Abstract

Transformation optics, which is based on the form invariance of Maxwell equations under different coordinate sets, has become a powerful tool to manipulate the propagation path of electromagnetic waves. The development of metamaterials also facilitates the practical realization of transformation-optics-based devices. In this paper, we propose a general transformation to design a horn antenna with high directivity by using homogeneous and anisotropic media. As long as the horn antenna is divided into several triangle blocks and the general transformation is applied, the material property in each block is homogeneous. Full-wave simulation based on the finite element method is performed to indicate the performance of the device. According to the numerical results, it is found that the electromagnetic field inside the horn area can be either stretched or compressed at will, and simultaneously fields outside the device are little disturbed. Thus, it offers us considerable freedom in designing the high-gain antenna. Furthermore, it is also demonstrated that the radiation direction can be arbitrarily controlled by carefully setting the geometrical parameters of the antenna. In the end, a multiradiation beam antenna, as one of the potential applications, is investigated.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  31. X. F. Zang and C. Jiang, “Manipulating the field distribution via optical transformation,” Opt. Express 18, 10168–10176 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2011 (6)

L. J. Huang, D. M. Zhou, J. Wang, Z. F. Li, X. S. Chen, and W. Lu, “Scattering characteristics of nonmagnetic invisibility cloak with minimized scattering,” Opt. Commun. 284, 5523–5530 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Huang, D. M. Zhou, J. Wang, Z. F. Li, X. S. Chen, and W. Lu, “A generalized transformation to convert an arbitrary perfect electric conductor into another arbitrary dielectric object,” J. Phys. D 44, 235102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Han, C. W. Qiu, and X. H. Tang, “Adaptive waveguide bends with homogeneous, non-magnetic, and isotropic materials,” Opt. Lett 36, 181 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Jiang, M. D. Gregory, and D. H. Werner, “Experimental demonstration of a broadband transformation optics lens for highly directive multibeam emission,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 165111(2011).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Huang, D. M. Zhou, J. Wang, Z. F. Li, X. S. Chen, and W. Lu, “Generalized transformation for nonmagnetic invisibility cloak with minimized scattering,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 922–928 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Han, C. W. Qiu, J. Dong, X. H. Tang, and S. Zouhdi, “Homogeneous and isotropic bends to tunnel waves through multiple different/equal waveguides along arbitrary directions,” Opt. Express 19, 13020–13030 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

X. F. Zang and C. Jiang, “Manipulating the field distribution via optical transformation,” Opt. Express 18, 10168–10176 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Zhang, Q. Wu, F. Y. Meng, and L. W. Li, “Arbitrary waveguide connector based on embedded optical transformation,” Opt. Express 18, 17273–17279 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ma and T. J. Cui, “Three-dimensional broadband ground-plane cloak made of metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 1, 21 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Chen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Transformation optics and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9, 387–396 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (6)

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323, 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8, 568–571 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, K. Zhang, F. Y. Meng, and L. W. Li, “Material parameters characterization for arbitrary N-sided regular polygonal invisible cloak,” J. Phys. D 42, 035408 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lai, J. Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Z. Han, J. J. Xiao, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: the optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 253902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Qiu, L. Hu, B. L. Zhang, B. I. Wu, S. G. Johnson, and J. Joanopoulous, “Spherical cloaking with nonlinear transformations for improved segmentation into concentric isotropic coating,” Opt. Express 17, 13467–13478 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Qiu, L. Hu, X. F. Xu, and Y. J. Feng, “Spherical cloaking with homogeneous isotropic multilayered structures,” Phys. Rev. E 79, 047602 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (9)

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, X. Y. Zhou, X. M. Yang, and Q. Cheng, “Arbitrary bending of electromagnetic waves using realizable inhomogeneous and anisotropic materials,” Phys. Rev. E 78, 066607 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, H. F. Ma, X. M. Yang, and Q. Cheng, “Layered high-gain lens antenna via discrete optical transformation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 221906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Rahm, S. A. Cummer, D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Optical design of reflectionless complex media by finite embedded coordinate transformations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 063903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Rahm, D. A. Roberts, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Transformation-optical design of adaptive beam bends and beam expanders,” Opt. Express 16, 11555–11567 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Ma, S. B. Qu, Z. Xu, and J. F. Wang, “General method for designing wave shape transformer,” Opt. Express 16, 22072–22082 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Kwon and D. H. Werner, “Two-dimensional electromagnetic cloak having a uniform thickness for elliptical cylindrical regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 113502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Yan, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Coordinate transformation makes perfect invisibility cloak with arbitrary shape,” New J. Phys. 10, 043040 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Li and J. B. Pendry, “Hiding under the carpet: a new strategy for cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 203901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwell’s equations,” Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 6, 87–95 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

H. Y. Chen and C. T. Chan, “Transformation media that rotate electromagnetic fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 241105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ruan, M. Yan, C. W. Neff, and M. Qiu, “Ideal cylindrical cloak: perfect but sensitive to tiny perturbation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 113903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Yan, Z. Ruan, and M. Qiu, “Cylindrical invisibility cloak with simplified material parameters is inherently visible,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 233901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Chen, B. I. Wu, B. L. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, “Electromagnetic wave interaction with a metamaterial cloak,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1, 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

S. A. Cummer, B. I. Poba, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structure,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 036621 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312, 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. Leonhardt, “Optical conformal mapping,” Science 312, 1777–1780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bartal, G.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8, 568–571 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W. S.

W. S. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1, 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. T.

H. Y. Chen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Transformation optics and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9, 387–396 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lai, J. Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Z. Han, J. J. Xiao, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: the optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 253902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Chen and C. T. Chan, “Transformation media that rotate electromagnetic fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 241105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. S.

H. S. Chen, B. I. Wu, B. L. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, “Electromagnetic wave interaction with a metamaterial cloak,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. Y.

H. Y. Chen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Transformation optics and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9, 387–396 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lai, J. Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Z. Han, J. J. Xiao, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: the optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 253902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Chen and C. T. Chan, “Transformation media that rotate electromagnetic fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 241105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. S.

L. J. Huang, D. M. Zhou, J. Wang, Z. F. Li, X. S. Chen, and W. Lu, “A generalized transformation to convert an arbitrary perfect electric conductor into another arbitrary dielectric object,” J. Phys. D 44, 235102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Huang, D. M. Zhou, J. Wang, Z. F. Li, X. S. Chen, and W. Lu, “Generalized transformation for nonmagnetic invisibility cloak with minimized scattering,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 922–928 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Huang, D. M. Zhou, J. Wang, Z. F. Li, X. S. Chen, and W. Lu, “Scattering characteristics of nonmagnetic invisibility cloak with minimized scattering,” Opt. Commun. 284, 5523–5530 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Q.

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, X. Y. Zhou, X. M. Yang, and Q. Cheng, “Arbitrary bending of electromagnetic waves using realizable inhomogeneous and anisotropic materials,” Phys. Rev. E 78, 066607 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, H. F. Ma, X. M. Yang, and Q. Cheng, “Layered high-gain lens antenna via discrete optical transformation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 221906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chettiar, U. K.

W. S. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1, 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chin, J. Y.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323, 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cui, T. J.

H. F. Ma and T. J. Cui, “Three-dimensional broadband ground-plane cloak made of metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 1, 21 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323, 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, H. F. Ma, X. M. Yang, and Q. Cheng, “Layered high-gain lens antenna via discrete optical transformation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 221906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, X. Y. Zhou, X. M. Yang, and Q. Cheng, “Arbitrary bending of electromagnetic waves using realizable inhomogeneous and anisotropic materials,” Phys. Rev. E 78, 066607 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cummer, S. A.

M. Rahm, S. A. Cummer, D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Optical design of reflectionless complex media by finite embedded coordinate transformations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 063903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwell’s equations,” Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 6, 87–95 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Cummer, B. I. Poba, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structure,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 036621 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dong, J.

Feng, Y. J.

C. W. Qiu, L. Hu, X. F. Xu, and Y. J. Feng, “Spherical cloaking with homogeneous isotropic multilayered structures,” Phys. Rev. E 79, 047602 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, M. D.

Z. H. Jiang, M. D. Gregory, and D. H. Werner, “Experimental demonstration of a broadband transformation optics lens for highly directive multibeam emission,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 165111(2011).
[CrossRef]

Han, D. Z.

Y. Lai, J. Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Z. Han, J. J. Xiao, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: the optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 253902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Han, T. C.

Hu, L.

Huang, L. J.

L. J. Huang, D. M. Zhou, J. Wang, Z. F. Li, X. S. Chen, and W. Lu, “Scattering characteristics of nonmagnetic invisibility cloak with minimized scattering,” Opt. Commun. 284, 5523–5530 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Huang, D. M. Zhou, J. Wang, Z. F. Li, X. S. Chen, and W. Lu, “A generalized transformation to convert an arbitrary perfect electric conductor into another arbitrary dielectric object,” J. Phys. D 44, 235102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Huang, D. M. Zhou, J. Wang, Z. F. Li, X. S. Chen, and W. Lu, “Generalized transformation for nonmagnetic invisibility cloak with minimized scattering,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 922–928 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ji, C.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323, 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, C.

Jiang, W. X.

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, X. Y. Zhou, X. M. Yang, and Q. Cheng, “Arbitrary bending of electromagnetic waves using realizable inhomogeneous and anisotropic materials,” Phys. Rev. E 78, 066607 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, H. F. Ma, X. M. Yang, and Q. Cheng, “Layered high-gain lens antenna via discrete optical transformation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 221906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z. H.

Z. H. Jiang, M. D. Gregory, and D. H. Werner, “Experimental demonstration of a broadband transformation optics lens for highly directive multibeam emission,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 165111(2011).
[CrossRef]

Joanopoulous, J.

Johnson, S. G.

Justice, B. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kildishev, A. V.

W. S. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1, 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kong, J. A.

H. S. Chen, B. I. Wu, B. L. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, “Electromagnetic wave interaction with a metamaterial cloak,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, D. H.

D. H. Kwon and D. H. Werner, “Two-dimensional electromagnetic cloak having a uniform thickness for elliptical cylindrical regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 113502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lai, Y.

Y. Lai, J. Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Z. Han, J. J. Xiao, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: the optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 253902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leonhardt, U.

U. Leonhardt, “Optical conformal mapping,” Science 312, 1777–1780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8, 568–571 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Li and J. B. Pendry, “Hiding under the carpet: a new strategy for cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 203901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, L. W.

K. Zhang, Q. Wu, F. Y. Meng, and L. W. Li, “Arbitrary waveguide connector based on embedded optical transformation,” Opt. Express 18, 17273–17279 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, K. Zhang, F. Y. Meng, and L. W. Li, “Material parameters characterization for arbitrary N-sided regular polygonal invisible cloak,” J. Phys. D 42, 035408 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z. F.

L. J. Huang, D. M. Zhou, J. Wang, Z. F. Li, X. S. Chen, and W. Lu, “Generalized transformation for nonmagnetic invisibility cloak with minimized scattering,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 922–928 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Huang, D. M. Zhou, J. Wang, Z. F. Li, X. S. Chen, and W. Lu, “A generalized transformation to convert an arbitrary perfect electric conductor into another arbitrary dielectric object,” J. Phys. D 44, 235102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Huang, D. M. Zhou, J. Wang, Z. F. Li, X. S. Chen, and W. Lu, “Scattering characteristics of nonmagnetic invisibility cloak with minimized scattering,” Opt. Commun. 284, 5523–5530 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, R.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323, 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, W.

L. J. Huang, D. M. Zhou, J. Wang, Z. F. Li, X. S. Chen, and W. Lu, “A generalized transformation to convert an arbitrary perfect electric conductor into another arbitrary dielectric object,” J. Phys. D 44, 235102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Huang, D. M. Zhou, J. Wang, Z. F. Li, X. S. Chen, and W. Lu, “Generalized transformation for nonmagnetic invisibility cloak with minimized scattering,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 922–928 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Huang, D. M. Zhou, J. Wang, Z. F. Li, X. S. Chen, and W. Lu, “Scattering characteristics of nonmagnetic invisibility cloak with minimized scattering,” Opt. Commun. 284, 5523–5530 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ma, H.

Ma, H. F.

H. F. Ma and T. J. Cui, “Three-dimensional broadband ground-plane cloak made of metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 1, 21 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, H. F. Ma, X. M. Yang, and Q. Cheng, “Layered high-gain lens antenna via discrete optical transformation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 221906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meng, F. Y.

K. Zhang, Q. Wu, F. Y. Meng, and L. W. Li, “Arbitrary waveguide connector based on embedded optical transformation,” Opt. Express 18, 17273–17279 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, K. Zhang, F. Y. Meng, and L. W. Li, “Material parameters characterization for arbitrary N-sided regular polygonal invisible cloak,” J. Phys. D 42, 035408 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mock, J. J.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323, 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Neff, C. W.

Z. Ruan, M. Yan, C. W. Neff, and M. Qiu, “Ideal cylindrical cloak: perfect but sensitive to tiny perturbation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 113903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ng, J.

Y. Lai, J. Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Z. Han, J. J. Xiao, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: the optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 253902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

J. Li and J. B. Pendry, “Hiding under the carpet: a new strategy for cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 203901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Rahm, S. A. Cummer, D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Optical design of reflectionless complex media by finite embedded coordinate transformations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 063903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwell’s equations,” Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 6, 87–95 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Rahm, D. A. Roberts, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Transformation-optical design of adaptive beam bends and beam expanders,” Opt. Express 16, 11555–11567 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312, 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Cummer, B. I. Poba, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structure,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 036621 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Poba, B. I.

S. A. Cummer, B. I. Poba, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structure,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 036621 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, C. W.

Qiu, M.

W. Yan, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Coordinate transformation makes perfect invisibility cloak with arbitrary shape,” New J. Phys. 10, 043040 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ruan, M. Yan, C. W. Neff, and M. Qiu, “Ideal cylindrical cloak: perfect but sensitive to tiny perturbation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 113903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Yan, Z. Ruan, and M. Qiu, “Cylindrical invisibility cloak with simplified material parameters is inherently visible,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 233901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Qu, S. B.

Rahm, M.

M. Rahm, S. A. Cummer, D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Optical design of reflectionless complex media by finite embedded coordinate transformations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 063903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Rahm, D. A. Roberts, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Transformation-optical design of adaptive beam bends and beam expanders,” Opt. Express 16, 11555–11567 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwell’s equations,” Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 6, 87–95 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, D. A.

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwell’s equations,” Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 6, 87–95 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Rahm, D. A. Roberts, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Transformation-optical design of adaptive beam bends and beam expanders,” Opt. Express 16, 11555–11567 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ruan, Z.

M. Yan, Z. Ruan, and M. Qiu, “Cylindrical invisibility cloak with simplified material parameters is inherently visible,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 233901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ruan, M. Yan, C. W. Neff, and M. Qiu, “Ideal cylindrical cloak: perfect but sensitive to tiny perturbation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 113903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schurig, D.

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwell’s equations,” Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 6, 87–95 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Rahm, S. A. Cummer, D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Optical design of reflectionless complex media by finite embedded coordinate transformations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 063903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Cummer, B. I. Poba, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structure,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 036621 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312, 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

W. S. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1, 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, P.

H. Y. Chen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Transformation optics and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9, 387–396 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323, 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwell’s equations,” Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 6, 87–95 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Rahm, D. A. Roberts, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Transformation-optical design of adaptive beam bends and beam expanders,” Opt. Express 16, 11555–11567 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Rahm, S. A. Cummer, D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Optical design of reflectionless complex media by finite embedded coordinate transformations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 063903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312, 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Cummer, B. I. Poba, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structure,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 036621 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Starr, A. F.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tang, X. H.

Valentine, J.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8, 568–571 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

L. J. Huang, D. M. Zhou, J. Wang, Z. F. Li, X. S. Chen, and W. Lu, “Scattering characteristics of nonmagnetic invisibility cloak with minimized scattering,” Opt. Commun. 284, 5523–5530 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Huang, D. M. Zhou, J. Wang, Z. F. Li, X. S. Chen, and W. Lu, “A generalized transformation to convert an arbitrary perfect electric conductor into another arbitrary dielectric object,” J. Phys. D 44, 235102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Huang, D. M. Zhou, J. Wang, Z. F. Li, X. S. Chen, and W. Lu, “Generalized transformation for nonmagnetic invisibility cloak with minimized scattering,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 922–928 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. F.

Werner, D. H.

Z. H. Jiang, M. D. Gregory, and D. H. Werner, “Experimental demonstration of a broadband transformation optics lens for highly directive multibeam emission,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 165111(2011).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Kwon and D. H. Werner, “Two-dimensional electromagnetic cloak having a uniform thickness for elliptical cylindrical regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 113502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B. I.

Wu, Q.

K. Zhang, Q. Wu, F. Y. Meng, and L. W. Li, “Arbitrary waveguide connector based on embedded optical transformation,” Opt. Express 18, 17273–17279 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, K. Zhang, F. Y. Meng, and L. W. Li, “Material parameters characterization for arbitrary N-sided regular polygonal invisible cloak,” J. Phys. D 42, 035408 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, J. J.

Y. Lai, J. Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Z. Han, J. J. Xiao, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: the optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 253902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X. F.

C. W. Qiu, L. Hu, X. F. Xu, and Y. J. Feng, “Spherical cloaking with homogeneous isotropic multilayered structures,” Phys. Rev. E 79, 047602 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

Yan, M.

W. Yan, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Coordinate transformation makes perfect invisibility cloak with arbitrary shape,” New J. Phys. 10, 043040 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ruan, M. Yan, C. W. Neff, and M. Qiu, “Ideal cylindrical cloak: perfect but sensitive to tiny perturbation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 113903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Yan, Z. Ruan, and M. Qiu, “Cylindrical invisibility cloak with simplified material parameters is inherently visible,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 233901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yan, W.

W. Yan, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Coordinate transformation makes perfect invisibility cloak with arbitrary shape,” New J. Phys. 10, 043040 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X. M.

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, H. F. Ma, X. M. Yang, and Q. Cheng, “Layered high-gain lens antenna via discrete optical transformation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 221906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, X. Y. Zhou, X. M. Yang, and Q. Cheng, “Arbitrary bending of electromagnetic waves using realizable inhomogeneous and anisotropic materials,” Phys. Rev. E 78, 066607 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zang, X. F.

Zentgraf, T.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8, 568–571 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B. L.

Zhang, K.

K. Zhang, Q. Wu, F. Y. Meng, and L. W. Li, “Arbitrary waveguide connector based on embedded optical transformation,” Opt. Express 18, 17273–17279 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, K. Zhang, F. Y. Meng, and L. W. Li, “Material parameters characterization for arbitrary N-sided regular polygonal invisible cloak,” J. Phys. D 42, 035408 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8, 568–571 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. Q.

Y. Lai, J. Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Z. Han, J. J. Xiao, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: the optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 253902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, D. M.

L. J. Huang, D. M. Zhou, J. Wang, Z. F. Li, X. S. Chen, and W. Lu, “Scattering characteristics of nonmagnetic invisibility cloak with minimized scattering,” Opt. Commun. 284, 5523–5530 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Huang, D. M. Zhou, J. Wang, Z. F. Li, X. S. Chen, and W. Lu, “Generalized transformation for nonmagnetic invisibility cloak with minimized scattering,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 922–928 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Huang, D. M. Zhou, J. Wang, Z. F. Li, X. S. Chen, and W. Lu, “A generalized transformation to convert an arbitrary perfect electric conductor into another arbitrary dielectric object,” J. Phys. D 44, 235102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X. Y.

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, X. Y. Zhou, X. M. Yang, and Q. Cheng, “Arbitrary bending of electromagnetic waves using realizable inhomogeneous and anisotropic materials,” Phys. Rev. E 78, 066607 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zouhdi, S.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

H. Y. Chen and C. T. Chan, “Transformation media that rotate electromagnetic fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 241105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Kwon and D. H. Werner, “Two-dimensional electromagnetic cloak having a uniform thickness for elliptical cylindrical regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 113502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, H. F. Ma, X. M. Yang, and Q. Cheng, “Layered high-gain lens antenna via discrete optical transformation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 221906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. D (2)

L. J. Huang, D. M. Zhou, J. Wang, Z. F. Li, X. S. Chen, and W. Lu, “A generalized transformation to convert an arbitrary perfect electric conductor into another arbitrary dielectric object,” J. Phys. D 44, 235102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, K. Zhang, F. Y. Meng, and L. W. Li, “Material parameters characterization for arbitrary N-sided regular polygonal invisible cloak,” J. Phys. D 42, 035408 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Commun. (1)

H. F. Ma and T. J. Cui, “Three-dimensional broadband ground-plane cloak made of metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 1, 21 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (2)

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8, 568–571 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Chen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Transformation optics and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9, 387–396 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

W. S. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1, 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys. (1)

W. Yan, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Coordinate transformation makes perfect invisibility cloak with arbitrary shape,” New J. Phys. 10, 043040 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. J. Huang, D. M. Zhou, J. Wang, Z. F. Li, X. S. Chen, and W. Lu, “Scattering characteristics of nonmagnetic invisibility cloak with minimized scattering,” Opt. Commun. 284, 5523–5530 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett (1)

T. C. Han, C. W. Qiu, and X. H. Tang, “Adaptive waveguide bends with homogeneous, non-magnetic, and isotropic materials,” Opt. Lett 36, 181 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. (1)

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwell’s equations,” Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 6, 87–95 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

Z. H. Jiang, M. D. Gregory, and D. H. Werner, “Experimental demonstration of a broadband transformation optics lens for highly directive multibeam emission,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 165111(2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (3)

C. W. Qiu, L. Hu, X. F. Xu, and Y. J. Feng, “Spherical cloaking with homogeneous isotropic multilayered structures,” Phys. Rev. E 79, 047602 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, X. Y. Zhou, X. M. Yang, and Q. Cheng, “Arbitrary bending of electromagnetic waves using realizable inhomogeneous and anisotropic materials,” Phys. Rev. E 78, 066607 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Cummer, B. I. Poba, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structure,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 036621 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

J. Li and J. B. Pendry, “Hiding under the carpet: a new strategy for cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 203901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lai, J. Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Z. Han, J. J. Xiao, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: the optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 253902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Rahm, S. A. Cummer, D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Optical design of reflectionless complex media by finite embedded coordinate transformations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 063903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ruan, M. Yan, C. W. Neff, and M. Qiu, “Ideal cylindrical cloak: perfect but sensitive to tiny perturbation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 113903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Yan, Z. Ruan, and M. Qiu, “Cylindrical invisibility cloak with simplified material parameters is inherently visible,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 233901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Chen, B. I. Wu, B. L. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, “Electromagnetic wave interaction with a metamaterial cloak,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Science (4)

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323, 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312, 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. Leonhardt, “Optical conformal mapping,” Science 312, 1777–1780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic coordinate transformation for high-gain lens antenna. Four triangle blocks AO0B, BO0C0, C0O0D0, and AO0D0 in the virtual space are mapped into the corresponding four blocks AOB, BOC, COD, and AOD in the physical space, respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Spatial distribution of magnetic field for different antennas when points O and O0 are overlapped, where O can locate inside ABC0D0, or at sides AB or C0D0. (a) O locates the center of trapezoid ABCD, (b) O is the middle point of left side AB, (c) O is the middle point of right side CD, (d) antenna with layered isotropic media A and B, (e) antenna with layered isotropic dielectric A and B, (f) far-field radiation patterns for antennas of (c)–(e), (g) magnetic field distribution for antenna with loss 0.001, (h) magnetic field distribution for antenna with loss 0.01.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Permittivity of isotropic materials A and B as a function of l (l is the x value of C0) and (b) permittivity of isotropic materials A and B as a function of L (L is the x value of C).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Magnetic field distribution for antenna when points O and O0 are not overlapped. For (a)–(d), the coordinate value of O is (0.1, 0.025), but O0 locates at (a) (0.1, 0.015), (b) (0.1, 0.035), (c) (0.05, 0.025), and (d) (0.15, 0.025), (e) antennas with O (0.1, 0.1125) and O0 (0.1, 0.05), (f) antennas with O (0.2, 0.175) and O0 (0.2, 0.05), (g) antenna with refractive index 1, (h) antenna with refractive index 2.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Spatial distribution of magnetic field for antennas. (a) The coordinate values of C0 and D0 are set as (0.4, 0) and (0.4, 0.05), respectively. (b) The coordinate values of C and D are set as (0.35, 0.125) and (0.2, 0.175), respectively.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Magnetic field distribution for (a) four-beam antenna and (b) six-beam antenna, (c) far-field radiation patterns for two antennas.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

{x=a11x+b11y+c11y=a12x+b12y+c12z=z{x=a21x+b21y+c21y=a22x+b22y+c22z=z{x=a31x+b31y+c31y=a32x+b32y+c32z=z{x=a41x+b41y+c41y=a42x+b42y+c42z=z,
(a11b11c11)=(xAyA1xO0yO01xByB1)1(xAxOxB),and(a12b12c12)=(xAyA1xO0yO01xByB1)1(yAyOyB),(a21b21c21)=(xByB1xO0yO01xC0yC01)1(xBxOxC),and(a22b22c22)=(xByB1xO0yO01xC0yC01)1(yByOyC),(a31b31c31)=(xC0yC01xO0yO01xD0yD01)1(xCxOxD),and(a32b32c32)=(xC0yC01xO0yO01xD0yD01)1(yCyOyD),(a41b41c41)=(xAyA1xO0yO01xD0yD01)1(xAxOxD),and(a42b42c42)=(xAyA1xO0yO01xD0yD01)1(yAyOyD).
ε¯¯=μ¯¯=ΛΛT/det(Λ),
ε¯¯=μ¯¯=(εixxεixy0εixyεiyy000εizz),
εixx=(ai12+bi12)/(ai1bi2bi1ai2),εixy=(ai1ai2+bi1bi2)/(ai1bi2bi1ai2)εiyy=(ai22+bi22)/(ai1bi2bi1ai2),εizz=1/(ai1bi2bi1ai2).
εixx=εixxμizz,εixy=εixyμizzεiyy=εiyyμizz,μizz=1,
ε¯¯=diag(ξix,ξiy)ξix,y=[εixx+εiyy±(εixxεiyy)2+4εixy2]/2.
εiA,B=ξix±ξix2ξixξiy.

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