Abstract

We have performed degenerate four-wave mixing experiments with cryogenically cooled atomic ytterbium. We use buffer-gas cooling to prepare high optical density samples at a temperature of 5 K, cold enough to resolve the different isotopes and hyperfine transitions. We observe four-wave mixing with cross-polarized pump and probe beams. The four-wave mixing is strongly enhanced when the laser is closely detuned from the S01(F=1/2)P11(F=1/2) transition of the Yb171 (I=1/2) isotope.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Ducloy and D. Bloch, “Polarization properties of phase-conjugate mirrors: angular dependence and disorienting collision effects in resonant backward four-wave mixing for Doppler-broadened degenerate transitions,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 3107–3122 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Kauranen, D. J. Gauthier, M. S. Malcuit, and R. W. Boyd, “Polarization properties of optical phase conjugation by two-photon resonant degenerate four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 1908–1917 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  17. E. Koster, J. Mlynek, and W. Lange, “Zeeman coherence effects in degenerate backward four-wave mixing: saturation studies on coupled transitions,” Opt. Commun. 53, 53–58 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Y. Lanzerotti, R. W. Schirmer, and A. L. Gaeta, “High-reflectivity, wide-bandwidth optical phase conjugation via four-wave mixing in potassium vapor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1199–1201 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. C. Pooser, A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, K. M. Jones, and P. D. Lett, “Low-noise amplification of a continuous-variable quantum state,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 010501 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  22. C. F. McCormick, A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, “Strong low-frequency quantum correlations from a four-wave-mixing amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 043816 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. C. F. McCormick, V. Boyer, E. Arimondo, and P. D. Lett, “Strong relative intensity squeezing by four-wave mixing in rubidium vapor,” Opt. Lett. 32, 178–180 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Q. Glorieux, L. Guidoni, S. Guibal, J.-P. Likforman, T. Coudreau, and E. Arimondo, “Quantum correlations by four-wave mixing in an atomic vapor in a nonamplifying regime: quantum beam splitter for photons,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 053826 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. M. Marino, R. C. Pooser, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, “Tunable delay of Einstein-Podolskya-Rosen entanglement,” Nature 457, 859–862 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  26. V. Boyer, A. M. Marino, R. C. Pooser, and P. D. Lett, “Entangled images from four-wave mixing,” Science 321, 544–547 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, “Violation of the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality in the macroscopic regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 233601 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  28. T. Takano, M. Fuyama, R. Namiki, and Y. Takahashi, “Spin squeezing of a cold atomic ensemble with the nuclear spin of one-half,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 033601 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  29. M.-J. Lu, F. Jose, and J. D. Weinstein, “Stopped light with a cryogenic ensemble of Yb173 atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 061802 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  30. D. Meiser, J. Ye, D. R. Carlson, and M. J. Holland, “Prospects for a millihertz-linewidth laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 163601 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  31. D. Das, S. Barthwal, A. Banerjee, and V. Natarajan, “Absolute frequency measurements in Yb with 0.08 ppb uncertainty: isotope shifts and hyperfine structure in the 399 nm S01→P11 line,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 032506 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  32. T. Hong, A. V. Gorshkov, D. Patterson, A. S. Zibrov, J. M. Doyle, M. D. Lukin, and M. G. Prentiss, “Realization of coherent optically dense media via buffer-gas cooling,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 013806 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  33. M.-J. Lu and J. D. Weinstein, “Electromagnetically induced transparency with nuclear spin,” Opt. Lett. 35, 622–624 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  34. Y.-Q. Li, P. J. Edwards, X. Huang, and Y. Wang, “Violation of a classical Cauchy-Schwarz inequality in photon noise spectra,” J. Opt. B 2, 292–298 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2011

Q. Glorieux, L. Guidoni, S. Guibal, J.-P. Likforman, T. Coudreau, and E. Arimondo, “Quantum correlations by four-wave mixing in an atomic vapor in a nonamplifying regime: quantum beam splitter for photons,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 053826 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Jasperse, L. D. Turner, and R. E. Scholten, “Relative intensity squeezing by four-wave mixing with loss: an analytic model and experimental diagnostic,” Opt. Express 19, 3765–3774 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

M.-J. Lu and J. D. Weinstein, “Electromagnetically induced transparency with nuclear spin,” Opt. Lett. 35, 622–624 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M.-J. Lu, F. Jose, and J. D. Weinstein, “Stopped light with a cryogenic ensemble of Yb173 atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 061802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

D. Meiser, J. Ye, D. R. Carlson, and M. J. Holland, “Prospects for a millihertz-linewidth laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 163601 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Takano, M. Fuyama, R. Namiki, and Y. Takahashi, “Spin squeezing of a cold atomic ensemble with the nuclear spin of one-half,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 033601 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Marino, R. C. Pooser, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, “Tunable delay of Einstein-Podolskya-Rosen entanglement,” Nature 457, 859–862 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Pooser, A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, K. M. Jones, and P. D. Lett, “Low-noise amplification of a continuous-variable quantum state,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 010501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Hong, A. V. Gorshkov, D. Patterson, A. S. Zibrov, J. M. Doyle, M. D. Lukin, and M. G. Prentiss, “Realization of coherent optically dense media via buffer-gas cooling,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 013806 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

C. F. McCormick, A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, “Strong low-frequency quantum correlations from a four-wave-mixing amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 043816 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Boyer, A. M. Marino, R. C. Pooser, and P. D. Lett, “Entangled images from four-wave mixing,” Science 321, 544–547 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, “Violation of the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality in the macroscopic regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 233601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2005

D. Das, S. Barthwal, A. Banerjee, and V. Natarajan, “Absolute frequency measurements in Yb with 0.08 ppb uncertainty: isotope shifts and hyperfine structure in the 399 nm S01→P11 line,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 032506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2000

Y.-Q. Li, P. J. Edwards, X. Huang, and Y. Wang, “Violation of a classical Cauchy-Schwarz inequality in photon noise spectra,” J. Opt. B 2, 292–298 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

1996

B. Ai and R. J. Knize, “Degenerate four-wave mixing in two-level saturable absorbers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2408–2419 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Lanzerotti, R. W. Schirmer, and A. L. Gaeta, “High-reflectivity, wide-bandwidth optical phase conjugation via four-wave mixing in potassium vapor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1199–1201 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

D. S. Glassner and R. J. Knize, “Reduced angular dependence for degenerate four-wave mixing in potassium vapor by including nitrogen buffer gas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1593–1595 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

1989

M. Kauranen, D. J. Gauthier, M. S. Malcuit, and R. W. Boyd, “Polarization properties of optical phase conjugation by two-photon resonant degenerate four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 1908–1917 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986

A. L. Gaeta, M. T. Gruneisen, and R. W. Boyd, “Theory of degenerate four-wave mixing in saturable absorbing media with the inclusion of pump propagation effects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1095–1101 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

M. Ducloy, F. A. M. de Oliveira, and D. Bloch, “Theory of resonant Doppler-broadened backward four-wave mixing in the pump saturation regime,” Phys. Rev. A 32, 1614–1623 (1985).
[CrossRef]

E. Koster, J. Mlynek, and W. Lange, “Zeeman coherence effects in degenerate backward four-wave mixing: saturation studies on coupled transitions,” Opt. Commun. 53, 53–58 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

M. Ducloy and D. Bloch, “Polarization properties of phase-conjugate mirrors: angular dependence and disorienting collision effects in resonant backward four-wave mixing for Doppler-broadened degenerate transitions,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 3107–3122 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1980

1979

1978

1977

Abrams, R. L.

Ai, B.

Arimondo, E.

Q. Glorieux, L. Guidoni, S. Guibal, J.-P. Likforman, T. Coudreau, and E. Arimondo, “Quantum correlations by four-wave mixing in an atomic vapor in a nonamplifying regime: quantum beam splitter for photons,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 053826 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. F. McCormick, V. Boyer, E. Arimondo, and P. D. Lett, “Strong relative intensity squeezing by four-wave mixing in rubidium vapor,” Opt. Lett. 32, 178–180 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Banerjee, A.

D. Das, S. Barthwal, A. Banerjee, and V. Natarajan, “Absolute frequency measurements in Yb with 0.08 ppb uncertainty: isotope shifts and hyperfine structure in the 399 nm S01→P11 line,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 032506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barthwal, S.

D. Das, S. Barthwal, A. Banerjee, and V. Natarajan, “Absolute frequency measurements in Yb with 0.08 ppb uncertainty: isotope shifts and hyperfine structure in the 399 nm S01→P11 line,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 032506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bloch, D.

M. Ducloy, F. A. M. de Oliveira, and D. Bloch, “Theory of resonant Doppler-broadened backward four-wave mixing in the pump saturation regime,” Phys. Rev. A 32, 1614–1623 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. Ducloy and D. Bloch, “Polarization properties of phase-conjugate mirrors: angular dependence and disorienting collision effects in resonant backward four-wave mixing for Doppler-broadened degenerate transitions,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 3107–3122 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bloom, D. M.

Boyd, R. W.

M. Kauranen, D. J. Gauthier, M. S. Malcuit, and R. W. Boyd, “Polarization properties of optical phase conjugation by two-photon resonant degenerate four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 1908–1917 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Gaeta, M. T. Gruneisen, and R. W. Boyd, “Theory of degenerate four-wave mixing in saturable absorbing media with the inclusion of pump propagation effects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1095–1101 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, 2003).

Boyer, V.

R. C. Pooser, A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, K. M. Jones, and P. D. Lett, “Low-noise amplification of a continuous-variable quantum state,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 010501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Marino, R. C. Pooser, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, “Tunable delay of Einstein-Podolskya-Rosen entanglement,” Nature 457, 859–862 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, “Violation of the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality in the macroscopic regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 233601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. F. McCormick, A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, “Strong low-frequency quantum correlations from a four-wave-mixing amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 043816 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Boyer, A. M. Marino, R. C. Pooser, and P. D. Lett, “Entangled images from four-wave mixing,” Science 321, 544–547 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. F. McCormick, V. Boyer, E. Arimondo, and P. D. Lett, “Strong relative intensity squeezing by four-wave mixing in rubidium vapor,” Opt. Lett. 32, 178–180 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bratfalean, R. T.

Carlson, D. R.

D. Meiser, J. Ye, D. R. Carlson, and M. J. Holland, “Prospects for a millihertz-linewidth laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 163601 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Coudreau, T.

Q. Glorieux, L. Guidoni, S. Guibal, J.-P. Likforman, T. Coudreau, and E. Arimondo, “Quantum correlations by four-wave mixing in an atomic vapor in a nonamplifying regime: quantum beam splitter for photons,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 053826 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Glorieux, L. Guidoni, S. Guibal, J.-P. Likforman, and T. Coudreau, “Strong quantum correlations in four-wave mixing in Rb85 vapor,” e-print arXiv:quant-ph/1004.3950v1 (2010).

Das, D.

D. Das, S. Barthwal, A. Banerjee, and V. Natarajan, “Absolute frequency measurements in Yb with 0.08 ppb uncertainty: isotope shifts and hyperfine structure in the 399 nm S01→P11 line,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 032506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

de Oliveira, F. A. M.

M. Ducloy, F. A. M. de Oliveira, and D. Bloch, “Theory of resonant Doppler-broadened backward four-wave mixing in the pump saturation regime,” Phys. Rev. A 32, 1614–1623 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Doyle, J. M.

T. Hong, A. V. Gorshkov, D. Patterson, A. S. Zibrov, J. M. Doyle, M. D. Lukin, and M. G. Prentiss, “Realization of coherent optically dense media via buffer-gas cooling,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 013806 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ducloy, M.

M. Ducloy, F. A. M. de Oliveira, and D. Bloch, “Theory of resonant Doppler-broadened backward four-wave mixing in the pump saturation regime,” Phys. Rev. A 32, 1614–1623 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. Ducloy and D. Bloch, “Polarization properties of phase-conjugate mirrors: angular dependence and disorienting collision effects in resonant backward four-wave mixing for Doppler-broadened degenerate transitions,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 3107–3122 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Economou, N. P.

Edwards, P. J.

Y.-Q. Li, P. J. Edwards, X. Huang, and Y. Wang, “Violation of a classical Cauchy-Schwarz inequality in photon noise spectra,” J. Opt. B 2, 292–298 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ewart, P.

Fuyama, M.

T. Takano, M. Fuyama, R. Namiki, and Y. Takahashi, “Spin squeezing of a cold atomic ensemble with the nuclear spin of one-half,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 033601 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A. L.

M. Y. Lanzerotti, R. W. Schirmer, and A. L. Gaeta, “High-reflectivity, wide-bandwidth optical phase conjugation via four-wave mixing in potassium vapor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1199–1201 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Gaeta, M. T. Gruneisen, and R. W. Boyd, “Theory of degenerate four-wave mixing in saturable absorbing media with the inclusion of pump propagation effects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1095–1101 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier, D. J.

M. Kauranen, D. J. Gauthier, M. S. Malcuit, and R. W. Boyd, “Polarization properties of optical phase conjugation by two-photon resonant degenerate four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 1908–1917 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Glassner, D. S.

D. S. Glassner and R. J. Knize, “Reduced angular dependence for degenerate four-wave mixing in potassium vapor by including nitrogen buffer gas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1593–1595 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Glassner, B. Ai, and R. J. Knize, “Low-intensity degenerate four-wave mixing at the cesium D1 resonance in thin cells,” Opt. Lett. 19, 2071–2073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Glorieux, Q.

Q. Glorieux, L. Guidoni, S. Guibal, J.-P. Likforman, T. Coudreau, and E. Arimondo, “Quantum correlations by four-wave mixing in an atomic vapor in a nonamplifying regime: quantum beam splitter for photons,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 053826 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Glorieux, L. Guidoni, S. Guibal, J.-P. Likforman, and T. Coudreau, “Strong quantum correlations in four-wave mixing in Rb85 vapor,” e-print arXiv:quant-ph/1004.3950v1 (2010).

Gordon, J. P.

Gorshkov, A. V.

T. Hong, A. V. Gorshkov, D. Patterson, A. S. Zibrov, J. M. Doyle, M. D. Lukin, and M. G. Prentiss, “Realization of coherent optically dense media via buffer-gas cooling,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 013806 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gruneisen, M. T.

A. L. Gaeta, M. T. Gruneisen, and R. W. Boyd, “Theory of degenerate four-wave mixing in saturable absorbing media with the inclusion of pump propagation effects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1095–1101 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Guibal, S.

Q. Glorieux, L. Guidoni, S. Guibal, J.-P. Likforman, T. Coudreau, and E. Arimondo, “Quantum correlations by four-wave mixing in an atomic vapor in a nonamplifying regime: quantum beam splitter for photons,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 053826 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Glorieux, L. Guidoni, S. Guibal, J.-P. Likforman, and T. Coudreau, “Strong quantum correlations in four-wave mixing in Rb85 vapor,” e-print arXiv:quant-ph/1004.3950v1 (2010).

Guidoni, L.

Q. Glorieux, L. Guidoni, S. Guibal, J.-P. Likforman, T. Coudreau, and E. Arimondo, “Quantum correlations by four-wave mixing in an atomic vapor in a nonamplifying regime: quantum beam splitter for photons,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 053826 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Glorieux, L. Guidoni, S. Guibal, J.-P. Likforman, and T. Coudreau, “Strong quantum correlations in four-wave mixing in Rb85 vapor,” e-print arXiv:quant-ph/1004.3950v1 (2010).

Holland, M. J.

D. Meiser, J. Ye, D. R. Carlson, and M. J. Holland, “Prospects for a millihertz-linewidth laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 163601 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hong, T.

T. Hong, A. V. Gorshkov, D. Patterson, A. S. Zibrov, J. M. Doyle, M. D. Lukin, and M. G. Prentiss, “Realization of coherent optically dense media via buffer-gas cooling,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 013806 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X.

Y.-Q. Li, P. J. Edwards, X. Huang, and Y. Wang, “Violation of a classical Cauchy-Schwarz inequality in photon noise spectra,” J. Opt. B 2, 292–298 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Humphrey, L. M.

Jasperse, M.

Jones, K. M.

R. C. Pooser, A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, K. M. Jones, and P. D. Lett, “Low-noise amplification of a continuous-variable quantum state,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 010501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jose, F.

M.-J. Lu, F. Jose, and J. D. Weinstein, “Stopped light with a cryogenic ensemble of Yb173 atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 061802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kauranen, M.

M. Kauranen, D. J. Gauthier, M. S. Malcuit, and R. W. Boyd, “Polarization properties of optical phase conjugation by two-photon resonant degenerate four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 1908–1917 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Knize, R. J.

Koster, E.

E. Koster, J. Mlynek, and W. Lange, “Zeeman coherence effects in degenerate backward four-wave mixing: saturation studies on coupled transitions,” Opt. Commun. 53, 53–58 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Lam, J. F.

R. L. Abrams, J. F. Lam, R. C. Lind, D. G. Steel, and P. F. Liao, Optical Phase Conjugation (Academic, 1983).

Lange, W.

E. Koster, J. Mlynek, and W. Lange, “Zeeman coherence effects in degenerate backward four-wave mixing: saturation studies on coupled transitions,” Opt. Commun. 53, 53–58 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Lanzerotti, M. Y.

M. Y. Lanzerotti, R. W. Schirmer, and A. L. Gaeta, “High-reflectivity, wide-bandwidth optical phase conjugation via four-wave mixing in potassium vapor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1199–1201 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lett, P. D.

R. C. Pooser, A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, K. M. Jones, and P. D. Lett, “Low-noise amplification of a continuous-variable quantum state,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 010501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Marino, R. C. Pooser, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, “Tunable delay of Einstein-Podolskya-Rosen entanglement,” Nature 457, 859–862 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, “Violation of the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality in the macroscopic regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 233601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Boyer, A. M. Marino, R. C. Pooser, and P. D. Lett, “Entangled images from four-wave mixing,” Science 321, 544–547 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. F. McCormick, A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, “Strong low-frequency quantum correlations from a four-wave-mixing amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 043816 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. F. McCormick, V. Boyer, E. Arimondo, and P. D. Lett, “Strong relative intensity squeezing by four-wave mixing in rubidium vapor,” Opt. Lett. 32, 178–180 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.-Q.

Y.-Q. Li, P. J. Edwards, X. Huang, and Y. Wang, “Violation of a classical Cauchy-Schwarz inequality in photon noise spectra,” J. Opt. B 2, 292–298 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liao, P. F.

Likforman, J.-P.

Q. Glorieux, L. Guidoni, S. Guibal, J.-P. Likforman, T. Coudreau, and E. Arimondo, “Quantum correlations by four-wave mixing in an atomic vapor in a nonamplifying regime: quantum beam splitter for photons,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 053826 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Glorieux, L. Guidoni, S. Guibal, J.-P. Likforman, and T. Coudreau, “Strong quantum correlations in four-wave mixing in Rb85 vapor,” e-print arXiv:quant-ph/1004.3950v1 (2010).

Lind, R. C.

Lloyd, G. M.

Lu, M.-J.

M.-J. Lu and J. D. Weinstein, “Electromagnetically induced transparency with nuclear spin,” Opt. Lett. 35, 622–624 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M.-J. Lu, F. Jose, and J. D. Weinstein, “Stopped light with a cryogenic ensemble of Yb173 atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 061802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lukin, M. D.

T. Hong, A. V. Gorshkov, D. Patterson, A. S. Zibrov, J. M. Doyle, M. D. Lukin, and M. G. Prentiss, “Realization of coherent optically dense media via buffer-gas cooling,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 013806 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Malcuit, M. S.

M. Kauranen, D. J. Gauthier, M. S. Malcuit, and R. W. Boyd, “Polarization properties of optical phase conjugation by two-photon resonant degenerate four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 1908–1917 (1989).
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R. C. Pooser, A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, K. M. Jones, and P. D. Lett, “Low-noise amplification of a continuous-variable quantum state,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 010501 (2009).
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A. M. Marino, R. C. Pooser, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, “Tunable delay of Einstein-Podolskya-Rosen entanglement,” Nature 457, 859–862 (2009).
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A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, “Violation of the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality in the macroscopic regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 233601 (2008).
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V. Boyer, A. M. Marino, R. C. Pooser, and P. D. Lett, “Entangled images from four-wave mixing,” Science 321, 544–547 (2008).
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C. F. McCormick, A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, “Strong low-frequency quantum correlations from a four-wave-mixing amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 043816 (2008).
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McCormick, C. F.

C. F. McCormick, A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, “Strong low-frequency quantum correlations from a four-wave-mixing amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 043816 (2008).
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D. Meiser, J. Ye, D. R. Carlson, and M. J. Holland, “Prospects for a millihertz-linewidth laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 163601 (2009).
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Mlynek, J.

E. Koster, J. Mlynek, and W. Lange, “Zeeman coherence effects in degenerate backward four-wave mixing: saturation studies on coupled transitions,” Opt. Commun. 53, 53–58 (1985).
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T. Takano, M. Fuyama, R. Namiki, and Y. Takahashi, “Spin squeezing of a cold atomic ensemble with the nuclear spin of one-half,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 033601 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Natarajan, V.

D. Das, S. Barthwal, A. Banerjee, and V. Natarajan, “Absolute frequency measurements in Yb with 0.08 ppb uncertainty: isotope shifts and hyperfine structure in the 399 nm S01→P11 line,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 032506 (2005).
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Patterson, D.

T. Hong, A. V. Gorshkov, D. Patterson, A. S. Zibrov, J. M. Doyle, M. D. Lukin, and M. G. Prentiss, “Realization of coherent optically dense media via buffer-gas cooling,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 013806 (2009).
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Pepper, D. M.

Pooser, R. C.

A. M. Marino, R. C. Pooser, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, “Tunable delay of Einstein-Podolskya-Rosen entanglement,” Nature 457, 859–862 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Pooser, A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, K. M. Jones, and P. D. Lett, “Low-noise amplification of a continuous-variable quantum state,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 010501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Boyer, A. M. Marino, R. C. Pooser, and P. D. Lett, “Entangled images from four-wave mixing,” Science 321, 544–547 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Prentiss, M. G.

T. Hong, A. V. Gorshkov, D. Patterson, A. S. Zibrov, J. M. Doyle, M. D. Lukin, and M. G. Prentiss, “Realization of coherent optically dense media via buffer-gas cooling,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 013806 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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M. Y. Lanzerotti, R. W. Schirmer, and A. L. Gaeta, “High-reflectivity, wide-bandwidth optical phase conjugation via four-wave mixing in potassium vapor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1199–1201 (1996).
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Steel, D. G.

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T. Takano, M. Fuyama, R. Namiki, and Y. Takahashi, “Spin squeezing of a cold atomic ensemble with the nuclear spin of one-half,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 033601 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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T. Takano, M. Fuyama, R. Namiki, and Y. Takahashi, “Spin squeezing of a cold atomic ensemble with the nuclear spin of one-half,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 033601 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Ye, J.

D. Meiser, J. Ye, D. R. Carlson, and M. J. Holland, “Prospects for a millihertz-linewidth laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 163601 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zibrov, A. S.

T. Hong, A. V. Gorshkov, D. Patterson, A. S. Zibrov, J. M. Doyle, M. D. Lukin, and M. G. Prentiss, “Realization of coherent optically dense media via buffer-gas cooling,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 013806 (2009).
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[CrossRef]

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Y.-Q. Li, P. J. Edwards, X. Huang, and Y. Wang, “Violation of a classical Cauchy-Schwarz inequality in photon noise spectra,” J. Opt. B 2, 292–298 (2000).
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Nature

A. M. Marino, R. C. Pooser, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, “Tunable delay of Einstein-Podolskya-Rosen entanglement,” Nature 457, 859–862 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

E. Koster, J. Mlynek, and W. Lange, “Zeeman coherence effects in degenerate backward four-wave mixing: saturation studies on coupled transitions,” Opt. Commun. 53, 53–58 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

D. Das, S. Barthwal, A. Banerjee, and V. Natarajan, “Absolute frequency measurements in Yb with 0.08 ppb uncertainty: isotope shifts and hyperfine structure in the 399 nm S01→P11 line,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 032506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Hong, A. V. Gorshkov, D. Patterson, A. S. Zibrov, J. M. Doyle, M. D. Lukin, and M. G. Prentiss, “Realization of coherent optically dense media via buffer-gas cooling,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 013806 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Glorieux, L. Guidoni, S. Guibal, J.-P. Likforman, T. Coudreau, and E. Arimondo, “Quantum correlations by four-wave mixing in an atomic vapor in a nonamplifying regime: quantum beam splitter for photons,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 053826 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. F. McCormick, A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, “Strong low-frequency quantum correlations from a four-wave-mixing amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 043816 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Ducloy, F. A. M. de Oliveira, and D. Bloch, “Theory of resonant Doppler-broadened backward four-wave mixing in the pump saturation regime,” Phys. Rev. A 32, 1614–1623 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. Ducloy and D. Bloch, “Polarization properties of phase-conjugate mirrors: angular dependence and disorienting collision effects in resonant backward four-wave mixing for Doppler-broadened degenerate transitions,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 3107–3122 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. Kauranen, D. J. Gauthier, M. S. Malcuit, and R. W. Boyd, “Polarization properties of optical phase conjugation by two-photon resonant degenerate four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 1908–1917 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M.-J. Lu, F. Jose, and J. D. Weinstein, “Stopped light with a cryogenic ensemble of Yb173 atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 061802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

D. Meiser, J. Ye, D. R. Carlson, and M. J. Holland, “Prospects for a millihertz-linewidth laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 163601 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, “Violation of the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality in the macroscopic regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 233601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Takano, M. Fuyama, R. Namiki, and Y. Takahashi, “Spin squeezing of a cold atomic ensemble with the nuclear spin of one-half,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 033601 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Pooser, A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, K. M. Jones, and P. D. Lett, “Low-noise amplification of a continuous-variable quantum state,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 010501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Science

V. Boyer, A. M. Marino, R. C. Pooser, and P. D. Lett, “Entangled images from four-wave mixing,” Science 321, 544–547 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. L. Abrams, J. F. Lam, R. C. Lind, D. G. Steel, and P. F. Liao, Optical Phase Conjugation (Academic, 1983).

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, 2003).

Q. Glorieux, L. Guidoni, S. Guibal, J.-P. Likforman, and T. Coudreau, “Strong quantum correlations in four-wave mixing in Rb85 vapor,” e-print arXiv:quant-ph/1004.3950v1 (2010).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

S01 and P11 levels of Yb171. Not shown is the F=3/2 hyperfine level, which lies 321 MHz below the F=1/2level [31].

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The optics setup, as described in the text. To achieve the phase-matching condition, the sum of the k-vectors of the pump beams must equal the sum of the k-vectors of the probe and conjugate beams. In our experiment, k⃗Pump1+k⃗Pump2=k⃗Probe+k⃗Conjugate=0.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured OD and conjugate signal versus frequency; the frequency offset is 25068cm1. The OD, shown in the top half of the graph, saturates at 5 because of detection limitations. The peaks are labeled according to the dominant isotopic contribution to each. In the lower half of the graph, the dashed line shows the conjugate photodetector signal with the probe beam blocked; the red solid curve shows the conjugate signal with the probe beam. In this data the forward pump power is 5 mW, the probe power is 0.9 mW, the beam waist is 440 μm, the angle between the forward pump and probe beams is 8 mrad, and the helium buffer-gas density is 5×1015cm3.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Gain versus forward pump power at two different angles between the forward pump and probe beams, as labeled. The pump beam waist is 725 μm. To correct for optics losses, the gain values on the vertical axis should be multiplied by a factor of 2.5.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Gain on the red side of Yb171 resonance versus the OD of the Yb171 resonance. Forward pump power is 20 mW, with geometric average beam waist of 525 μm; separation angle between forward pump and probe beams is 15 mrad.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Conjugate signal versus cell temperature at helium buffer-gas density of 3×1016cm3.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Conjugate and probe signals versus time when laser is locked, as described in the text.

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