging capabilities,” J. Infrared Millimeter Terahertz Waves 30, 1281–1296 (2009).

A. Lisauskas, U. Pfeiffer, E. Ojefors, P. Haring Bolivar, D. Glaab, and H. G. Roskos, “Rational design of high-responsivity detectors of terahertz radiation based on distributed self-mixing in silicon field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 114511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

S. Kim, J. D. Zimmerman, P. Focardi, A. C. Gossard, D. H. Wu, and M. S. Sherwin, “Room temperature terahertz detection based on bulk plasmons in antenna-coupled GaAs field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 253508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Sydlo, O. Cojocari, D. Schherr, T. Goebel, P. Meissner, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Fast THz detectors based on InGaAs Schottky diodes,” Frequenz 62, 107–110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3-D imaging at 4- and 25  m range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 56, 2771–2778 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

I. S. Gregory, M. J. Evans, H. Page, S. Malik, I. Farrer, and H. E. Beere, “Analysis of photomixer receiver for continuous-wave terahertz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 154103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Peter, S. Winnerl, S. Nitsche, A. Dreyhaupt, H. Schneider, and M. Helm, “Coherent terahertz detection with a large-area photoconductive antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

J. E. Bjarnason and E. R. Brown, “Sensitivity measurement and analysis of an ErAs:GaAs coherent photomixing transceiver,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 134105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Saeedkia, R. R. Mansour, and S. Safavi-Naeini, “Analysis and design of a continuous-wave terahertz photoconductive photomixer array source,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53, 4044–4050 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, “High-intensity terahertz radiation from a microstructured large-area photoconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

J. Zmuidzinas and P. L. Richards, “Superconducting detectors and mixers for millimeter and submillimeter astrophysics,” Proc. IEEE 92, 1597–1616 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Brown, J. Bjarnason, T. L. J. Chan, D. C. Driscoll, M. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Room temperature, THz photomixing sweep oscillator and its application to spectroscopic transmission through organic materials,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 5333–5342 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, B. E. Cole, C. Baker, M. J. Evans, I. V. Bradley, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Phase sensitive continuous-wave THz imaging using diode lasers,” Electron. Lett. 40, 143–145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. Luukanen and J. P. Pekola, “A superconducting antenna-coupled hot-spot microbolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3970–3972 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3824–3826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

S. Gupta, “Subpicosecond carrier lifetime in GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3276–3278 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Aizin, G. R.

G. C. Dyer, S. Preu, G. R. Aizin, J. Mikalopas, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, J. M. Hensley, N. Q. Vinh, A. C. Gossard, M. S. Sherwin, S. J. Allen, and E. A. Shaner, “Enhanced performance of resonant sub-terahertz detection in a plasmonic cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 083506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Allen, S. J.

G. C. Dyer, S. Preu, G. R. Aizin, J. Mikalopas, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, J. M. Hensley, N. Q. Vinh, A. C. Gossard, M. S. Sherwin, S. J. Allen, and E. A. Shaner, “Enhanced performance of resonant sub-terahertz detection in a plasmonic cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 083506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

am Weg, C.

C. am Weg, W. von Spiegel, R. Henneberger, R. Zimmermann, T. Loeffler, and H. Roskos, “Fast active THz cameras with ranging capabilities,” J. Infrared Millimeter Terahertz Waves 30, 1281–1296 (2009).

Baker, C.

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, B. E. Cole, C. Baker, M. J. Evans, I. V. Bradley, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Phase sensitive continuous-wave THz imaging using diode lasers,” Electron. Lett. 40, 143–145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barat, R. B.

Beere, H. E.

I. S. Gregory, M. J. Evans, H. Page, S. Malik, I. Farrer, and H. E. Beere, “Analysis of photomixer receiver for continuous-wave terahertz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 154103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bevilacqua, S.

S. Cherednichenko, A. Hammar, S. Bevilacqua, V. Drakinskiy, J. Stake, and A. Kalabukhov, “A room temperature bolometer for terahertz coherent and incoherent detection,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 395–402 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Hammar, S. Cherednichenko, S. Bevilacqua, V. Drakinskiy, and J. Stake, “Terahertz direct detection in YBa2Cu3O7 microbolometers,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 390–394 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bjarnason, J.

E. R. Brown, J. Bjarnason, T. L. J. Chan, D. C. Driscoll, M. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Room temperature, THz photomixing sweep oscillator and its application to spectroscopic transmission through organic materials,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 5333–5342 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bjarnason, J. E.

J. E. Bjarnason and E. R. Brown, “Sensitivity measurement and analysis of an ErAs:GaAs coherent photomixing transceiver,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 134105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, I. V.

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, B. E. Cole, C. Baker, M. J. Evans, I. V. Bradley, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Phase sensitive continuous-wave THz imaging using diode lasers,” Electron. Lett. 40, 143–145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brown, E. R.

J. E. Bjarnason and E. R. Brown, “Sensitivity measurement and analysis of an ErAs:GaAs coherent photomixing transceiver,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 134105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Brown, J. Bjarnason, T. L. J. Chan, D. C. Driscoll, M. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Room temperature, THz photomixing sweep oscillator and its application to spectroscopic transmission through organic materials,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 5333–5342 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bryllert, T.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3-D imaging at 4- and 25  m range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 56, 2771–2778 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Calawa, S.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3824–3826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chan, T. L. J.

E. R. Brown, J. Bjarnason, T. L. J. Chan, D. C. Driscoll, M. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Room temperature, THz photomixing sweep oscillator and its application to spectroscopic transmission through organic materials,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 5333–5342 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chattopadhyay, G.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3-D imaging at 4- and 25  m range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 56, 2771–2778 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cherednichenko, S.

A. Hammar, S. Cherednichenko, S. Bevilacqua, V. Drakinskiy, and J. Stake, “Terahertz direct detection in YBa2Cu3O7 microbolometers,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 390–394 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Cherednichenko, A. Hammar, S. Bevilacqua, V. Drakinskiy, J. Stake, and A. Kalabukhov, “A room temperature bolometer for terahertz coherent and incoherent detection,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 395–402 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chrostowski, L.

Cojocari, O.

C. Sydlo, O. Cojocari, D. Schherr, T. Goebel, P. Meissner, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Fast THz detectors based on InGaAs Schottky diodes,” Frequenz 62, 107–110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cole, B. E.

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, B. E. Cole, C. Baker, M. J. Evans, I. V. Bradley, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Phase sensitive continuous-wave THz imaging using diode lasers,” Electron. Lett. 40, 143–145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, K. B.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3-D imaging at 4- and 25  m range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 56, 2771–2778 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Davies, A. G.

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, B. E. Cole, C. Baker, M. J. Evans, I. V. Bradley, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Phase sensitive continuous-wave THz imaging using diode lasers,” Electron. Lett. 40, 143–145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dekorsy, T.

A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, “High-intensity terahertz radiation from a microstructured large-area photoconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dengler, R. J.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3-D imaging at 4- and 25  m range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 56, 2771–2778 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dinatale, W. F.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3824–3826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Drakinskiy, V.

A. Hammar, S. Cherednichenko, S. Bevilacqua, V. Drakinskiy, and J. Stake, “Terahertz direct detection in YBa2Cu3O7 microbolometers,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 390–394 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Cherednichenko, A. Hammar, S. Bevilacqua, V. Drakinskiy, J. Stake, and A. Kalabukhov, “A room temperature bolometer for terahertz coherent and incoherent detection,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 395–402 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dreyhaupt, A.

F. Peter, S. Winnerl, S. Nitsche, A. Dreyhaupt, H. Schneider, and M. Helm, “Coherent terahertz detection with a large-area photoconductive antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, “High-intensity terahertz radiation from a microstructured large-area photoconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Driscoll, D. C.

E. R. Brown, J. Bjarnason, T. L. J. Chan, D. C. Driscoll, M. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Room temperature, THz photomixing sweep oscillator and its application to spectroscopic transmission through organic materials,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 5333–5342 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Duerr, E. K.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3824–3826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dyer, G. C.

G. C. Dyer, S. Preu, G. R. Aizin, J. Mikalopas, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, J. M. Hensley, N. Q. Vinh, A. C. Gossard, M. S. Sherwin, S. J. Allen, and E. A. Shaner, “Enhanced performance of resonant sub-terahertz detection in a plasmonic cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 083506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Eshaghi, A.

Evans, M. J.

I. S. Gregory, M. J. Evans, H. Page, S. Malik, I. Farrer, and H. E. Beere, “Analysis of photomixer receiver for continuous-wave terahertz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 154103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, B. E. Cole, C. Baker, M. J. Evans, I. V. Bradley, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Phase sensitive continuous-wave THz imaging using diode lasers,” Electron. Lett. 40, 143–145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Farrer, I.

I. S. Gregory, M. J. Evans, H. Page, S. Malik, I. Farrer, and H. E. Beere, “Analysis of photomixer receiver for continuous-wave terahertz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 154103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Federici, J. F.

Focardi, P.

S. Kim, J. D. Zimmerman, P. Focardi, A. C. Gossard, D. H. Wu, and M. S. Sherwin, “Room temperature terahertz detection based on bulk plasmons in antenna-coupled GaAs field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 253508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gill, J.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3-D imaging at 4- and 25  m range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 56, 2771–2778 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Glaab, D.

A. Lisauskas, U. Pfeiffer, E. Ojefors, P. Haring Bolivar, D. Glaab, and H. G. Roskos, “Rational design of high-responsivity detectors of terahertz radiation based on distributed self-mixing in silicon field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 114511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Goebel, T.

C. Sydlo, O. Cojocari, D. Schherr, T. Goebel, P. Meissner, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Fast THz detectors based on InGaAs Schottky diodes,” Frequenz 62, 107–110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A. C.

G. C. Dyer, S. Preu, G. R. Aizin, J. Mikalopas, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, J. M. Hensley, N. Q. Vinh, A. C. Gossard, M. S. Sherwin, S. J. Allen, and E. A. Shaner, “Enhanced performance of resonant sub-terahertz detection in a plasmonic cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 083506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, J. D. Zimmerman, P. Focardi, A. C. Gossard, D. H. Wu, and M. S. Sherwin, “Room temperature terahertz detection based on bulk plasmons in antenna-coupled GaAs field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 253508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Brown, J. Bjarnason, T. L. J. Chan, D. C. Driscoll, M. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Room temperature, THz photomixing sweep oscillator and its application to spectroscopic transmission through organic materials,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 5333–5342 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gray, D. E.

Gregory, I. S.

I. S. Gregory, M. J. Evans, H. Page, S. Malik, I. Farrer, and H. E. Beere, “Analysis of photomixer receiver for continuous-wave terahertz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 154103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, B. E. Cole, C. Baker, M. J. Evans, I. V. Bradley, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Phase sensitive continuous-wave THz imaging using diode lasers,” Electron. Lett. 40, 143–145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grine, A. D.

G. C. Dyer, S. Preu, G. R. Aizin, J. Mikalopas, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, J. M. Hensley, N. Q. Vinh, A. C. Gossard, M. S. Sherwin, S. J. Allen, and E. A. Shaner, “Enhanced performance of resonant sub-terahertz detection in a plasmonic cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 083506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, S.

S. Gupta, “Subpicosecond carrier lifetime in GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3276–3278 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hammar, A.

A. Hammar, S. Cherednichenko, S. Bevilacqua, V. Drakinskiy, and J. Stake, “Terahertz direct detection in YBa2Cu3O7 microbolometers,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 390–394 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Cherednichenko, A. Hammar, S. Bevilacqua, V. Drakinskiy, J. Stake, and A. Kalabukhov, “A room temperature bolometer for terahertz coherent and incoherent detection,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 395–402 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, M.

E. R. Brown, J. Bjarnason, T. L. J. Chan, D. C. Driscoll, M. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Room temperature, THz photomixing sweep oscillator and its application to spectroscopic transmission through organic materials,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 5333–5342 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Haring Bolivar, P.

A. Lisauskas, U. Pfeiffer, E. Ojefors, P. Haring Bolivar, D. Glaab, and H. G. Roskos, “Rational design of high-responsivity detectors of terahertz radiation based on distributed self-mixing in silicon field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 114511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hartnagel, H. L.

C. Sydlo, O. Cojocari, D. Schherr, T. Goebel, P. Meissner, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Fast THz detectors based on InGaAs Schottky diodes,” Frequenz 62, 107–110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Helm, M.

F. Peter, S. Winnerl, S. Nitsche, A. Dreyhaupt, H. Schneider, and M. Helm, “Coherent terahertz detection with a large-area photoconductive antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, “High-intensity terahertz radiation from a microstructured large-area photoconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Henneberger, R.

C. am Weg, W. von Spiegel, R. Henneberger, R. Zimmermann, T. Loeffler, and H. Roskos, “Fast active THz cameras with ranging capabilities,” J. Infrared Millimeter Terahertz Waves 30, 1281–1296 (2009).

Hensley, J. M.

G. C. Dyer, S. Preu, G. R. Aizin, J. Mikalopas, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, J. M. Hensley, N. Q. Vinh, A. C. Gossard, M. S. Sherwin, S. J. Allen, and E. A. Shaner, “Enhanced performance of resonant sub-terahertz detection in a plasmonic cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 083506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hesler, J. L.

L. Liu, J. L. Hesler, H. Xu, A. W. Lichtenberger, and R. M. Weikle, “A broadband quasi-optical terahertz detector utilizing a zero bias Schottky diode,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 20, 504–506 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kalabukhov, A.

S. Cherednichenko, A. Hammar, S. Bevilacqua, V. Drakinskiy, J. Stake, and A. Kalabukhov, “A room temperature bolometer for terahertz coherent and incoherent detection,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 395–402 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

S. Kim, J. D. Zimmerman, P. Focardi, A. C. Gossard, D. H. Wu, and M. S. Sherwin, “Room temperature terahertz detection based on bulk plasmons in antenna-coupled GaAs field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 253508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3-D imaging at 4- and 25  m range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 56, 2771–2778 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-S.

Y.-S. Lee, Principles of Terahertz Science and Technology (Springer, 2008).

Lichtenberger, A. W.

L. Liu, J. L. Hesler, H. Xu, A. W. Lichtenberger, and R. M. Weikle, “A broadband quasi-optical terahertz detector utilizing a zero bias Schottky diode,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 20, 504–506 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E. H.

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, B. E. Cole, C. Baker, M. J. Evans, I. V. Bradley, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Phase sensitive continuous-wave THz imaging using diode lasers,” Electron. Lett. 40, 143–145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lisauskas, A.

A. Lisauskas, U. Pfeiffer, E. Ojefors, P. Haring Bolivar, D. Glaab, and H. G. Roskos, “Rational design of high-responsivity detectors of terahertz radiation based on distributed self-mixing in silicon field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 114511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

L. Liu, J. L. Hesler, H. Xu, A. W. Lichtenberger, and R. M. Weikle, “A broadband quasi-optical terahertz detector utilizing a zero bias Schottky diode,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 20, 504–506 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

Llombart, N.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3-D imaging at 4- and 25  m range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 56, 2771–2778 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Loeffler, T.

C. am Weg, W. von Spiegel, R. Henneberger, R. Zimmermann, T. Loeffler, and H. Roskos, “Fast active THz cameras with ranging capabilities,” J. Infrared Millimeter Terahertz Waves 30, 1281–1296 (2009).

Luukanen, A.

A. Luukanen and J. P. Pekola, “A superconducting antenna-coupled hot-spot microbolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3970–3972 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Malik, S.

I. S. Gregory, M. J. Evans, H. Page, S. Malik, I. Farrer, and H. E. Beere, “Analysis of photomixer receiver for continuous-wave terahertz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 154103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mansour, R. R.

D. Saeedkia, R. R. Mansour, and S. Safavi-Naeini, “Analysis and design of a continuous-wave terahertz photoconductive photomixer array source,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53, 4044–4050 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Matsuura, S.

S. Matsuura, “Photomixer as a self-oscillating mixer,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, I. Mehdi, ed. (NASA Jet Propulstion Laboratory, 2001), pp. 234–243.

McIntosh, K. A.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3824–3826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mehdi, I.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3-D imaging at 4- and 25  m range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 56, 2771–2778 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meissner, P.

C. Sydlo, O. Cojocari, D. Schherr, T. Goebel, P. Meissner, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Fast THz detectors based on InGaAs Schottky diodes,” Frequenz 62, 107–110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Michalopoulou, Z.-H.

Mikalopas, J.

G. C. Dyer, S. Preu, G. R. Aizin, J. Mikalopas, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, J. M. Hensley, N. Q. Vinh, A. C. Gossard, M. S. Sherwin, S. J. Allen, and E. A. Shaner, “Enhanced performance of resonant sub-terahertz detection in a plasmonic cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 083506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Missous, M.

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, B. E. Cole, C. Baker, M. J. Evans, I. V. Bradley, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Phase sensitive continuous-wave THz imaging using diode lasers,” Electron. Lett. 40, 143–145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Molvar, K. A.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3824–3826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nitsche, S.

F. Peter, S. Winnerl, S. Nitsche, A. Dreyhaupt, H. Schneider, and M. Helm, “Coherent terahertz detection with a large-area photoconductive antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ojefors, E.

A. Lisauskas, U. Pfeiffer, E. Ojefors, P. Haring Bolivar, D. Glaab, and H. G. Roskos, “Rational design of high-responsivity detectors of terahertz radiation based on distributed self-mixing in silicon field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 114511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Page, H.

I. S. Gregory, M. J. Evans, H. Page, S. Malik, I. Farrer, and H. E. Beere, “Analysis of photomixer receiver for continuous-wave terahertz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 154103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pekola, J. P.

A. Luukanen and J. P. Pekola, “A superconducting antenna-coupled hot-spot microbolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3970–3972 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Peter, F.

F. Peter, S. Winnerl, S. Nitsche, A. Dreyhaupt, H. Schneider, and M. Helm, “Coherent terahertz detection with a large-area photoconductive antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, U.

A. Lisauskas, U. Pfeiffer, E. Ojefors, P. Haring Bolivar, D. Glaab, and H. G. Roskos, “Rational design of high-responsivity detectors of terahertz radiation based on distributed self-mixing in silicon field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 114511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Preu, S.

G. C. Dyer, S. Preu, G. R. Aizin, J. Mikalopas, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, J. M. Hensley, N. Q. Vinh, A. C. Gossard, M. S. Sherwin, S. J. Allen, and E. A. Shaner, “Enhanced performance of resonant sub-terahertz detection in a plasmonic cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 083506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Reno, J. L.

G. C. Dyer, S. Preu, G. R. Aizin, J. Mikalopas, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, J. M. Hensley, N. Q. Vinh, A. C. Gossard, M. S. Sherwin, S. J. Allen, and E. A. Shaner, “Enhanced performance of resonant sub-terahertz detection in a plasmonic cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 083506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Richards, P. L.

J. Zmuidzinas and P. L. Richards, “Superconducting detectors and mixers for millimeter and submillimeter astrophysics,” Proc. IEEE 92, 1597–1616 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Roskos, H.

C. am Weg, W. von Spiegel, R. Henneberger, R. Zimmermann, T. Loeffler, and H. Roskos, “Fast active THz cameras with ranging capabilities,” J. Infrared Millimeter Terahertz Waves 30, 1281–1296 (2009).

Roskos, H. G.

A. Lisauskas, U. Pfeiffer, E. Ojefors, P. Haring Bolivar, D. Glaab, and H. G. Roskos, “Rational design of high-responsivity detectors of terahertz radiation based on distributed self-mixing in silicon field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 114511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Saeedkia, D.

D. Saeedkia, R. R. Mansour, and S. Safavi-Naeini, “Analysis and design of a continuous-wave terahertz photoconductive photomixer array source,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53, 4044–4050 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Safavi-Naeini, S.

D. Saeedkia, R. R. Mansour, and S. Safavi-Naeini, “Analysis and design of a continuous-wave terahertz photoconductive photomixer array source,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53, 4044–4050 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schherr, D.

C. Sydlo, O. Cojocari, D. Schherr, T. Goebel, P. Meissner, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Fast THz detectors based on InGaAs Schottky diodes,” Frequenz 62, 107–110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schlecht, E.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3-D imaging at 4- and 25  m range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 56, 2771–2778 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, H.

F. Peter, S. Winnerl, S. Nitsche, A. Dreyhaupt, H. Schneider, and M. Helm, “Coherent terahertz detection with a large-area photoconductive antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shahabadi, M.

Shaner, E. A.

G. C. Dyer, S. Preu, G. R. Aizin, J. Mikalopas, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, J. M. Hensley, N. Q. Vinh, A. C. Gossard, M. S. Sherwin, S. J. Allen, and E. A. Shaner, “Enhanced performance of resonant sub-terahertz detection in a plasmonic cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 083506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sherwin, M. S.

G. C. Dyer, S. Preu, G. R. Aizin, J. Mikalopas, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, J. M. Hensley, N. Q. Vinh, A. C. Gossard, M. S. Sherwin, S. J. Allen, and E. A. Shaner, “Enhanced performance of resonant sub-terahertz detection in a plasmonic cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 083506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, J. D. Zimmerman, P. Focardi, A. C. Gossard, D. H. Wu, and M. S. Sherwin, “Room temperature terahertz detection based on bulk plasmons in antenna-coupled GaAs field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 253508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, P. H.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3-D imaging at 4- and 25  m range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 56, 2771–2778 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Skalare, A.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3-D imaging at 4- and 25  m range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 56, 2771–2778 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stake, J.

A. Hammar, S. Cherednichenko, S. Bevilacqua, V. Drakinskiy, and J. Stake, “Terahertz direct detection in YBa2Cu3O7 microbolometers,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 390–394 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Cherednichenko, A. Hammar, S. Bevilacqua, V. Drakinskiy, J. Stake, and A. Kalabukhov, “A room temperature bolometer for terahertz coherent and incoherent detection,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 395–402 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Su, K.

Sydlo, C.

C. Sydlo, O. Cojocari, D. Schherr, T. Goebel, P. Meissner, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Fast THz detectors based on InGaAs Schottky diodes,” Frequenz 62, 107–110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tribe, W. R.

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, B. E. Cole, C. Baker, M. J. Evans, I. V. Bradley, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Phase sensitive continuous-wave THz imaging using diode lasers,” Electron. Lett. 40, 143–145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Verghese, S.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3824–3826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vinh, N. Q.

G. C. Dyer, S. Preu, G. R. Aizin, J. Mikalopas, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, J. M. Hensley, N. Q. Vinh, A. C. Gossard, M. S. Sherwin, S. J. Allen, and E. A. Shaner, “Enhanced performance of resonant sub-terahertz detection in a plasmonic cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 083506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

von Spiegel, W.

C. am Weg, W. von Spiegel, R. Henneberger, R. Zimmermann, T. Loeffler, and H. Roskos, “Fast active THz cameras with ranging capabilities,” J. Infrared Millimeter Terahertz Waves 30, 1281–1296 (2009).

Weikle, R. M.

L. Liu, J. L. Hesler, H. Xu, A. W. Lichtenberger, and R. M. Weikle, “A broadband quasi-optical terahertz detector utilizing a zero bias Schottky diode,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 20, 504–506 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Winnerl, S.

S. Winnerl, “Scalable microstructured photoconductive terahertz emitters,” J. Infrared Millimeter Terahertz Waves 33, 431–454 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Peter, S. Winnerl, S. Nitsche, A. Dreyhaupt, H. Schneider, and M. Helm, “Coherent terahertz detection with a large-area photoconductive antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, “High-intensity terahertz radiation from a microstructured large-area photoconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, D. H.

S. Kim, J. D. Zimmerman, P. Focardi, A. C. Gossard, D. H. Wu, and M. S. Sherwin, “Room temperature terahertz detection based on bulk plasmons in antenna-coupled GaAs field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 253508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H.

L. Liu, J. L. Hesler, H. Xu, A. W. Lichtenberger, and R. M. Weikle, “A broadband quasi-optical terahertz detector utilizing a zero bias Schottky diode,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 20, 504–506 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zimmerman, J. D.

S. Kim, J. D. Zimmerman, P. Focardi, A. C. Gossard, D. H. Wu, and M. S. Sherwin, “Room temperature terahertz detection based on bulk plasmons in antenna-coupled GaAs field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 253508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, R.

C. am Weg, W. von Spiegel, R. Henneberger, R. Zimmermann, T. Loeffler, and H. Roskos, “Fast active THz cameras with ranging capabilities,” J. Infrared Millimeter Terahertz Waves 30, 1281–1296 (2009).

Zmuidzinas, J.

J. Zmuidzinas and P. L. Richards, “Superconducting detectors and mixers for millimeter and submillimeter astrophysics,” Proc. IEEE 92, 1597–1616 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

F. Peter, S. Winnerl, S. Nitsche, A. Dreyhaupt, H. Schneider, and M. Helm, “Coherent terahertz detection with a large-area photoconductive antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Gupta, “Subpicosecond carrier lifetime in GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3276–3278 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, “High-intensity terahertz radiation from a microstructured large-area photoconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Luukanen and J. P. Pekola, “A superconducting antenna-coupled hot-spot microbolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3970–3972 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Dyer, S. Preu, G. R. Aizin, J. Mikalopas, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, J. M. Hensley, N. Q. Vinh, A. C. Gossard, M. S. Sherwin, S. J. Allen, and E. A. Shaner, “Enhanced performance of resonant sub-terahertz detection in a plasmonic cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 083506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, J. D. Zimmerman, P. Focardi, A. C. Gossard, D. H. Wu, and M. S. Sherwin, “Room temperature terahertz detection based on bulk plasmons in antenna-coupled GaAs field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 253508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Bjarnason and E. R. Brown, “Sensitivity measurement and analysis of an ErAs:GaAs coherent photomixing transceiver,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 134105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3824–3826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Gregory, M. J. Evans, H. Page, S. Malik, I. Farrer, and H. E. Beere, “Analysis of photomixer receiver for continuous-wave terahertz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 154103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, B. E. Cole, C. Baker, M. J. Evans, I. V. Bradley, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Phase sensitive continuous-wave THz imaging using diode lasers,” Electron. Lett. 40, 143–145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Frequenz (1)

C. Sydlo, O. Cojocari, D. Schherr, T. Goebel, P. Meissner, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Fast THz detectors based on InGaAs Schottky diodes,” Frequenz 62, 107–110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. (1)

L. Liu, J. L. Hesler, H. Xu, A. W. Lichtenberger, and R. M. Weikle, “A broadband quasi-optical terahertz detector utilizing a zero bias Schottky diode,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 20, 504–506 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

D. Saeedkia, R. R. Mansour, and S. Safavi-Naeini, “Analysis and design of a continuous-wave terahertz photoconductive photomixer array source,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53, 4044–4050 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. (1)

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. Gill, C. Lee, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “Penetrating 3-D imaging at 4- and 25  m range using a submillimeter-wave radar,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 56, 2771–2778 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (2)

A. Hammar, S. Cherednichenko, S. Bevilacqua, V. Drakinskiy, and J. Stake, “Terahertz direct detection in YBa2Cu3O7 microbolometers,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 390–394 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Cherednichenko, A. Hammar, S. Bevilacqua, V. Drakinskiy, J. Stake, and A. Kalabukhov, “A room temperature bolometer for terahertz coherent and incoherent detection,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 395–402 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Lisauskas, U. Pfeiffer, E. Ojefors, P. Haring Bolivar, D. Glaab, and H. G. Roskos, “Rational design of high-responsivity detectors of terahertz radiation based on distributed self-mixing in silicon field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 114511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Infrared Millimeter Terahertz Waves (2)

C. am Weg, W. von Spiegel, R. Henneberger, R. Zimmermann, T. Loeffler, and H. Roskos, “Fast active THz cameras with ranging capabilities,” J. Infrared Millimeter Terahertz Waves 30, 1281–1296 (2009).

S. Winnerl, “Scalable microstructured photoconductive terahertz emitters,” J. Infrared Millimeter Terahertz Waves 33, 431–454 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Proc. IEEE (1)

J. Zmuidzinas and P. L. Richards, “Superconducting detectors and mixers for millimeter and submillimeter astrophysics,” Proc. IEEE 92, 1597–1616 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

E. R. Brown, J. Bjarnason, T. L. J. Chan, D. C. Driscoll, M. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Room temperature, THz photomixing sweep oscillator and its application to spectroscopic transmission through organic materials,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 5333–5342 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

Y.-S. Lee, Principles of Terahertz Science and Technology (Springer, 2008).

S. Matsuura, “Photomixer as a self-oscillating mixer,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, I. Mehdi, ed. (NASA Jet Propulstion Laboratory, 2001), pp. 234–243.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Two Gaussian beams illuminate the photomixer through the patterned side at the z=0 plane. The THz wave impinges on the opposite side of the photomixer under an incidence angle of θTHz.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Experimental setup for detection and scanning of a THz beam using a large-area photomixer and (b) schematic of the large-area microstructured photomixer with interdigitated electrodes utilized as a THz detector. Additional metallization is placed on every second gap to eliminate areas with opposite-sign currents.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured detector signal versus minor axis of the elliptical spot for a fixed optical power of 900 mW.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Measured receiving pattern of the photomixer detector for different incidence angles of laser beam 2 and (b) scan angle versus the incidence angle of laser beam 2.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Responsivity of the Photomixer Detector Measured for Different Scan Angles

Equations (6)

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E1|z=0=x^A1exp(x2+y2cos2θ1σ12)cos(ω1tk1ysinθ1),
E2|z=0=x^A2exp(x2+y2cos2θ2σ22)cos(ω2t+k2ysinθ2),
I(x,y;t)A1A2exp(x2+y2cos2θ1σ12x2+y2cos2θ2σ22)×cos(Δωt(k1sinθ1+k2sinθ2)y),
ETHz|z=0=x^ETHzcos(ωTHztkTHzysinθTHz),
JphPTHzcos((k1sinθ1+k2sinθ2kTHzsinθTHz)y).
k2sinθ2=kTHzsinθTHz.

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