Abstract

A series of ZrO2-doped Ru:Fe:LiNbO3 crystals with various Li composition were grown by conventional Czochralski technique. The OH absorption spectra were measured, and the Lorentzian fitting was employed to analyze the defect structures. The photorefractive properties in these crystals were investigated as a function of Li/Nb ratios. The recording sensitivity of Li-enriched Zr:Ru:Fe:liNbO3 crystal was 1.70cm/J, and the diffraction efficiency was as high as 44.3%, while this crystal could withstand a laser intensity of 3.4×104W/cm2 at 476 nm irradiation. Experimental results definitely showed that Zr:Ru:Fe:LiNbO3 crystals were promising blue photorefraction materials for holographic volume storage.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Yariv, S. Orlov, and G. A. Rakuljic, “Holographic storage dynamics in lithium niobate: theory and experiment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2513–2523 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Buse, A. Adibi, and D. Psaltis, “Non-volatile holographic storage in doubly doped lithium niobate crystals,” Nature 393, 665–668 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Liu, L. Liu, C. Zhou, and L. Xu, “Nonvolatile photorefractive holograms in LiNbO3:Cu:Ce crystals,” Opt. Lett. 25, 908–910 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Liu, L. Liu, C. Zhou, L. Ren, and G. Li, “Nonvolatile holograms in LiNbO3:Fe:Cu by use of the bleaching effect,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6809–6814 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Z. Chai, D. Liu, and R. Zhu, “Investigation for the high recording sensitivity with two-center recording in LiNbO3:Fe:Ru crystals,” Proc. SPIE 6314, 31416 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Zhong, J. Jin, and Z. Wu, “Measurement of optically induced refractive-index damage of lithium niobate doped with different concentration of MgO,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Quantum Electronics Conference (IEEE, 1980), p. 631.
  7. Z. Xu, “Growth and photorefractive properties of Mg:Ce:Fe:LiNbO3 crystals,” Opt. Mater. 30, 920–923 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Dong, and G. Gao, “The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, 3527–3534 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Liu, Y. Kong, W. Li, H. Liu, S. Liu, and S. Chen, “High resistance against ultraviolet photorefraction in zirconium-doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Lett. 35, 10–12 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Tomita, S. Sunarno, and G. Zhang, “Ultraviolet-light-gating two-color photorefractive effect in Mg-doped near-stoichiometric LiNbO3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 753–760 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Kar, R. Bhatt, V. Shukla, R. Choubey, P. Sen, and K. Bartwal, “Optical behaviour of VTE treated near stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystals,” Solid State Commun. 137, 283–287 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Sun, J. Wang, Q. Lv, B. Liu, F. Guo, and R. Wang, “Defect structure and optical damage resistance of In:Mg:Fe:LiNbO3 crystals with various Li/Nb ratios,” J. Cryst. Growth 297, 199–203 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. X. Sun, S. Luo, J. Wang, Y. Jiang, and H. Shi, “Improvement of blue photorefractive properties in In-doped LiNbO3:Fe:Cu crystals,” J. Phys. D 42, 115413–115419 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. X. Zhen, L. Zhao, and Y. Xu, “Defect structure and optical damage resistance of Zn:Fe:LiNbO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 655–659 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Chen, L. Shi, W. Yan, G. Chen, J. Shen, and Y. Li, “OH− absorption bands of LiNbO3 with varying composition,” Chin. Phys. B 18, 2372–2376 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. Choubey, B. Khattak, S. Kar, P. Ramshankar, P. Sen, and K. Bartwal, “Influence of doping on OH absorption in LiNbO3crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 42, 718–722 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Donnerberg, S. Tomlinson, and C. Catlow, “Defects in LiNbO3-II. computer simulation,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 52, 201–210 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y. Kong, W. Zhang, X. Chen, and J. Xu, “OH− absorption spectra of pure lithium niobate crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 11, 2139–2143 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Highly optical damage resistant crystal: zirconium-oxide-doped lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081908–081910 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. L. Kovacs, V. Szaiay, and R. Capelletti, “Stoichiometry dependence of the OH− absorption band in LiNbO3 crystals,” Solid State Commun. 52, 1029–1031 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Y. Fan, C. Xu, S. Xia, C. Guan, L. Cao, Q. He, and G. Jin, “Growth and spectroscopic characterization of Zr:Fe:LiNbO3 crystals with various Li/Nb ratios,” J. Cryst. Growth 312, 1875–1878 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. Fujimura, T. Shimura, and K. Kuroda, “Two-color nonvolatile holographic recording and light-induced absorption in Ru and Fe codoped LiNbO3 crystals,” Opt. Mater. 31, 1194–1199 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  23. K. Sweeney, L. Halliburton, and D. Bryan, “Point defects in Mg-doped lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys. 57, 1036–1044 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  24. G. C. Valley and M. B. Klein, “Optimal properties of photorefractive materials for optical data processing,” Opt. Eng. 22, 704–711 (1983).
  25. G. Zhang, G. Zhang, and S. Liu, “The threshold effect of incident light intensity for the photorefractive light-induced scattering in LiNbO3:Fe, M (M=Mg2+, Zn2+, In3+) crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 4392–4396 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  26. N. Kamber, J. Xu, S. Mikha, G. Zhang, and S. Liu, “Threshold effect of incident light intensity for the resistance against the photorefractive light-induced scattering in doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Commun. 176, 91–96 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  27. W. Yan, H. Chen, L. Shi, S. Liu, and Y. Kong, “Investigations of the light-induced scattering varied with HfO2 codoping in LiNbO3:Fe crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 211108–211110 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2010

Y. Fan, C. Xu, S. Xia, C. Guan, L. Cao, Q. He, and G. Jin, “Growth and spectroscopic characterization of Zr:Fe:LiNbO3 crystals with various Li/Nb ratios,” J. Cryst. Growth 312, 1875–1878 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Liu, Y. Kong, W. Li, H. Liu, S. Liu, and S. Chen, “High resistance against ultraviolet photorefraction in zirconium-doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Lett. 35, 10–12 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

R. Fujimura, T. Shimura, and K. Kuroda, “Two-color nonvolatile holographic recording and light-induced absorption in Ru and Fe codoped LiNbO3 crystals,” Opt. Mater. 31, 1194–1199 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, S. Luo, J. Wang, Y. Jiang, and H. Shi, “Improvement of blue photorefractive properties in In-doped LiNbO3:Fe:Cu crystals,” J. Phys. D 42, 115413–115419 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, L. Shi, W. Yan, G. Chen, J. Shen, and Y. Li, “OH− absorption bands of LiNbO3 with varying composition,” Chin. Phys. B 18, 2372–2376 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

Z. Xu, “Growth and photorefractive properties of Mg:Ce:Fe:LiNbO3 crystals,” Opt. Mater. 30, 920–923 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

R. Choubey, B. Khattak, S. Kar, P. Ramshankar, P. Sen, and K. Bartwal, “Influence of doping on OH absorption in LiNbO3crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 42, 718–722 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Highly optical damage resistant crystal: zirconium-oxide-doped lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081908–081910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Yan, H. Chen, L. Shi, S. Liu, and Y. Kong, “Investigations of the light-induced scattering varied with HfO2 codoping in LiNbO3:Fe crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 211108–211110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

Z. Chai, D. Liu, and R. Zhu, “Investigation for the high recording sensitivity with two-center recording in LiNbO3:Fe:Ru crystals,” Proc. SPIE 6314, 31416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Kar, R. Bhatt, V. Shukla, R. Choubey, P. Sen, and K. Bartwal, “Optical behaviour of VTE treated near stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystals,” Solid State Commun. 137, 283–287 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Sun, J. Wang, Q. Lv, B. Liu, F. Guo, and R. Wang, “Defect structure and optical damage resistance of In:Mg:Fe:LiNbO3 crystals with various Li/Nb ratios,” J. Cryst. Growth 297, 199–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Dong, and G. Gao, “The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, 3527–3534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

X. Zhen, L. Zhao, and Y. Xu, “Defect structure and optical damage resistance of Zn:Fe:LiNbO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 655–659 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2000

N. Kamber, J. Xu, S. Mikha, G. Zhang, and S. Liu, “Threshold effect of incident light intensity for the resistance against the photorefractive light-induced scattering in doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Commun. 176, 91–96 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, L. Liu, C. Zhou, and L. Xu, “Nonvolatile photorefractive holograms in LiNbO3:Cu:Ce crystals,” Opt. Lett. 25, 908–910 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

Y. Kong, W. Zhang, X. Chen, and J. Xu, “OH− absorption spectra of pure lithium niobate crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 11, 2139–2143 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

G. Zhang, G. Zhang, and S. Liu, “The threshold effect of incident light intensity for the photorefractive light-induced scattering in LiNbO3:Fe, M (M=Mg2+, Zn2+, In3+) crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 4392–4396 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Buse, A. Adibi, and D. Psaltis, “Non-volatile holographic storage in doubly doped lithium niobate crystals,” Nature 393, 665–668 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

1991

H. Donnerberg, S. Tomlinson, and C. Catlow, “Defects in LiNbO3-II. computer simulation,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 52, 201–210 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1985

K. Sweeney, L. Halliburton, and D. Bryan, “Point defects in Mg-doped lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys. 57, 1036–1044 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

L. Kovacs, V. Szaiay, and R. Capelletti, “Stoichiometry dependence of the OH− absorption band in LiNbO3 crystals,” Solid State Commun. 52, 1029–1031 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

G. C. Valley and M. B. Klein, “Optimal properties of photorefractive materials for optical data processing,” Opt. Eng. 22, 704–711 (1983).

Adibi, A.

K. Buse, A. Adibi, and D. Psaltis, “Non-volatile holographic storage in doubly doped lithium niobate crystals,” Nature 393, 665–668 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bartwal, K.

R. Choubey, B. Khattak, S. Kar, P. Ramshankar, P. Sen, and K. Bartwal, “Influence of doping on OH absorption in LiNbO3crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 42, 718–722 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Kar, R. Bhatt, V. Shukla, R. Choubey, P. Sen, and K. Bartwal, “Optical behaviour of VTE treated near stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystals,” Solid State Commun. 137, 283–287 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bhatt, R.

S. Kar, R. Bhatt, V. Shukla, R. Choubey, P. Sen, and K. Bartwal, “Optical behaviour of VTE treated near stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystals,” Solid State Commun. 137, 283–287 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bryan, D.

K. Sweeney, L. Halliburton, and D. Bryan, “Point defects in Mg-doped lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys. 57, 1036–1044 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Buse, K.

K. Buse, A. Adibi, and D. Psaltis, “Non-volatile holographic storage in doubly doped lithium niobate crystals,” Nature 393, 665–668 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cao, L.

Y. Fan, C. Xu, S. Xia, C. Guan, L. Cao, Q. He, and G. Jin, “Growth and spectroscopic characterization of Zr:Fe:LiNbO3 crystals with various Li/Nb ratios,” J. Cryst. Growth 312, 1875–1878 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Capelletti, R.

L. Kovacs, V. Szaiay, and R. Capelletti, “Stoichiometry dependence of the OH− absorption band in LiNbO3 crystals,” Solid State Commun. 52, 1029–1031 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Catlow, C.

H. Donnerberg, S. Tomlinson, and C. Catlow, “Defects in LiNbO3-II. computer simulation,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 52, 201–210 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chai, Z.

Z. Chai, D. Liu, and R. Zhu, “Investigation for the high recording sensitivity with two-center recording in LiNbO3:Fe:Ru crystals,” Proc. SPIE 6314, 31416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

H. Chen, L. Shi, W. Yan, G. Chen, J. Shen, and Y. Li, “OH− absorption bands of LiNbO3 with varying composition,” Chin. Phys. B 18, 2372–2376 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, L. Shi, W. Yan, G. Chen, J. Shen, and Y. Li, “OH− absorption bands of LiNbO3 with varying composition,” Chin. Phys. B 18, 2372–2376 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Yan, H. Chen, L. Shi, S. Liu, and Y. Kong, “Investigations of the light-induced scattering varied with HfO2 codoping in LiNbO3:Fe crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 211108–211110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

F. Liu, Y. Kong, W. Li, H. Liu, S. Liu, and S. Chen, “High resistance against ultraviolet photorefraction in zirconium-doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Lett. 35, 10–12 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Highly optical damage resistant crystal: zirconium-oxide-doped lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081908–081910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

Y. Kong, W. Zhang, X. Chen, and J. Xu, “OH− absorption spectra of pure lithium niobate crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 11, 2139–2143 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Choubey, R.

R. Choubey, B. Khattak, S. Kar, P. Ramshankar, P. Sen, and K. Bartwal, “Influence of doping on OH absorption in LiNbO3crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 42, 718–722 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Kar, R. Bhatt, V. Shukla, R. Choubey, P. Sen, and K. Bartwal, “Optical behaviour of VTE treated near stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystals,” Solid State Commun. 137, 283–287 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dong, D.

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Dong, and G. Gao, “The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, 3527–3534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Donnerberg, H.

H. Donnerberg, S. Tomlinson, and C. Catlow, “Defects in LiNbO3-II. computer simulation,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 52, 201–210 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Y.

Y. Fan, C. Xu, S. Xia, C. Guan, L. Cao, Q. He, and G. Jin, “Growth and spectroscopic characterization of Zr:Fe:LiNbO3 crystals with various Li/Nb ratios,” J. Cryst. Growth 312, 1875–1878 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fujimura, R.

R. Fujimura, T. Shimura, and K. Kuroda, “Two-color nonvolatile holographic recording and light-induced absorption in Ru and Fe codoped LiNbO3 crystals,” Opt. Mater. 31, 1194–1199 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gao, G.

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Dong, and G. Gao, “The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, 3527–3534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Guan, C.

Y. Fan, C. Xu, S. Xia, C. Guan, L. Cao, Q. He, and G. Jin, “Growth and spectroscopic characterization of Zr:Fe:LiNbO3 crystals with various Li/Nb ratios,” J. Cryst. Growth 312, 1875–1878 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Guo, F.

L. Sun, J. Wang, Q. Lv, B. Liu, F. Guo, and R. Wang, “Defect structure and optical damage resistance of In:Mg:Fe:LiNbO3 crystals with various Li/Nb ratios,” J. Cryst. Growth 297, 199–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Halliburton, L.

K. Sweeney, L. Halliburton, and D. Bryan, “Point defects in Mg-doped lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys. 57, 1036–1044 (1985).
[CrossRef]

He, Q.

Y. Fan, C. Xu, S. Xia, C. Guan, L. Cao, Q. He, and G. Jin, “Growth and spectroscopic characterization of Zr:Fe:LiNbO3 crystals with various Li/Nb ratios,” J. Cryst. Growth 312, 1875–1878 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

X. Sun, S. Luo, J. Wang, Y. Jiang, and H. Shi, “Improvement of blue photorefractive properties in In-doped LiNbO3:Fe:Cu crystals,” J. Phys. D 42, 115413–115419 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jin, G.

Y. Fan, C. Xu, S. Xia, C. Guan, L. Cao, Q. He, and G. Jin, “Growth and spectroscopic characterization of Zr:Fe:LiNbO3 crystals with various Li/Nb ratios,” J. Cryst. Growth 312, 1875–1878 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jin, J.

G. Zhong, J. Jin, and Z. Wu, “Measurement of optically induced refractive-index damage of lithium niobate doped with different concentration of MgO,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Quantum Electronics Conference (IEEE, 1980), p. 631.

Kamber, N.

N. Kamber, J. Xu, S. Mikha, G. Zhang, and S. Liu, “Threshold effect of incident light intensity for the resistance against the photorefractive light-induced scattering in doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Commun. 176, 91–96 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kar, S.

R. Choubey, B. Khattak, S. Kar, P. Ramshankar, P. Sen, and K. Bartwal, “Influence of doping on OH absorption in LiNbO3crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 42, 718–722 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Kar, R. Bhatt, V. Shukla, R. Choubey, P. Sen, and K. Bartwal, “Optical behaviour of VTE treated near stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystals,” Solid State Commun. 137, 283–287 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Khattak, B.

R. Choubey, B. Khattak, S. Kar, P. Ramshankar, P. Sen, and K. Bartwal, “Influence of doping on OH absorption in LiNbO3crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 42, 718–722 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Klein, M. B.

G. C. Valley and M. B. Klein, “Optimal properties of photorefractive materials for optical data processing,” Opt. Eng. 22, 704–711 (1983).

Kong, Y.

F. Liu, Y. Kong, W. Li, H. Liu, S. Liu, and S. Chen, “High resistance against ultraviolet photorefraction in zirconium-doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Lett. 35, 10–12 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Highly optical damage resistant crystal: zirconium-oxide-doped lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081908–081910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Yan, H. Chen, L. Shi, S. Liu, and Y. Kong, “Investigations of the light-induced scattering varied with HfO2 codoping in LiNbO3:Fe crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 211108–211110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Dong, and G. Gao, “The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, 3527–3534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kong, W. Zhang, X. Chen, and J. Xu, “OH− absorption spectra of pure lithium niobate crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 11, 2139–2143 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kovacs, L.

L. Kovacs, V. Szaiay, and R. Capelletti, “Stoichiometry dependence of the OH− absorption band in LiNbO3 crystals,” Solid State Commun. 52, 1029–1031 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kuroda, K.

R. Fujimura, T. Shimura, and K. Kuroda, “Two-color nonvolatile holographic recording and light-induced absorption in Ru and Fe codoped LiNbO3 crystals,” Opt. Mater. 31, 1194–1199 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

Li, S.

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Dong, and G. Gao, “The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, 3527–3534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, W.

Li, Y.

H. Chen, L. Shi, W. Yan, G. Chen, J. Shen, and Y. Li, “OH− absorption bands of LiNbO3 with varying composition,” Chin. Phys. B 18, 2372–2376 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, B.

L. Sun, J. Wang, Q. Lv, B. Liu, F. Guo, and R. Wang, “Defect structure and optical damage resistance of In:Mg:Fe:LiNbO3 crystals with various Li/Nb ratios,” J. Cryst. Growth 297, 199–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, D.

Z. Chai, D. Liu, and R. Zhu, “Investigation for the high recording sensitivity with two-center recording in LiNbO3:Fe:Ru crystals,” Proc. SPIE 6314, 31416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Liu, L. Liu, C. Zhou, L. Ren, and G. Li, “Nonvolatile holograms in LiNbO3:Fe:Cu by use of the bleaching effect,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6809–6814 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F.

Liu, H.

F. Liu, Y. Kong, W. Li, H. Liu, S. Liu, and S. Chen, “High resistance against ultraviolet photorefraction in zirconium-doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Lett. 35, 10–12 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Highly optical damage resistant crystal: zirconium-oxide-doped lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081908–081910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

Liu, S.

F. Liu, Y. Kong, W. Li, H. Liu, S. Liu, and S. Chen, “High resistance against ultraviolet photorefraction in zirconium-doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Lett. 35, 10–12 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Yan, H. Chen, L. Shi, S. Liu, and Y. Kong, “Investigations of the light-induced scattering varied with HfO2 codoping in LiNbO3:Fe crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 211108–211110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Highly optical damage resistant crystal: zirconium-oxide-doped lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081908–081910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Dong, and G. Gao, “The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, 3527–3534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Kamber, J. Xu, S. Mikha, G. Zhang, and S. Liu, “Threshold effect of incident light intensity for the resistance against the photorefractive light-induced scattering in doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Commun. 176, 91–96 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhang, G. Zhang, and S. Liu, “The threshold effect of incident light intensity for the photorefractive light-induced scattering in LiNbO3:Fe, M (M=Mg2+, Zn2+, In3+) crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 4392–4396 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Luo, S.

X. Sun, S. Luo, J. Wang, Y. Jiang, and H. Shi, “Improvement of blue photorefractive properties in In-doped LiNbO3:Fe:Cu crystals,” J. Phys. D 42, 115413–115419 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lv, Q.

L. Sun, J. Wang, Q. Lv, B. Liu, F. Guo, and R. Wang, “Defect structure and optical damage resistance of In:Mg:Fe:LiNbO3 crystals with various Li/Nb ratios,” J. Cryst. Growth 297, 199–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mikha, S.

N. Kamber, J. Xu, S. Mikha, G. Zhang, and S. Liu, “Threshold effect of incident light intensity for the resistance against the photorefractive light-induced scattering in doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Commun. 176, 91–96 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Orlov, S.

Psaltis, D.

K. Buse, A. Adibi, and D. Psaltis, “Non-volatile holographic storage in doubly doped lithium niobate crystals,” Nature 393, 665–668 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rakuljic, G. A.

Ramshankar, P.

R. Choubey, B. Khattak, S. Kar, P. Ramshankar, P. Sen, and K. Bartwal, “Influence of doping on OH absorption in LiNbO3crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 42, 718–722 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ren, L.

Sen, P.

R. Choubey, B. Khattak, S. Kar, P. Ramshankar, P. Sen, and K. Bartwal, “Influence of doping on OH absorption in LiNbO3crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 42, 718–722 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Kar, R. Bhatt, V. Shukla, R. Choubey, P. Sen, and K. Bartwal, “Optical behaviour of VTE treated near stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystals,” Solid State Commun. 137, 283–287 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shen, J.

H. Chen, L. Shi, W. Yan, G. Chen, J. Shen, and Y. Li, “OH− absorption bands of LiNbO3 with varying composition,” Chin. Phys. B 18, 2372–2376 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shi, H.

X. Sun, S. Luo, J. Wang, Y. Jiang, and H. Shi, “Improvement of blue photorefractive properties in In-doped LiNbO3:Fe:Cu crystals,” J. Phys. D 42, 115413–115419 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shi, L.

H. Chen, L. Shi, W. Yan, G. Chen, J. Shen, and Y. Li, “OH− absorption bands of LiNbO3 with varying composition,” Chin. Phys. B 18, 2372–2376 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Yan, H. Chen, L. Shi, S. Liu, and Y. Kong, “Investigations of the light-induced scattering varied with HfO2 codoping in LiNbO3:Fe crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 211108–211110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shimura, T.

R. Fujimura, T. Shimura, and K. Kuroda, “Two-color nonvolatile holographic recording and light-induced absorption in Ru and Fe codoped LiNbO3 crystals,” Opt. Mater. 31, 1194–1199 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shukla, V.

S. Kar, R. Bhatt, V. Shukla, R. Choubey, P. Sen, and K. Bartwal, “Optical behaviour of VTE treated near stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystals,” Solid State Commun. 137, 283–287 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sun, L.

L. Sun, J. Wang, Q. Lv, B. Liu, F. Guo, and R. Wang, “Defect structure and optical damage resistance of In:Mg:Fe:LiNbO3 crystals with various Li/Nb ratios,” J. Cryst. Growth 297, 199–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

X. Sun, S. Luo, J. Wang, Y. Jiang, and H. Shi, “Improvement of blue photorefractive properties in In-doped LiNbO3:Fe:Cu crystals,” J. Phys. D 42, 115413–115419 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sunarno, S.

Sweeney, K.

K. Sweeney, L. Halliburton, and D. Bryan, “Point defects in Mg-doped lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys. 57, 1036–1044 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Szaiay, V.

L. Kovacs, V. Szaiay, and R. Capelletti, “Stoichiometry dependence of the OH− absorption band in LiNbO3 crystals,” Solid State Commun. 52, 1029–1031 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Tomita, Y.

Tomlinson, S.

H. Donnerberg, S. Tomlinson, and C. Catlow, “Defects in LiNbO3-II. computer simulation,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 52, 201–210 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Valley, G. C.

G. C. Valley and M. B. Klein, “Optimal properties of photorefractive materials for optical data processing,” Opt. Eng. 22, 704–711 (1983).

Wang, J.

X. Sun, S. Luo, J. Wang, Y. Jiang, and H. Shi, “Improvement of blue photorefractive properties in In-doped LiNbO3:Fe:Cu crystals,” J. Phys. D 42, 115413–115419 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Sun, J. Wang, Q. Lv, B. Liu, F. Guo, and R. Wang, “Defect structure and optical damage resistance of In:Mg:Fe:LiNbO3 crystals with various Li/Nb ratios,” J. Cryst. Growth 297, 199–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R.

L. Sun, J. Wang, Q. Lv, B. Liu, F. Guo, and R. Wang, “Defect structure and optical damage resistance of In:Mg:Fe:LiNbO3 crystals with various Li/Nb ratios,” J. Cryst. Growth 297, 199–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z.

G. Zhong, J. Jin, and Z. Wu, “Measurement of optically induced refractive-index damage of lithium niobate doped with different concentration of MgO,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Quantum Electronics Conference (IEEE, 1980), p. 631.

Xia, S.

Y. Fan, C. Xu, S. Xia, C. Guan, L. Cao, Q. He, and G. Jin, “Growth and spectroscopic characterization of Zr:Fe:LiNbO3 crystals with various Li/Nb ratios,” J. Cryst. Growth 312, 1875–1878 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C.

Y. Fan, C. Xu, S. Xia, C. Guan, L. Cao, Q. He, and G. Jin, “Growth and spectroscopic characterization of Zr:Fe:LiNbO3 crystals with various Li/Nb ratios,” J. Cryst. Growth 312, 1875–1878 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Highly optical damage resistant crystal: zirconium-oxide-doped lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081908–081910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Kamber, J. Xu, S. Mikha, G. Zhang, and S. Liu, “Threshold effect of incident light intensity for the resistance against the photorefractive light-induced scattering in doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Commun. 176, 91–96 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kong, W. Zhang, X. Chen, and J. Xu, “OH− absorption spectra of pure lithium niobate crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 11, 2139–2143 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.

Xu, Y.

X. Zhen, L. Zhao, and Y. Xu, “Defect structure and optical damage resistance of Zn:Fe:LiNbO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 655–659 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

Z. Xu, “Growth and photorefractive properties of Mg:Ce:Fe:LiNbO3 crystals,” Opt. Mater. 30, 920–923 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yan, W.

H. Chen, L. Shi, W. Yan, G. Chen, J. Shen, and Y. Li, “OH− absorption bands of LiNbO3 with varying composition,” Chin. Phys. B 18, 2372–2376 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Yan, H. Chen, L. Shi, S. Liu, and Y. Kong, “Investigations of the light-induced scattering varied with HfO2 codoping in LiNbO3:Fe crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 211108–211110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

Zhang, G.

Y. Tomita, S. Sunarno, and G. Zhang, “Ultraviolet-light-gating two-color photorefractive effect in Mg-doped near-stoichiometric LiNbO3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 753–760 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Kamber, J. Xu, S. Mikha, G. Zhang, and S. Liu, “Threshold effect of incident light intensity for the resistance against the photorefractive light-induced scattering in doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Commun. 176, 91–96 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhang, G. Zhang, and S. Liu, “The threshold effect of incident light intensity for the photorefractive light-induced scattering in LiNbO3:Fe, M (M=Mg2+, Zn2+, In3+) crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 4392–4396 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhang, G. Zhang, and S. Liu, “The threshold effect of incident light intensity for the photorefractive light-induced scattering in LiNbO3:Fe, M (M=Mg2+, Zn2+, In3+) crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 4392–4396 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

Y. Kong, W. Zhang, X. Chen, and J. Xu, “OH− absorption spectra of pure lithium niobate crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 11, 2139–2143 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L.

X. Zhen, L. Zhao, and Y. Xu, “Defect structure and optical damage resistance of Zn:Fe:LiNbO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 655–659 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Highly optical damage resistant crystal: zirconium-oxide-doped lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081908–081910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhen, X.

X. Zhen, L. Zhao, and Y. Xu, “Defect structure and optical damage resistance of Zn:Fe:LiNbO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 655–659 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, G.

G. Zhong, J. Jin, and Z. Wu, “Measurement of optically induced refractive-index damage of lithium niobate doped with different concentration of MgO,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Quantum Electronics Conference (IEEE, 1980), p. 631.

Zhou, C.

Zhu, R.

Z. Chai, D. Liu, and R. Zhu, “Investigation for the high recording sensitivity with two-center recording in LiNbO3:Fe:Ru crystals,” Proc. SPIE 6314, 31416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

X. Zhen, L. Zhao, and Y. Xu, “Defect structure and optical damage resistance of Zn:Fe:LiNbO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 655–659 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Highly optical damage resistant crystal: zirconium-oxide-doped lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081908–081910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Yan, H. Chen, L. Shi, S. Liu, and Y. Kong, “Investigations of the light-induced scattering varied with HfO2 codoping in LiNbO3:Fe crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 211108–211110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. B

H. Chen, L. Shi, W. Yan, G. Chen, J. Shen, and Y. Li, “OH− absorption bands of LiNbO3 with varying composition,” Chin. Phys. B 18, 2372–2376 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cryst. Res. Technol.

R. Choubey, B. Khattak, S. Kar, P. Ramshankar, P. Sen, and K. Bartwal, “Influence of doping on OH absorption in LiNbO3crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 42, 718–722 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

G. Zhang, G. Zhang, and S. Liu, “The threshold effect of incident light intensity for the photorefractive light-induced scattering in LiNbO3:Fe, M (M=Mg2+, Zn2+, In3+) crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 4392–4396 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Sweeney, L. Halliburton, and D. Bryan, “Point defects in Mg-doped lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys. 57, 1036–1044 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

Y. Fan, C. Xu, S. Xia, C. Guan, L. Cao, Q. He, and G. Jin, “Growth and spectroscopic characterization of Zr:Fe:LiNbO3 crystals with various Li/Nb ratios,” J. Cryst. Growth 312, 1875–1878 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Sun, J. Wang, Q. Lv, B. Liu, F. Guo, and R. Wang, “Defect structure and optical damage resistance of In:Mg:Fe:LiNbO3 crystals with various Li/Nb ratios,” J. Cryst. Growth 297, 199–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. Chem. Solids

H. Donnerberg, S. Tomlinson, and C. Catlow, “Defects in LiNbO3-II. computer simulation,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 52, 201–210 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter

Y. Kong, W. Zhang, X. Chen, and J. Xu, “OH− absorption spectra of pure lithium niobate crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 11, 2139–2143 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Dong, and G. Gao, “The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, 3527–3534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D

X. Sun, S. Luo, J. Wang, Y. Jiang, and H. Shi, “Improvement of blue photorefractive properties in In-doped LiNbO3:Fe:Cu crystals,” J. Phys. D 42, 115413–115419 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature

K. Buse, A. Adibi, and D. Psaltis, “Non-volatile holographic storage in doubly doped lithium niobate crystals,” Nature 393, 665–668 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

N. Kamber, J. Xu, S. Mikha, G. Zhang, and S. Liu, “Threshold effect of incident light intensity for the resistance against the photorefractive light-induced scattering in doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Commun. 176, 91–96 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

G. C. Valley and M. B. Klein, “Optimal properties of photorefractive materials for optical data processing,” Opt. Eng. 22, 704–711 (1983).

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater.

Z. Xu, “Growth and photorefractive properties of Mg:Ce:Fe:LiNbO3 crystals,” Opt. Mater. 30, 920–923 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Fujimura, T. Shimura, and K. Kuroda, “Two-color nonvolatile holographic recording and light-induced absorption in Ru and Fe codoped LiNbO3 crystals,” Opt. Mater. 31, 1194–1199 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

Z. Chai, D. Liu, and R. Zhu, “Investigation for the high recording sensitivity with two-center recording in LiNbO3:Fe:Ru crystals,” Proc. SPIE 6314, 31416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun.

L. Kovacs, V. Szaiay, and R. Capelletti, “Stoichiometry dependence of the OH− absorption band in LiNbO3 crystals,” Solid State Commun. 52, 1029–1031 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. Kar, R. Bhatt, V. Shukla, R. Choubey, P. Sen, and K. Bartwal, “Optical behaviour of VTE treated near stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystals,” Solid State Commun. 137, 283–287 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other

G. Zhong, J. Jin, and Z. Wu, “Measurement of optically induced refractive-index damage of lithium niobate doped with different concentration of MgO,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Quantum Electronics Conference (IEEE, 1980), p. 631.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Measured OH absorption spectra and peaks fitted by the Lorentzian function.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured UV–visible absorption spectra of the crystals.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Time evolution of the diffraction efficiency during recording and readout in Zr : Ru : Fe : LiNbO 3 crystal.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Distorted spots of transmitted laser beam. The top samples from left to right are Ru:Fe:LN, LN 0.94 , LN 1.10 , and LN 1.38 (irradiated with 8.2 × 10 2 W / cm 2 ). The bottom is samples LN 0.94 , LN 1.10 , and LN 1.38 (irradiated with 3.4 × 10 4 W / cm 2 ).

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Composition of Zr : Ru : Fe : LiNbO 3 Crystals with Various Li/Nb Ratios

Tables Icon

Table 2. Positions of Component Peaks in the OH Absorption Spectra

Tables Icon

Table 3. Parameters of Response Time ( τ r ), Diffraction Efficiency ( η sat ), and Sensitivity ( S ) Used for Photorefractive Measurements in Zr : Ru : Fe : LiNbO 3 Crystals

Metrics