Abstract

A study of the surface modification induced by single femtosecond laser pulses in phosphate glass has revealed surface swelling at fluences just below the ablation threshold. This behavior is different from that observed in other dielectric materials. Optical micrographs obtained with monochromatic light show a pattern of Newton rings within the swollen region whose number scales inversely with the illumination wavelength, acting as a micro Fabry–Perot etalon. The swollen surface layer has lower refractive index than the bulk glass and can reach a maximum thickness of 820 nm. We relate these findings to results obtained during subsurface waveguide writing inside phosphate glass, which also show a refractive index decrease at energies near threshold for waveguide fabrication. We have identified low density free-electron plasma to be the trigger of the refractive index change.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Hirao, T. Mitsuyu, J. Si, and J. Qiu, Active Glass for Photonic Applications: Photoinduced Structures and Their Application (Springer, 2001).
  3. G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, “Micromachining of photonic devices by femtosecond laser pulses (Review article),” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 013001 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, P. Mataloni, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Polarization entangled state measurement on a chip,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 1–4 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, and R. Ramponi, Femtosecond Laser Micromaching: Photonic and Microfluidic Devices in Transparent Materials, Vol. 123 of Topics in Applied Physics(Springer, 2012).
  6. A. Ostendorf, F. Korte, G. Kamlage, U. Klug, J. Koch, J. Serbin, N. Baersch, T. Bauer, and B. N. Chichkov, “Applications of femtosecond lasers in 3D micromachining,” in 3D Laser Microfabrication Principles and Applications, H. Misawa and S. Juodkazis, eds. (Wiley-VCH, 2006).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2011 (3)

J. D. B. Bradley, and M. Pollnau, “Erbium-doped integrated waveguide amplifiers and lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 368–403 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ferrer, D. Jaque, J. Siegel, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, and J. Solis, “Origin of the refractive index modification of femtosecond laser processed doped phosphate glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 093107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Bressel, D. de Ligny, C. Sonneville, V. Martinez, V. Mizeikis, R. Buividas, and S. Juodkazis, “Femtosecond laser induced density changes in GeO2 and SiO2 glasses: fictive temperature effect,” Opt. Mater. Express 1, 605–613 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

D. Puerto, J. Siegel, W. Gawelda, M. Galvan-Sosa, L. Ehrentraut, J. Bonse, and Y. J. Solis, “Dynamics of plasma formation, relaxation, and topography modification induced by femtosecond laser pulses in crystalline and amorphous dielectrics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 1065–1076 (2010).

A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, D. Puerto, W. Gawelda, J. A. Vallés, M. A. Rebolledo, V. Berdejo, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, “In situ assessment and minimization of nonlinear propagation effects for femtosecond-laser waveguide writing in dielectrics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 1688–1692 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Little, M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “Mechanism of femtosecond-laser induced refractive index change in phosphate glass under a low repetition-rate regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 033110 (2010).

L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, P. Mataloni, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Polarization entangled state measurement on a chip,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 1–4 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, “Micromachining of photonic devices by femtosecond laser pulses (Review article),” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 013001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Fletcher, J. J. Witcher, W. B. Reichman, A. Arai, J. Bovatsek, and D. M. Krol, “Changes to the network structure of Er–Yb doped phosphate glass induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 083107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

W. Gawelda, D. Puerto, J. Siegel, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, H. Fernández, and J. Solis, “Ultrafast imaging of transient electronic plasmas produced in conditions of femtosecond waveguide writing in dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 121109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

J. Siegel, D. Puerto, W. Gawelda, G. Bachelier, J. Solis, L. Ehrentraut, and J. Bonse, “Plasma formation and structural modification below the visible ablation threshold in fused silica upon femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 082902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Ben-Yakar, A. Harkin, J. Ashmore, R. L. Byer, and H. A. Stone, “Thermal and fluid processes of a thin melt zone during femtosecond laser ablation of glass: the formation of rims by single laser pulses,” J. Phys. D 40, 1447 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

F. Patel, S. DiCarolis, and P. Lum, “A compact high-performance optical waveguide amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2607–2609 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1970 (1)

R. Brückner, “Properties and structure of vitreous silica I,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 5, 123–175 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Ams, M.

D. J. Little, M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “Mechanism of femtosecond-laser induced refractive index change in phosphate glass under a low repetition-rate regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 033110 (2010).

Arai, A.

L. B. Fletcher, J. J. Witcher, W. B. Reichman, A. Arai, J. Bovatsek, and D. M. Krol, “Changes to the network structure of Er–Yb doped phosphate glass induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 083107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A. Arai, “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13, 4708–4716 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ashmore, J.

A. Ben-Yakar, A. Harkin, J. Ashmore, R. L. Byer, and H. A. Stone, “Thermal and fluid processes of a thin melt zone during femtosecond laser ablation of glass: the formation of rims by single laser pulses,” J. Phys. D 40, 1447 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bachelier, G.

J. Siegel, D. Puerto, W. Gawelda, G. Bachelier, J. Solis, L. Ehrentraut, and J. Bonse, “Plasma formation and structural modification below the visible ablation threshold in fused silica upon femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 082902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baersch, N.

A. Ostendorf, F. Korte, G. Kamlage, U. Klug, J. Koch, J. Serbin, N. Baersch, T. Bauer, and B. N. Chichkov, “Applications of femtosecond lasers in 3D micromachining,” in 3D Laser Microfabrication Principles and Applications, H. Misawa and S. Juodkazis, eds. (Wiley-VCH, 2006).

Bauer, T.

A. Ostendorf, F. Korte, G. Kamlage, U. Klug, J. Koch, J. Serbin, N. Baersch, T. Bauer, and B. N. Chichkov, “Applications of femtosecond lasers in 3D micromachining,” in 3D Laser Microfabrication Principles and Applications, H. Misawa and S. Juodkazis, eds. (Wiley-VCH, 2006).

Ben-Yakar, A.

A. Ben-Yakar, A. Harkin, J. Ashmore, R. L. Byer, and H. A. Stone, “Thermal and fluid processes of a thin melt zone during femtosecond laser ablation of glass: the formation of rims by single laser pulses,” J. Phys. D 40, 1447 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Berdejo, V.

Bonse, J.

D. Puerto, J. Siegel, W. Gawelda, M. Galvan-Sosa, L. Ehrentraut, J. Bonse, and Y. J. Solis, “Dynamics of plasma formation, relaxation, and topography modification induced by femtosecond laser pulses in crystalline and amorphous dielectrics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 1065–1076 (2010).

J. Siegel, D. Puerto, W. Gawelda, G. Bachelier, J. Solis, L. Ehrentraut, and J. Bonse, “Plasma formation and structural modification below the visible ablation threshold in fused silica upon femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 082902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bovatsek, J.

L. B. Fletcher, J. J. Witcher, W. B. Reichman, A. Arai, J. Bovatsek, and D. M. Krol, “Changes to the network structure of Er–Yb doped phosphate glass induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 083107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A. Arai, “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13, 4708–4716 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, J. D. B.

J. D. B. Bradley, and M. Pollnau, “Erbium-doped integrated waveguide amplifiers and lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 368–403 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bressel, L.

Brückner, R.

R. Brückner, “Properties and structure of vitreous silica I,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 5, 123–175 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Buividas, R.

Byer, R. L.

A. Ben-Yakar, A. Harkin, J. Ashmore, R. L. Byer, and H. A. Stone, “Thermal and fluid processes of a thin melt zone during femtosecond laser ablation of glass: the formation of rims by single laser pulses,” J. Phys. D 40, 1447 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, and R. Ramponi, Femtosecond Laser Micromaching: Photonic and Microfluidic Devices in Transparent Materials, Vol. 123 of Topics in Applied Physics(Springer, 2012).

Chichkov, B. N.

A. Ostendorf, F. Korte, G. Kamlage, U. Klug, J. Koch, J. Serbin, N. Baersch, T. Bauer, and B. N. Chichkov, “Applications of femtosecond lasers in 3D micromachining,” in 3D Laser Microfabrication Principles and Applications, H. Misawa and S. Juodkazis, eds. (Wiley-VCH, 2006).

Crespi, A.

L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, P. Mataloni, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Polarization entangled state measurement on a chip,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 1–4 (2010).
[CrossRef]

de Ligny, D.

Dekker, P.

D. J. Little, M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “Mechanism of femtosecond-laser induced refractive index change in phosphate glass under a low repetition-rate regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 033110 (2010).

Della Valle, G.

G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, “Micromachining of photonic devices by femtosecond laser pulses (Review article),” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 013001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

DiCarolis, S.

F. Patel, S. DiCarolis, and P. Lum, “A compact high-performance optical waveguide amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2607–2609 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eaton, S.

Ehrentraut, L.

D. Puerto, J. Siegel, W. Gawelda, M. Galvan-Sosa, L. Ehrentraut, J. Bonse, and Y. J. Solis, “Dynamics of plasma formation, relaxation, and topography modification induced by femtosecond laser pulses in crystalline and amorphous dielectrics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 1065–1076 (2010).

J. Siegel, D. Puerto, W. Gawelda, G. Bachelier, J. Solis, L. Ehrentraut, and J. Bonse, “Plasma formation and structural modification below the visible ablation threshold in fused silica upon femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 082902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fernández, H.

W. Gawelda, D. Puerto, J. Siegel, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, H. Fernández, and J. Solis, “Ultrafast imaging of transient electronic plasmas produced in conditions of femtosecond waveguide writing in dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 121109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ferrer, A.

A. Ferrer, D. Jaque, J. Siegel, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, and J. Solis, “Origin of the refractive index modification of femtosecond laser processed doped phosphate glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 093107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, D. Puerto, W. Gawelda, J. A. Vallés, M. A. Rebolledo, V. Berdejo, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, “In situ assessment and minimization of nonlinear propagation effects for femtosecond-laser waveguide writing in dielectrics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 1688–1692 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Gawelda, D. Puerto, J. Siegel, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, H. Fernández, and J. Solis, “Ultrafast imaging of transient electronic plasmas produced in conditions of femtosecond waveguide writing in dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 121109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fletcher, L. B.

L. B. Fletcher, J. J. Witcher, W. B. Reichman, A. Arai, J. Bovatsek, and D. M. Krol, “Changes to the network structure of Er–Yb doped phosphate glass induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 083107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Galvan-Sosa, M.

Gawelda, W.

D. Puerto, J. Siegel, W. Gawelda, M. Galvan-Sosa, L. Ehrentraut, J. Bonse, and Y. J. Solis, “Dynamics of plasma formation, relaxation, and topography modification induced by femtosecond laser pulses in crystalline and amorphous dielectrics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 1065–1076 (2010).

A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, D. Puerto, W. Gawelda, J. A. Vallés, M. A. Rebolledo, V. Berdejo, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, “In situ assessment and minimization of nonlinear propagation effects for femtosecond-laser waveguide writing in dielectrics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 1688–1692 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Gawelda, D. Puerto, J. Siegel, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, H. Fernández, and J. Solis, “Ultrafast imaging of transient electronic plasmas produced in conditions of femtosecond waveguide writing in dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 121109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Siegel, D. Puerto, W. Gawelda, G. Bachelier, J. Solis, L. Ehrentraut, and J. Bonse, “Plasma formation and structural modification below the visible ablation threshold in fused silica upon femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 082902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Harkin, A.

A. Ben-Yakar, A. Harkin, J. Ashmore, R. L. Byer, and H. A. Stone, “Thermal and fluid processes of a thin melt zone during femtosecond laser ablation of glass: the formation of rims by single laser pulses,” J. Phys. D 40, 1447 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Herman, P.

Hirao, K.

K. Hirao, T. Mitsuyu, J. Si, and J. Qiu, Active Glass for Photonic Applications: Photoinduced Structures and Their Application (Springer, 2001).

Jaque, D.

A. Ferrer, D. Jaque, J. Siegel, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, and J. Solis, “Origin of the refractive index modification of femtosecond laser processed doped phosphate glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 093107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Juodkazis, S.

Kamlage, G.

A. Ostendorf, F. Korte, G. Kamlage, U. Klug, J. Koch, J. Serbin, N. Baersch, T. Bauer, and B. N. Chichkov, “Applications of femtosecond lasers in 3D micromachining,” in 3D Laser Microfabrication Principles and Applications, H. Misawa and S. Juodkazis, eds. (Wiley-VCH, 2006).

Klug, U.

A. Ostendorf, F. Korte, G. Kamlage, U. Klug, J. Koch, J. Serbin, N. Baersch, T. Bauer, and B. N. Chichkov, “Applications of femtosecond lasers in 3D micromachining,” in 3D Laser Microfabrication Principles and Applications, H. Misawa and S. Juodkazis, eds. (Wiley-VCH, 2006).

Koch, J.

A. Ostendorf, F. Korte, G. Kamlage, U. Klug, J. Koch, J. Serbin, N. Baersch, T. Bauer, and B. N. Chichkov, “Applications of femtosecond lasers in 3D micromachining,” in 3D Laser Microfabrication Principles and Applications, H. Misawa and S. Juodkazis, eds. (Wiley-VCH, 2006).

Korte, F.

A. Ostendorf, F. Korte, G. Kamlage, U. Klug, J. Koch, J. Serbin, N. Baersch, T. Bauer, and B. N. Chichkov, “Applications of femtosecond lasers in 3D micromachining,” in 3D Laser Microfabrication Principles and Applications, H. Misawa and S. Juodkazis, eds. (Wiley-VCH, 2006).

Krol, D. M.

L. B. Fletcher, J. J. Witcher, W. B. Reichman, A. Arai, J. Bovatsek, and D. M. Krol, “Changes to the network structure of Er–Yb doped phosphate glass induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 083107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laporta, P.

G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, “Micromachining of photonic devices by femtosecond laser pulses (Review article),” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 013001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Little, D. J.

D. J. Little, M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “Mechanism of femtosecond-laser induced refractive index change in phosphate glass under a low repetition-rate regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 033110 (2010).

Liu, J. M.

Lum, P.

F. Patel, S. DiCarolis, and P. Lum, “A compact high-performance optical waveguide amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2607–2609 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, G. D.

D. J. Little, M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “Mechanism of femtosecond-laser induced refractive index change in phosphate glass under a low repetition-rate regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 033110 (2010).

Martinez, V.

Mataloni, P.

L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, P. Mataloni, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Polarization entangled state measurement on a chip,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 1–4 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mitsuyu, T.

K. Hirao, T. Mitsuyu, J. Si, and J. Qiu, Active Glass for Photonic Applications: Photoinduced Structures and Their Application (Springer, 2001).

Mizeikis, V.

Osellame, R.

L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, P. Mataloni, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Polarization entangled state measurement on a chip,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 1–4 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, “Micromachining of photonic devices by femtosecond laser pulses (Review article),” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 013001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, and R. Ramponi, Femtosecond Laser Micromaching: Photonic and Microfluidic Devices in Transparent Materials, Vol. 123 of Topics in Applied Physics(Springer, 2012).

Ostendorf, A.

A. Ostendorf, F. Korte, G. Kamlage, U. Klug, J. Koch, J. Serbin, N. Baersch, T. Bauer, and B. N. Chichkov, “Applications of femtosecond lasers in 3D micromachining,” in 3D Laser Microfabrication Principles and Applications, H. Misawa and S. Juodkazis, eds. (Wiley-VCH, 2006).

Patel, F.

F. Patel, S. DiCarolis, and P. Lum, “A compact high-performance optical waveguide amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2607–2609 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pollnau, M.

J. D. B. Bradley, and M. Pollnau, “Erbium-doped integrated waveguide amplifiers and lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 368–403 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Puerto, D.

D. Puerto, J. Siegel, W. Gawelda, M. Galvan-Sosa, L. Ehrentraut, J. Bonse, and Y. J. Solis, “Dynamics of plasma formation, relaxation, and topography modification induced by femtosecond laser pulses in crystalline and amorphous dielectrics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 1065–1076 (2010).

A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, D. Puerto, W. Gawelda, J. A. Vallés, M. A. Rebolledo, V. Berdejo, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, “In situ assessment and minimization of nonlinear propagation effects for femtosecond-laser waveguide writing in dielectrics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 1688–1692 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Gawelda, D. Puerto, J. Siegel, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, H. Fernández, and J. Solis, “Ultrafast imaging of transient electronic plasmas produced in conditions of femtosecond waveguide writing in dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 121109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Siegel, D. Puerto, W. Gawelda, G. Bachelier, J. Solis, L. Ehrentraut, and J. Bonse, “Plasma formation and structural modification below the visible ablation threshold in fused silica upon femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 082902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

K. Hirao, T. Mitsuyu, J. Si, and J. Qiu, Active Glass for Photonic Applications: Photoinduced Structures and Their Application (Springer, 2001).

Ramponi, R.

L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, P. Mataloni, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Polarization entangled state measurement on a chip,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 1–4 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, and R. Ramponi, Femtosecond Laser Micromaching: Photonic and Microfluidic Devices in Transparent Materials, Vol. 123 of Topics in Applied Physics(Springer, 2012).

Rebolledo, M. A.

Reichman, W. B.

L. B. Fletcher, J. J. Witcher, W. B. Reichman, A. Arai, J. Bovatsek, and D. M. Krol, “Changes to the network structure of Er–Yb doped phosphate glass induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 083107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ruiz de la Cruz, A.

A. Ferrer, D. Jaque, J. Siegel, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, and J. Solis, “Origin of the refractive index modification of femtosecond laser processed doped phosphate glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 093107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, D. Puerto, W. Gawelda, J. A. Vallés, M. A. Rebolledo, V. Berdejo, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, “In situ assessment and minimization of nonlinear propagation effects for femtosecond-laser waveguide writing in dielectrics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 1688–1692 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Gawelda, D. Puerto, J. Siegel, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, H. Fernández, and J. Solis, “Ultrafast imaging of transient electronic plasmas produced in conditions of femtosecond waveguide writing in dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 121109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sansoni, L.

L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, P. Mataloni, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Polarization entangled state measurement on a chip,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 1–4 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sciarrino, F.

L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, P. Mataloni, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Polarization entangled state measurement on a chip,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 1–4 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Serbin, J.

A. Ostendorf, F. Korte, G. Kamlage, U. Klug, J. Koch, J. Serbin, N. Baersch, T. Bauer, and B. N. Chichkov, “Applications of femtosecond lasers in 3D micromachining,” in 3D Laser Microfabrication Principles and Applications, H. Misawa and S. Juodkazis, eds. (Wiley-VCH, 2006).

Shah, L.

Si, J.

K. Hirao, T. Mitsuyu, J. Si, and J. Qiu, Active Glass for Photonic Applications: Photoinduced Structures and Their Application (Springer, 2001).

Siegel, J.

A. Ferrer, D. Jaque, J. Siegel, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, and J. Solis, “Origin of the refractive index modification of femtosecond laser processed doped phosphate glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 093107 (2011).
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D. Puerto, J. Siegel, W. Gawelda, M. Galvan-Sosa, L. Ehrentraut, J. Bonse, and Y. J. Solis, “Dynamics of plasma formation, relaxation, and topography modification induced by femtosecond laser pulses in crystalline and amorphous dielectrics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 1065–1076 (2010).

A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, D. Puerto, W. Gawelda, J. A. Vallés, M. A. Rebolledo, V. Berdejo, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, “In situ assessment and minimization of nonlinear propagation effects for femtosecond-laser waveguide writing in dielectrics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 1688–1692 (2010).
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W. Gawelda, D. Puerto, J. Siegel, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, H. Fernández, and J. Solis, “Ultrafast imaging of transient electronic plasmas produced in conditions of femtosecond waveguide writing in dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 121109 (2008).
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J. Siegel, D. Puerto, W. Gawelda, G. Bachelier, J. Solis, L. Ehrentraut, and J. Bonse, “Plasma formation and structural modification below the visible ablation threshold in fused silica upon femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 082902 (2007).
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Solis, J.

A. Ferrer, D. Jaque, J. Siegel, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, and J. Solis, “Origin of the refractive index modification of femtosecond laser processed doped phosphate glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 093107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, D. Puerto, W. Gawelda, J. A. Vallés, M. A. Rebolledo, V. Berdejo, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, “In situ assessment and minimization of nonlinear propagation effects for femtosecond-laser waveguide writing in dielectrics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 1688–1692 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Gawelda, D. Puerto, J. Siegel, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, H. Fernández, and J. Solis, “Ultrafast imaging of transient electronic plasmas produced in conditions of femtosecond waveguide writing in dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 121109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Siegel, D. Puerto, W. Gawelda, G. Bachelier, J. Solis, L. Ehrentraut, and J. Bonse, “Plasma formation and structural modification below the visible ablation threshold in fused silica upon femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 082902 (2007).
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Sonneville, C.

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A. Ben-Yakar, A. Harkin, J. Ashmore, R. L. Byer, and H. A. Stone, “Thermal and fluid processes of a thin melt zone during femtosecond laser ablation of glass: the formation of rims by single laser pulses,” J. Phys. D 40, 1447 (2007).
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Vallés, J. A.

Vallone, G.

L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, P. Mataloni, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Polarization entangled state measurement on a chip,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 1–4 (2010).
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J. Siegel, D. Puerto, W. Gawelda, G. Bachelier, J. Solis, L. Ehrentraut, and J. Bonse, “Plasma formation and structural modification below the visible ablation threshold in fused silica upon femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 082902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Gawelda, D. Puerto, J. Siegel, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, H. Fernández, and J. Solis, “Ultrafast imaging of transient electronic plasmas produced in conditions of femtosecond waveguide writing in dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 121109 (2008).
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D. J. Little, M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “Mechanism of femtosecond-laser induced refractive index change in phosphate glass under a low repetition-rate regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 033110 (2010).

A. Ferrer, D. Jaque, J. Siegel, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, and J. Solis, “Origin of the refractive index modification of femtosecond laser processed doped phosphate glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 093107 (2011).
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A. Ben-Yakar, A. Harkin, J. Ashmore, R. L. Byer, and H. A. Stone, “Thermal and fluid processes of a thin melt zone during femtosecond laser ablation of glass: the formation of rims by single laser pulses,” J. Phys. D 40, 1447 (2007).
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L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, P. Mataloni, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Polarization entangled state measurement on a chip,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 1–4 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, and R. Ramponi, Femtosecond Laser Micromaching: Photonic and Microfluidic Devices in Transparent Materials, Vol. 123 of Topics in Applied Physics(Springer, 2012).

A. Ostendorf, F. Korte, G. Kamlage, U. Klug, J. Koch, J. Serbin, N. Baersch, T. Bauer, and B. N. Chichkov, “Applications of femtosecond lasers in 3D micromachining,” in 3D Laser Microfabrication Principles and Applications, H. Misawa and S. Juodkazis, eds. (Wiley-VCH, 2006).

K. Hirao, T. Mitsuyu, J. Si, and J. Qiu, Active Glass for Photonic Applications: Photoinduced Structures and Their Application (Springer, 2001).

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