Abstract

A spatio-temporal focusing technique can be used to enhance the peak intensity in filamentation [Phys. Rev. A 84, 063819 (2011)]. We experimentally applied this technique to remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Significant enhancement of the fluorescence signals was achieved on iron and aluminum samples from 22 m away using spatio-temporally chirped pulses when compared with using normally compressed pulses.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  3. S. L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu, “Filamentation nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 86, 477–483 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. L. Chin, Femtosecond Laser Filamentation (Springer, 2009).
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    [CrossRef]
  6. H. L. Xu and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond laser filamentation for atmospheric sensing,” Sensors 11, 32–53 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Ackermann, E. Salmon, N. Lascoux, J. Kasparian, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, S. Li, A. Lindinger, L. Wöste, P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, and J.-P. Wolf, “Optimal control of filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171117 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Aközbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter,” Opt. Commun. 202, 189–197 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 71, 877–879 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Xu, X. Sun, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Zhao, W. Liu, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Simple method of measuring laser peak intensity inside femtosecond laser filament in air,” Opt. Express 20, 299–307 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. L. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360, 171–175 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. Xu, J. Bernhardt, M. Sharifi, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping during laser filamentation by TW level femtosecond laser in air and argon,” Laser Phys. 22, 195–202 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Z. Ji, J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Ju, X. Lu, Y. Jiang, Y. Leng, X. Liang, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Femtosecond laser filamentation with a 4  J/60  fs Ti:Sapphire laser beam: Multiple filaments and intensity clamping,” Laser Phys. 20, 886–890 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  23. O. G. Kosareva, W. Liu, N. A. Panov, J. Bernhardt, Z. Ji, M. Sharifi, R. Li, Z. Xu, J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Ju, X. Lu, Y. Jiang, Y. Leng, X. Liang, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, “Can we reach very high intensity in air with femtosecond PW laser pulses?,” Laser Phys. 19, 1776–1792 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

S. Xu, J. Bernhardt, M. Sharifi, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping during laser filamentation by TW level femtosecond laser in air and argon,” Laser Phys. 22, 195–202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Xu, X. Sun, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Zhao, W. Liu, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Simple method of measuring laser peak intensity inside femtosecond laser filament in air,” Opt. Express 20, 299–307 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

B. Zeng, W. Chu, H. Gao, W. Liu, G. Li, H. Zhang, J. Yao, J. Ni, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Enhancement of peak intensity in a filament core with spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063819 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Xu and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond laser filamentation for atmospheric sensing,” Sensors 11, 32–53 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

Z. Ji, J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Ju, X. Lu, Y. Jiang, Y. Leng, X. Liang, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Femtosecond laser filamentation with a 4  J/60  fs Ti:Sapphire laser beam: Multiple filaments and intensity clamping,” Laser Phys. 20, 886–890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Kiran, S. Bagchi, C. L. Arnold, S. R. Krishnan, G. R. Kumar, and A. Couairon, “Filamentation without intensity clamping,” Opt. Express 18, 21504–21510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X.-L. Liu, X. Lu, X. Liu, T.-T. Xi, F. Liu, J.-L. Ma, and J. Zhang, “Tightly focused femtosecond laser pulse in air: from filamentation to breakdown,” Opt. Express 18, 26007–26017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

O. G. Kosareva, W. Liu, N. A. Panov, J. Bernhardt, Z. Ji, M. Sharifi, R. Li, Z. Xu, J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Ju, X. Lu, Y. Jiang, Y. Leng, X. Liang, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, “Can we reach very high intensity in air with femtosecond PW laser pulses?,” Laser Phys. 19, 1776–1792 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360, 171–175 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J-F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 95, 1–12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, H. L. Xu, G. Méjean, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, A. Azarm, P. T. Simard, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Efficient non-gated remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic sample,” Spectrochim. Acta B: At. Spectrosc. 62, 76–81 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu, “Filamentation nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 86, 477–483 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

R. Ackermann, E. Salmon, N. Lascoux, J. Kasparian, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, S. Li, A. Lindinger, L. Wöste, P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, and J.-P. Wolf, “Optimal control of filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, L. Wöste, R. Ackermann, G. Méjean, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, and J. P. Wolf, “Filament-induced remote surface ablation for long range laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy operation,” Spectrochim. Acta B: At. Spectrosc. 60, 1025–1033 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977–3979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Aközbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter,” Opt. Commun. 202, 189–197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

A. Becker, N. Aközbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 73, 287–290 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 71, 877–879 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Ackermann, R.

R. Ackermann, E. Salmon, N. Lascoux, J. Kasparian, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, S. Li, A. Lindinger, L. Wöste, P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, and J.-P. Wolf, “Optimal control of filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, L. Wöste, R. Ackermann, G. Méjean, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, and J. P. Wolf, “Filament-induced remote surface ablation for long range laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy operation,” Spectrochim. Acta B: At. Spectrosc. 60, 1025–1033 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977–3979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Aközbek, N.

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J-F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 95, 1–12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Aközbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter,” Opt. Commun. 202, 189–197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Becker, N. Aközbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 73, 287–290 (2001).
[CrossRef]

André, Y.-B.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, C. L.

Azarm, A.

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J-F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 95, 1–12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360, 171–175 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, H. L. Xu, G. Méjean, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, A. Azarm, P. T. Simard, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Efficient non-gated remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic sample,” Spectrochim. Acta B: At. Spectrosc. 62, 76–81 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bagchi, S.

Becker, A.

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J-F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 95, 1–12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Aközbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter,” Opt. Commun. 202, 189–197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Becker, N. Aközbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 73, 287–290 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Béjot, P.

R. Ackermann, E. Salmon, N. Lascoux, J. Kasparian, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, S. Li, A. Lindinger, L. Wöste, P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, and J.-P. Wolf, “Optimal control of filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bernhardt, J.

S. Xu, J. Bernhardt, M. Sharifi, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping during laser filamentation by TW level femtosecond laser in air and argon,” Laser Phys. 22, 195–202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360, 171–175 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. G. Kosareva, W. Liu, N. A. Panov, J. Bernhardt, Z. Ji, M. Sharifi, R. Li, Z. Xu, J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Ju, X. Lu, Y. Jiang, Y. Leng, X. Liang, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, “Can we reach very high intensity in air with femtosecond PW laser pulses?,” Laser Phys. 19, 1776–1792 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J-F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 95, 1–12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bonacina, L.

R. Ackermann, E. Salmon, N. Lascoux, J. Kasparian, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, S. Li, A. Lindinger, L. Wöste, P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, and J.-P. Wolf, “Optimal control of filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bourayou, R.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bowden, C. M.

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Aközbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter,” Opt. Commun. 202, 189–197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Becker, N. Aközbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 73, 287–290 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Braun, A.

Châteauneuf, M.

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J-F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 95, 1–12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.

S. Xu, X. Sun, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Zhao, W. Liu, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Simple method of measuring laser peak intensity inside femtosecond laser filament in air,” Opt. Express 20, 299–307 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Zeng, W. Chu, H. Gao, W. Liu, G. Li, H. Zhang, J. Yao, J. Ni, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Enhancement of peak intensity in a filament core with spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063819 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

S. Xu, J. Bernhardt, M. Sharifi, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping during laser filamentation by TW level femtosecond laser in air and argon,” Laser Phys. 22, 195–202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Xu, X. Sun, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Zhao, W. Liu, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Simple method of measuring laser peak intensity inside femtosecond laser filament in air,” Opt. Express 20, 299–307 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Zeng, W. Chu, H. Gao, W. Liu, G. Li, H. Zhang, J. Yao, J. Ni, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Enhancement of peak intensity in a filament core with spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063819 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Xu and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond laser filamentation for atmospheric sensing,” Sensors 11, 32–53 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ji, J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Ju, X. Lu, Y. Jiang, Y. Leng, X. Liang, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Femtosecond laser filamentation with a 4  J/60  fs Ti:Sapphire laser beam: Multiple filaments and intensity clamping,” Laser Phys. 20, 886–890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360, 171–175 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J-F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 95, 1–12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. G. Kosareva, W. Liu, N. A. Panov, J. Bernhardt, Z. Ji, M. Sharifi, R. Li, Z. Xu, J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Ju, X. Lu, Y. Jiang, Y. Leng, X. Liang, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, “Can we reach very high intensity in air with femtosecond PW laser pulses?,” Laser Phys. 19, 1776–1792 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu, “Filamentation nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 86, 477–483 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, H. L. Xu, G. Méjean, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, A. Azarm, P. T. Simard, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Efficient non-gated remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic sample,” Spectrochim. Acta B: At. Spectrosc. 62, 76–81 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Aközbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter,” Opt. Commun. 202, 189–197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Becker, N. Aközbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 73, 287–290 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 71, 877–879 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, Femtosecond Laser Filamentation (Springer, 2009).

Chu, W.

S. Xu, X. Sun, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Zhao, W. Liu, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Simple method of measuring laser peak intensity inside femtosecond laser filament in air,” Opt. Express 20, 299–307 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Zeng, W. Chu, H. Gao, W. Liu, G. Li, H. Zhang, J. Yao, J. Ni, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Enhancement of peak intensity in a filament core with spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063819 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Couairon, A.

Daigle, J.-F.

W. Liu, H. L. Xu, G. Méjean, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, A. Azarm, P. T. Simard, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Efficient non-gated remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic sample,” Spectrochim. Acta B: At. Spectrosc. 62, 76–81 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Daigle, J-F.

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J-F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 95, 1–12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Du, D.

Dubois, J.

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J-F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 95, 1–12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Frey, S.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gao, H.

B. Zeng, W. Chu, H. Gao, W. Liu, G. Li, H. Zhang, J. Yao, J. Ni, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Enhancement of peak intensity in a filament core with spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063819 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hosseini, S.

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J-F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 95, 1–12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ji, Z.

Z. Ji, J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Ju, X. Lu, Y. Jiang, Y. Leng, X. Liang, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Femtosecond laser filamentation with a 4  J/60  fs Ti:Sapphire laser beam: Multiple filaments and intensity clamping,” Laser Phys. 20, 886–890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. G. Kosareva, W. Liu, N. A. Panov, J. Bernhardt, Z. Ji, M. Sharifi, R. Li, Z. Xu, J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Ju, X. Lu, Y. Jiang, Y. Leng, X. Liang, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, “Can we reach very high intensity in air with femtosecond PW laser pulses?,” Laser Phys. 19, 1776–1792 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

Z. Ji, J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Ju, X. Lu, Y. Jiang, Y. Leng, X. Liang, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Femtosecond laser filamentation with a 4  J/60  fs Ti:Sapphire laser beam: Multiple filaments and intensity clamping,” Laser Phys. 20, 886–890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. G. Kosareva, W. Liu, N. A. Panov, J. Bernhardt, Z. Ji, M. Sharifi, R. Li, Z. Xu, J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Ju, X. Lu, Y. Jiang, Y. Leng, X. Liang, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, “Can we reach very high intensity in air with femtosecond PW laser pulses?,” Laser Phys. 19, 1776–1792 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ju, J.

Z. Ji, J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Ju, X. Lu, Y. Jiang, Y. Leng, X. Liang, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Femtosecond laser filamentation with a 4  J/60  fs Ti:Sapphire laser beam: Multiple filaments and intensity clamping,” Laser Phys. 20, 886–890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. G. Kosareva, W. Liu, N. A. Panov, J. Bernhardt, Z. Ji, M. Sharifi, R. Li, Z. Xu, J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Ju, X. Lu, Y. Jiang, Y. Leng, X. Liang, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, “Can we reach very high intensity in air with femtosecond PW laser pulses?,” Laser Phys. 19, 1776–1792 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kamali, Y.

H. L. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360, 171–175 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J-F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 95, 1–12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, H. L. Xu, G. Méjean, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, A. Azarm, P. T. Simard, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Efficient non-gated remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic sample,” Spectrochim. Acta B: At. Spectrosc. 62, 76–81 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kandidov, V.

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J-F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 95, 1–12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kandidov, V. P.

O. G. Kosareva, W. Liu, N. A. Panov, J. Bernhardt, Z. Ji, M. Sharifi, R. Li, Z. Xu, J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Ju, X. Lu, Y. Jiang, Y. Leng, X. Liang, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, “Can we reach very high intensity in air with femtosecond PW laser pulses?,” Laser Phys. 19, 1776–1792 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kasparian, J.

J. Kasparian and J.-P. Wolf, “Physics and applications of atmospheric nonlinear optics and filamentation,” Opt. Express 16, 466–493 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Ackermann, E. Salmon, N. Lascoux, J. Kasparian, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, S. Li, A. Lindinger, L. Wöste, P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, and J.-P. Wolf, “Optimal control of filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, L. Wöste, R. Ackermann, G. Méjean, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, and J. P. Wolf, “Filament-induced remote surface ablation for long range laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy operation,” Spectrochim. Acta B: At. Spectrosc. 60, 1025–1033 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977–3979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 71, 877–879 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kiran, P. P.

Korn, G.

Kosareva, O.

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J-F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 95, 1–12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kosareva, O. G.

O. G. Kosareva, W. Liu, N. A. Panov, J. Bernhardt, Z. Ji, M. Sharifi, R. Li, Z. Xu, J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Ju, X. Lu, Y. Jiang, Y. Leng, X. Liang, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, “Can we reach very high intensity in air with femtosecond PW laser pulses?,” Laser Phys. 19, 1776–1792 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krishnan, S. R.

Kumar, G. R.

Lascoux, N.

R. Ackermann, E. Salmon, N. Lascoux, J. Kasparian, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, S. Li, A. Lindinger, L. Wöste, P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, and J.-P. Wolf, “Optimal control of filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leng, Y.

Z. Ji, J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Ju, X. Lu, Y. Jiang, Y. Leng, X. Liang, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Femtosecond laser filamentation with a 4  J/60  fs Ti:Sapphire laser beam: Multiple filaments and intensity clamping,” Laser Phys. 20, 886–890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. G. Kosareva, W. Liu, N. A. Panov, J. Bernhardt, Z. Ji, M. Sharifi, R. Li, Z. Xu, J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Ju, X. Lu, Y. Jiang, Y. Leng, X. Liang, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, “Can we reach very high intensity in air with femtosecond PW laser pulses?,” Laser Phys. 19, 1776–1792 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

B. Zeng, W. Chu, H. Gao, W. Liu, G. Li, H. Zhang, J. Yao, J. Ni, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Enhancement of peak intensity in a filament core with spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063819 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, R.

Z. Ji, J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Ju, X. Lu, Y. Jiang, Y. Leng, X. Liang, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Femtosecond laser filamentation with a 4  J/60  fs Ti:Sapphire laser beam: Multiple filaments and intensity clamping,” Laser Phys. 20, 886–890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. G. Kosareva, W. Liu, N. A. Panov, J. Bernhardt, Z. Ji, M. Sharifi, R. Li, Z. Xu, J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Ju, X. Lu, Y. Jiang, Y. Leng, X. Liang, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, “Can we reach very high intensity in air with femtosecond PW laser pulses?,” Laser Phys. 19, 1776–1792 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

R. Ackermann, E. Salmon, N. Lascoux, J. Kasparian, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, S. Li, A. Lindinger, L. Wöste, P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, and J.-P. Wolf, “Optimal control of filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liang, X.

Z. Ji, J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Ju, X. Lu, Y. Jiang, Y. Leng, X. Liang, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Femtosecond laser filamentation with a 4  J/60  fs Ti:Sapphire laser beam: Multiple filaments and intensity clamping,” Laser Phys. 20, 886–890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. G. Kosareva, W. Liu, N. A. Panov, J. Bernhardt, Z. Ji, M. Sharifi, R. Li, Z. Xu, J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Ju, X. Lu, Y. Jiang, Y. Leng, X. Liang, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, “Can we reach very high intensity in air with femtosecond PW laser pulses?,” Laser Phys. 19, 1776–1792 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lindinger, A.

R. Ackermann, E. Salmon, N. Lascoux, J. Kasparian, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, S. Li, A. Lindinger, L. Wöste, P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, and J.-P. Wolf, “Optimal control of filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F.

Liu, J.

Z. Ji, J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Ju, X. Lu, Y. Jiang, Y. Leng, X. Liang, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Femtosecond laser filamentation with a 4  J/60  fs Ti:Sapphire laser beam: Multiple filaments and intensity clamping,” Laser Phys. 20, 886–890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. G. Kosareva, W. Liu, N. A. Panov, J. Bernhardt, Z. Ji, M. Sharifi, R. Li, Z. Xu, J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Ju, X. Lu, Y. Jiang, Y. Leng, X. Liang, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, “Can we reach very high intensity in air with femtosecond PW laser pulses?,” Laser Phys. 19, 1776–1792 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

S. Xu, J. Bernhardt, M. Sharifi, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping during laser filamentation by TW level femtosecond laser in air and argon,” Laser Phys. 22, 195–202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Xu, X. Sun, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Zhao, W. Liu, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Simple method of measuring laser peak intensity inside femtosecond laser filament in air,” Opt. Express 20, 299–307 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Zeng, W. Chu, H. Gao, W. Liu, G. Li, H. Zhang, J. Yao, J. Ni, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Enhancement of peak intensity in a filament core with spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063819 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ji, J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Ju, X. Lu, Y. Jiang, Y. Leng, X. Liang, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Femtosecond laser filamentation with a 4  J/60  fs Ti:Sapphire laser beam: Multiple filaments and intensity clamping,” Laser Phys. 20, 886–890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. G. Kosareva, W. Liu, N. A. Panov, J. Bernhardt, Z. Ji, M. Sharifi, R. Li, Z. Xu, J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Ju, X. Lu, Y. Jiang, Y. Leng, X. Liang, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, “Can we reach very high intensity in air with femtosecond PW laser pulses?,” Laser Phys. 19, 1776–1792 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J-F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 95, 1–12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, H. L. Xu, G. Méjean, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, A. Azarm, P. T. Simard, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Efficient non-gated remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic sample,” Spectrochim. Acta B: At. Spectrosc. 62, 76–81 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu, “Filamentation nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 86, 477–483 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Aközbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter,” Opt. Commun. 202, 189–197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Liu, X.-L.

Lu, X.

X.-L. Liu, X. Lu, X. Liu, T.-T. Xi, F. Liu, J.-L. Ma, and J. Zhang, “Tightly focused femtosecond laser pulse in air: from filamentation to breakdown,” Opt. Express 18, 26007–26017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ji, J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Ju, X. Lu, Y. Jiang, Y. Leng, X. Liang, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Femtosecond laser filamentation with a 4  J/60  fs Ti:Sapphire laser beam: Multiple filaments and intensity clamping,” Laser Phys. 20, 886–890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. G. Kosareva, W. Liu, N. A. Panov, J. Bernhardt, Z. Ji, M. Sharifi, R. Li, Z. Xu, J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Ju, X. Lu, Y. Jiang, Y. Leng, X. Liang, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, “Can we reach very high intensity in air with femtosecond PW laser pulses?,” Laser Phys. 19, 1776–1792 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Q.

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J-F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 95, 1–12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ma, J.-L.

Marceau, C.

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J-F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 95, 1–12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mathieu, P.

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J-F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 95, 1–12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, H. L. Xu, G. Méjean, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, A. Azarm, P. T. Simard, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Efficient non-gated remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic sample,” Spectrochim. Acta B: At. Spectrosc. 62, 76–81 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mejean, G.

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977–3979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Méjean, G.

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J-F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 95, 1–12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, H. L. Xu, G. Méjean, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, A. Azarm, P. T. Simard, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Efficient non-gated remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic sample,” Spectrochim. Acta B: At. Spectrosc. 62, 76–81 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, L. Wöste, R. Ackermann, G. Méjean, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, and J. P. Wolf, “Filament-induced remote surface ablation for long range laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy operation,” Spectrochim. Acta B: At. Spectrosc. 60, 1025–1033 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

Mysyrowicz, A.

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ni, J.

B. Zeng, W. Chu, H. Gao, W. Liu, G. Li, H. Zhang, J. Yao, J. Ni, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Enhancement of peak intensity in a filament core with spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063819 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Oral, E.

A. Becker, N. Aközbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 73, 287–290 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Panov, N. A.

O. G. Kosareva, W. Liu, N. A. Panov, J. Bernhardt, Z. Ji, M. Sharifi, R. Li, Z. Xu, J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Ju, X. Lu, Y. Jiang, Y. Leng, X. Liang, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, “Can we reach very high intensity in air with femtosecond PW laser pulses?,” Laser Phys. 19, 1776–1792 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Petit, S.

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Aközbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter,” Opt. Commun. 202, 189–197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, M.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rohwetter, P.

R. Ackermann, E. Salmon, N. Lascoux, J. Kasparian, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, S. Li, A. Lindinger, L. Wöste, P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, and J.-P. Wolf, “Optimal control of filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, L. Wöste, R. Ackermann, G. Méjean, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, and J. P. Wolf, “Filament-induced remote surface ablation for long range laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy operation,” Spectrochim. Acta B: At. Spectrosc. 60, 1025–1033 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977–3979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Roy, G.

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J-F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 95, 1–12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, H. L. Xu, G. Méjean, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, A. Azarm, P. T. Simard, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Efficient non-gated remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic sample,” Spectrochim. Acta B: At. Spectrosc. 62, 76–81 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Salmon, E.

R. Ackermann, E. Salmon, N. Lascoux, J. Kasparian, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, S. Li, A. Lindinger, L. Wöste, P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, and J.-P. Wolf, “Optimal control of filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, L. Wöste, R. Ackermann, G. Méjean, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, and J. P. Wolf, “Filament-induced remote surface ablation for long range laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy operation,” Spectrochim. Acta B: At. Spectrosc. 60, 1025–1033 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977–3979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sauerbrey, R.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 71, 877–879 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sharifi, M.

S. Xu, J. Bernhardt, M. Sharifi, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping during laser filamentation by TW level femtosecond laser in air and argon,” Laser Phys. 22, 195–202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O. G. Kosareva, W. Liu, N. A. Panov, J. Bernhardt, Z. Ji, M. Sharifi, R. Li, Z. Xu, J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Ju, X. Lu, Y. Jiang, Y. Leng, X. Liang, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, “Can we reach very high intensity in air with femtosecond PW laser pulses?,” Laser Phys. 19, 1776–1792 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J-F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 95, 1–12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Simard, J.

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J-F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 95, 1–12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Simard, P.

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J-F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 95, 1–12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Simard, P. T.

W. Liu, H. L. Xu, G. Méjean, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, A. Azarm, P. T. Simard, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Efficient non-gated remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic sample,” Spectrochim. Acta B: At. Spectrosc. 62, 76–81 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J.

Stelmaszczyk, K.

R. Ackermann, E. Salmon, N. Lascoux, J. Kasparian, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, S. Li, A. Lindinger, L. Wöste, P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, and J.-P. Wolf, “Optimal control of filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, L. Wöste, R. Ackermann, G. Méjean, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, and J. P. Wolf, “Filament-induced remote surface ablation for long range laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy operation,” Spectrochim. Acta B: At. Spectrosc. 60, 1025–1033 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977–3979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

Théberge, F.

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J-F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 95, 1–12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu, “Filamentation nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 86, 477–483 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vijayalakshmi, K.

A. Becker, N. Aközbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 73, 287–290 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Z. Ji, J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Ju, X. Lu, Y. Jiang, Y. Leng, X. Liang, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Femtosecond laser filamentation with a 4  J/60  fs Ti:Sapphire laser beam: Multiple filaments and intensity clamping,” Laser Phys. 20, 886–890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. G. Kosareva, W. Liu, N. A. Panov, J. Bernhardt, Z. Ji, M. Sharifi, R. Li, Z. Xu, J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Ju, X. Lu, Y. Jiang, Y. Leng, X. Liang, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, “Can we reach very high intensity in air with femtosecond PW laser pulses?,” Laser Phys. 19, 1776–1792 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wille, H.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, J. P.

P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, L. Wöste, R. Ackermann, G. Méjean, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, and J. P. Wolf, “Filament-induced remote surface ablation for long range laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy operation,” Spectrochim. Acta B: At. Spectrosc. 60, 1025–1033 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, J.-P.

J. Kasparian and J.-P. Wolf, “Physics and applications of atmospheric nonlinear optics and filamentation,” Opt. Express 16, 466–493 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Ackermann, E. Salmon, N. Lascoux, J. Kasparian, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, S. Li, A. Lindinger, L. Wöste, P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, and J.-P. Wolf, “Optimal control of filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977–3979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Woste, L.

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977–3979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wöste, L.

R. Ackermann, E. Salmon, N. Lascoux, J. Kasparian, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, S. Li, A. Lindinger, L. Wöste, P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, and J.-P. Wolf, “Optimal control of filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, L. Wöste, R. Ackermann, G. Méjean, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, and J. P. Wolf, “Filament-induced remote surface ablation for long range laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy operation,” Spectrochim. Acta B: At. Spectrosc. 60, 1025–1033 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xi, T.-T.

Xu, H. L.

H. L. Xu and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond laser filamentation for atmospheric sensing,” Sensors 11, 32–53 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J-F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 95, 1–12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360, 171–175 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, H. L. Xu, G. Méjean, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, A. Azarm, P. T. Simard, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Efficient non-gated remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic sample,” Spectrochim. Acta B: At. Spectrosc. 62, 76–81 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, S.

S. Xu, J. Bernhardt, M. Sharifi, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping during laser filamentation by TW level femtosecond laser in air and argon,” Laser Phys. 22, 195–202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Xu, X. Sun, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Zhao, W. Liu, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Simple method of measuring laser peak intensity inside femtosecond laser filament in air,” Opt. Express 20, 299–307 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

S. Xu, X. Sun, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Zhao, W. Liu, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Simple method of measuring laser peak intensity inside femtosecond laser filament in air,” Opt. Express 20, 299–307 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Zeng, W. Chu, H. Gao, W. Liu, G. Li, H. Zhang, J. Yao, J. Ni, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Enhancement of peak intensity in a filament core with spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063819 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ji, J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Ju, X. Lu, Y. Jiang, Y. Leng, X. Liang, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Femtosecond laser filamentation with a 4  J/60  fs Ti:Sapphire laser beam: Multiple filaments and intensity clamping,” Laser Phys. 20, 886–890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. G. Kosareva, W. Liu, N. A. Panov, J. Bernhardt, Z. Ji, M. Sharifi, R. Li, Z. Xu, J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Ju, X. Lu, Y. Jiang, Y. Leng, X. Liang, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, “Can we reach very high intensity in air with femtosecond PW laser pulses?,” Laser Phys. 19, 1776–1792 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yao, J.

B. Zeng, W. Chu, H. Gao, W. Liu, G. Li, H. Zhang, J. Yao, J. Ni, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Enhancement of peak intensity in a filament core with spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063819 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, L. Wöste, R. Ackermann, G. Méjean, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, and J. P. Wolf, “Filament-induced remote surface ablation for long range laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy operation,” Spectrochim. Acta B: At. Spectrosc. 60, 1025–1033 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977–3979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, B.

S. Xu, X. Sun, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Zhao, W. Liu, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Simple method of measuring laser peak intensity inside femtosecond laser filament in air,” Opt. Express 20, 299–307 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Zeng, W. Chu, H. Gao, W. Liu, G. Li, H. Zhang, J. Yao, J. Ni, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Enhancement of peak intensity in a filament core with spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063819 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

B. Zeng, W. Chu, H. Gao, W. Liu, G. Li, H. Zhang, J. Yao, J. Ni, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Enhancement of peak intensity in a filament core with spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063819 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Zhao, J.

Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. (4)

S. L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu, “Filamentation nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 86, 477–483 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J-F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 95, 1–12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Becker, N. Aközbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 73, 287–290 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 71, 877–879 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

R. Ackermann, E. Salmon, N. Lascoux, J. Kasparian, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, S. Li, A. Lindinger, L. Wöste, P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, and J.-P. Wolf, “Optimal control of filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977–3979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. (1)

H. L. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360, 171–175 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. (3)

S. Xu, J. Bernhardt, M. Sharifi, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping during laser filamentation by TW level femtosecond laser in air and argon,” Laser Phys. 22, 195–202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ji, J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Ju, X. Lu, Y. Jiang, Y. Leng, X. Liang, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Femtosecond laser filamentation with a 4  J/60  fs Ti:Sapphire laser beam: Multiple filaments and intensity clamping,” Laser Phys. 20, 886–890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. G. Kosareva, W. Liu, N. A. Panov, J. Bernhardt, Z. Ji, M. Sharifi, R. Li, Z. Xu, J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Ju, X. Lu, Y. Jiang, Y. Leng, X. Liang, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, “Can we reach very high intensity in air with femtosecond PW laser pulses?,” Laser Phys. 19, 1776–1792 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Aközbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter,” Opt. Commun. 202, 189–197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rep. (1)

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

B. Zeng, W. Chu, H. Gao, W. Liu, G. Li, H. Zhang, J. Yao, J. Ni, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Enhancement of peak intensity in a filament core with spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063819 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sensors (1)

H. L. Xu and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond laser filamentation for atmospheric sensing,” Sensors 11, 32–53 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta B: At. Spectrosc. (2)

P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, L. Wöste, R. Ackermann, G. Méjean, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, and J. P. Wolf, “Filament-induced remote surface ablation for long range laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy operation,” Spectrochim. Acta B: At. Spectrosc. 60, 1025–1033 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, H. L. Xu, G. Méjean, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, A. Azarm, P. T. Simard, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Efficient non-gated remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic sample,” Spectrochim. Acta B: At. Spectrosc. 62, 76–81 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

S. L. Chin, Femtosecond Laser Filamentation (Springer, 2009).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the experimental setup for (a) 100 cm lens experiment and (b) remote experiments including nitrogen fluorescence measurement and filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Typical longitudinal evolution of spectral intensity of 337 and 391 nm fluorescence using spatial-temporally chirped pulses. The peak position of 337 nm fluorescence intensity and (b) the peak intensity inside the filament (c) are shown as a function of input laser energy focused by the 100 cm focal length lens using compressed 50 fs pluses (diamonds) and spatio-temporally chirped pulses without (triangles) and with cylindrical lenses (circles). In the last case with cylindrical lenses, we did not increase the energy further than 10 mJ for fear of damaging the grating.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured nitrogen fluorescence intensity at 337 nm as a function of propagation distance with spatio-temporally chirped pulses without cylindrical lenses (solid line) and normal 50 fs pulses (dashed line) with the same telescope configuration and fixed pulse energy of 8 mJ. The dashed-dotted line indicates the effectively geometric focus of the telescope.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Spectral distribution after the grating pair without (a) and with (b) the cylindrical lenses. (c) Pulse duration in the vicinity of geometric focus without (solid line) and with (dash line) the cylindrical lenses.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Fluorescence spectra of neutral Fe (a) and Al (b) measured at a distance of 22 m with spatio-temporally chirped pulses (solid line) and normal focusing pulses (dashed line).

Equations (1)

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I0=79×(2.6/R1)0.34×1012W/cm2.

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