Abstract

Field intensity enhancements (FEs) produced by gold needle nanostructures, namely, standing upright sharp and sphere-terminated needles, fabricated on a gold substrate by femtosecond laser irradiation, are investigated and characterized using linear reflection spectroscopy, two-photon photoluminescence (TPL) scanning optical microscopy, and high-resolution confocal Raman microscopy. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is observed using linearly polarized 532 nm excitation of Rhodamine 6G homogeneously adsorbed on the structures. The obtained high-resolution TPL and Raman images both indicate a relatively high FE level of 75 for the fabricated structures. We believe that the observed FE levels along with the special topography make these upright elongated structures particularly promising for SERS experiments with living cells.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2010 (2)

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9, 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Søndergaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. M. Novikov, J. Beermann, E. Deavux, and T. Ebbesen, “Extraordinary optical transmission enhanced by nanofocusing,” Nano Lett. 10, 3123–3128 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (7)

N. A. Brazhe, S. Abdali, A. R. Brazhe, O. G. Luneva, N. Y. Bryzgalova, E. Y. Parshina, O. V. Sosnovtseva, and G. V. Maksimov, “New insight into erythrocyte through in vivo surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 97, 3206–3214 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Kuznetsov, J. Koch, and B. N. Chichkov, “Nanostructuring of thin gold films by femtosecond lasers,” Appl. Phys. A 94, pp. 221–230 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Hai, A. Dormann, J. Shappir, S. Yitzchaik, C. Bartic, G. Borghs, J. P. M. Langedijk, and M. E. Spira, “Spine-shaped gold protrusions improve the adherence and electrical coupling of neurons with the surface of micro-electronic devices,” J. R. Soc. Interface 6, 1153–1165 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Kuznetsov, J. Koch, and B. N. Chichkov, “Laser-induced backward transfer of gold nanodroplets,” Opt. Express 17, 18820–18825 (2009).

J. Beermann, S. M. Novikov, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface enhanced Raman imaging: periodic arrays and individual metal nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 17, 12698–12705(2009).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. B. Evlyukhin, C. Reinhardt, A. Seidel, R. Kiyan, W. Cheng, A. Ovsianikov, and B. N. Chichkov, “Laser-induced transfer of metallic nanodroplets for plasmonics and metamaterial applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, B130–B138 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Beermann, S. M. Novikov, O. Albrektsen, M. G. Nielsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface-enhanced Raman imaging of fractal shaped periodic metal nanostructures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 2370–2376 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2007 (2)

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. Garcia-Vidal, J. Beermann, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Spectroscopy and nonlinear microscopy of gold nanoparticle arrays on gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 085104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. Garcia-Vidal, J. Beermann, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Spectroscopy and nonlinear microscopy of gold nanoparticle arrays on gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 085104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

J. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, and K. Kneipp, “Two-photon vibrational spectroscopy for biosciences based on surface-enhanced hyper-Raman scattering,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 17149–17153 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, C. Yu, and S. Sheu, “Low concentration rhodamine 6G observed by surface-enhanced Raman scattering on optimally electrochemically roughened silver substrates,” J. Mater. Chem. 16, 3546–3551 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, A. Kinkhabwala, P. J Schuck, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Exploring the chemical enhancement for surface-enhanced Raman scattering with Au bowtie nanoantennas,” J. Chem. Phys. 124, 061101(2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

J. Beermann and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Two-photon luminescence microscopy of field enhancement at gold nanoparticles,” Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 3983–3987 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Muhlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308, 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Beermann, and V. Coello, “Direct observation of localized second-harmonic enhancement in random metal nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 197403 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and biophysics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, R597–R624 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

A. K. Sarychev and V. M. Shalaev, “Electromagnetic field fluctuations and optical nonlinearities in metal-dielectric composites,” Phys. Rep. 335, 275–371 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

E. J. Sanchez, L. Novotny, and X. S. Xie, “Near-field fluorescence microscopy based on two-photon excitation with metal tips,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4014–4017 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasar, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

A. Otto, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering of adsorbates,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 22, 743–752 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

G. T. Boyd, Th. Rasing, J. R. R. Leite, and Y. R. Shen, “Local-field enhancement on rough surfaces of metals, semimetals, and semiconductors with the use of optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. B 30, 519–526 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Abdali, S.

N. A. Brazhe, S. Abdali, A. R. Brazhe, O. G. Luneva, N. Y. Bryzgalova, E. Y. Parshina, O. V. Sosnovtseva, and G. V. Maksimov, “New insight into erythrocyte through in vivo surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 97, 3206–3214 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Albrektsen, O.

Barnard, E. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9, 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bartic, C.

A. Hai, A. Dormann, J. Shappir, S. Yitzchaik, C. Bartic, G. Borghs, J. P. M. Langedijk, and M. E. Spira, “Spine-shaped gold protrusions improve the adherence and electrical coupling of neurons with the surface of micro-electronic devices,” J. R. Soc. Interface 6, 1153–1165 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beermann, J.

T. Søndergaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. M. Novikov, J. Beermann, E. Deavux, and T. Ebbesen, “Extraordinary optical transmission enhanced by nanofocusing,” Nano Lett. 10, 3123–3128 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Beermann, S. M. Novikov, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface enhanced Raman imaging: periodic arrays and individual metal nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 17, 12698–12705(2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Beermann, S. M. Novikov, O. Albrektsen, M. G. Nielsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface-enhanced Raman imaging of fractal shaped periodic metal nanostructures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 2370–2376 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Beermann, A. Evlyukhin, A. Boltasseva, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Nonlinear microscopy of localized field enhancements in fractal shaped periodic metal nanostructures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1585–1592 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Beermann, S. M. Novikov, T. Søndergaard, A. E. Boltasseva, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Two-photon mapping of localized field enhancements in thin nanostrip antennas,” Opt. Express 16, 17302–17309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. Garcia-Vidal, J. Beermann, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Spectroscopy and nonlinear microscopy of gold nanoparticle arrays on gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 085104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. Garcia-Vidal, J. Beermann, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Spectroscopy and nonlinear microscopy of gold nanoparticle arrays on gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 085104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Beermann and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Two-photon luminescence microscopy of field enhancement at gold nanoparticles,” Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 3983–3987 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Beermann, and V. Coello, “Direct observation of localized second-harmonic enhancement in random metal nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 197403 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Boltasseva, A.

Boltasseva, A. E.

Borghs, G.

A. Hai, A. Dormann, J. Shappir, S. Yitzchaik, C. Bartic, G. Borghs, J. P. M. Langedijk, and M. E. Spira, “Spine-shaped gold protrusions improve the adherence and electrical coupling of neurons with the surface of micro-electronic devices,” J. R. Soc. Interface 6, 1153–1165 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, G. T.

G. T. Boyd, Th. Rasing, J. R. R. Leite, and Y. R. Shen, “Local-field enhancement on rough surfaces of metals, semimetals, and semiconductors with the use of optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. B 30, 519–526 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

T. Søndergaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. M. Novikov, J. Beermann, E. Deavux, and T. Ebbesen, “Extraordinary optical transmission enhanced by nanofocusing,” Nano Lett. 10, 3123–3128 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Beermann, S. M. Novikov, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface enhanced Raman imaging: periodic arrays and individual metal nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 17, 12698–12705(2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Beermann, S. M. Novikov, O. Albrektsen, M. G. Nielsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface-enhanced Raman imaging of fractal shaped periodic metal nanostructures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 2370–2376 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Beermann, A. Evlyukhin, A. Boltasseva, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Nonlinear microscopy of localized field enhancements in fractal shaped periodic metal nanostructures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1585–1592 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Beermann, S. M. Novikov, T. Søndergaard, A. E. Boltasseva, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Two-photon mapping of localized field enhancements in thin nanostrip antennas,” Opt. Express 16, 17302–17309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. Garcia-Vidal, J. Beermann, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Spectroscopy and nonlinear microscopy of gold nanoparticle arrays on gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 085104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. Garcia-Vidal, J. Beermann, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Spectroscopy and nonlinear microscopy of gold nanoparticle arrays on gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 085104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Beermann and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Two-photon luminescence microscopy of field enhancement at gold nanoparticles,” Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 3983–3987 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Beermann, and V. Coello, “Direct observation of localized second-harmonic enhancement in random metal nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 197403 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brazhe, A. R.

N. A. Brazhe, S. Abdali, A. R. Brazhe, O. G. Luneva, N. Y. Bryzgalova, E. Y. Parshina, O. V. Sosnovtseva, and G. V. Maksimov, “New insight into erythrocyte through in vivo surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 97, 3206–3214 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brazhe, N. A.

N. A. Brazhe, S. Abdali, A. R. Brazhe, O. G. Luneva, N. Y. Bryzgalova, E. Y. Parshina, O. V. Sosnovtseva, and G. V. Maksimov, “New insight into erythrocyte through in vivo surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 97, 3206–3214 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9, 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bryzgalova, N. Y.

N. A. Brazhe, S. Abdali, A. R. Brazhe, O. G. Luneva, N. Y. Bryzgalova, E. Y. Parshina, O. V. Sosnovtseva, and G. V. Maksimov, “New insight into erythrocyte through in vivo surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 97, 3206–3214 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9, 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, W.

Chichkov, B. N.

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. B. Evlyukhin, C. Reinhardt, A. Seidel, R. Kiyan, W. Cheng, A. Ovsianikov, and B. N. Chichkov, “Laser-induced transfer of metallic nanodroplets for plasmonics and metamaterial applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, B130–B138 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Kuznetsov, J. Koch, and B. N. Chichkov, “Laser-induced backward transfer of gold nanodroplets,” Opt. Express 17, 18820–18825 (2009).

A. I. Kuznetsov, J. Koch, and B. N. Chichkov, “Nanostructuring of thin gold films by femtosecond lasers,” Appl. Phys. A 94, pp. 221–230 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Kuznetsov, C. Unger, J. Koch, and B. N. Chichkov, “Laser-induced jet formation and droplet ejection from thin gold films,” Appl. Phys. A (submitted).

Coello, V.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Beermann, and V. Coello, “Direct observation of localized second-harmonic enhancement in random metal nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 197403 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dasar, R. R.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasar, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and biophysics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, R597–R624 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Deavux, E.

T. Søndergaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. M. Novikov, J. Beermann, E. Deavux, and T. Ebbesen, “Extraordinary optical transmission enhanced by nanofocusing,” Nano Lett. 10, 3123–3128 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dormann, A.

A. Hai, A. Dormann, J. Shappir, S. Yitzchaik, C. Bartic, G. Borghs, J. P. M. Langedijk, and M. E. Spira, “Spine-shaped gold protrusions improve the adherence and electrical coupling of neurons with the surface of micro-electronic devices,” J. R. Soc. Interface 6, 1153–1165 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T.

T. Søndergaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. M. Novikov, J. Beermann, E. Deavux, and T. Ebbesen, “Extraordinary optical transmission enhanced by nanofocusing,” Nano Lett. 10, 3123–3128 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Eisler, H. J.

P. Muhlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308, 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Evlyukhin, A.

Evlyukhin, A. B.

Feld, M. S.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and biophysics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, R597–R624 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasar, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fromm, D. P.

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, A. Kinkhabwala, P. J Schuck, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Exploring the chemical enhancement for surface-enhanced Raman scattering with Au bowtie nanoantennas,” J. Chem. Phys. 124, 061101(2006).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Vidal, F.

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. Garcia-Vidal, J. Beermann, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Spectroscopy and nonlinear microscopy of gold nanoparticle arrays on gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 085104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. Garcia-Vidal, J. Beermann, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Spectroscopy and nonlinear microscopy of gold nanoparticle arrays on gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 085104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

George, T. F.

V. M. Markel and T. F. George, Optics of Nanostructured Materials (Wiley, 2001).

Hai, A.

A. Hai, A. Dormann, J. Shappir, S. Yitzchaik, C. Bartic, G. Borghs, J. P. M. Langedijk, and M. E. Spira, “Spine-shaped gold protrusions improve the adherence and electrical coupling of neurons with the surface of micro-electronic devices,” J. R. Soc. Interface 6, 1153–1165 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, B.

P. Muhlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308, 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hohenau, A.

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. Garcia-Vidal, J. Beermann, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Spectroscopy and nonlinear microscopy of gold nanoparticle arrays on gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 085104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. Garcia-Vidal, J. Beermann, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Spectroscopy and nonlinear microscopy of gold nanoparticle arrays on gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 085104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Itzkan, I.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and biophysics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, R597–R624 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasar, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jun, Y. C.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9, 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kinkhabwala, A.

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, A. Kinkhabwala, P. J Schuck, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Exploring the chemical enhancement for surface-enhanced Raman scattering with Au bowtie nanoantennas,” J. Chem. Phys. 124, 061101(2006).
[CrossRef]

Kino, G. S.

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, A. Kinkhabwala, P. J Schuck, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Exploring the chemical enhancement for surface-enhanced Raman scattering with Au bowtie nanoantennas,” J. Chem. Phys. 124, 061101(2006).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kiyan, R.

Kneipp, H.

J. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, and K. Kneipp, “Two-photon vibrational spectroscopy for biosciences based on surface-enhanced hyper-Raman scattering,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 17149–17153 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and biophysics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, R597–R624 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasar, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kneipp, J.

J. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, and K. Kneipp, “Two-photon vibrational spectroscopy for biosciences based on surface-enhanced hyper-Raman scattering,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 17149–17153 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kneipp, K.

J. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, and K. Kneipp, “Two-photon vibrational spectroscopy for biosciences based on surface-enhanced hyper-Raman scattering,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 17149–17153 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and biophysics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, R597–R624 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasar, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Koch, J.

A. I. Kuznetsov, J. Koch, and B. N. Chichkov, “Laser-induced backward transfer of gold nanodroplets,” Opt. Express 17, 18820–18825 (2009).

A. I. Kuznetsov, J. Koch, and B. N. Chichkov, “Nanostructuring of thin gold films by femtosecond lasers,” Appl. Phys. A 94, pp. 221–230 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Kuznetsov, C. Unger, J. Koch, and B. N. Chichkov, “Laser-induced jet formation and droplet ejection from thin gold films,” Appl. Phys. A (submitted).

Krenn, J. R.

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. Garcia-Vidal, J. Beermann, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Spectroscopy and nonlinear microscopy of gold nanoparticle arrays on gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 085104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. Garcia-Vidal, J. Beermann, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Spectroscopy and nonlinear microscopy of gold nanoparticle arrays on gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 085104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuznetsov, A. I.

A. I. Kuznetsov, J. Koch, and B. N. Chichkov, “Nanostructuring of thin gold films by femtosecond lasers,” Appl. Phys. A 94, pp. 221–230 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Kuznetsov, J. Koch, and B. N. Chichkov, “Laser-induced backward transfer of gold nanodroplets,” Opt. Express 17, 18820–18825 (2009).

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. B. Evlyukhin, C. Reinhardt, A. Seidel, R. Kiyan, W. Cheng, A. Ovsianikov, and B. N. Chichkov, “Laser-induced transfer of metallic nanodroplets for plasmonics and metamaterial applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, B130–B138 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Kuznetsov, C. Unger, J. Koch, and B. N. Chichkov, “Laser-induced jet formation and droplet ejection from thin gold films,” Appl. Phys. A (submitted).

Langedijk, J. P. M.

A. Hai, A. Dormann, J. Shappir, S. Yitzchaik, C. Bartic, G. Borghs, J. P. M. Langedijk, and M. E. Spira, “Spine-shaped gold protrusions improve the adherence and electrical coupling of neurons with the surface of micro-electronic devices,” J. R. Soc. Interface 6, 1153–1165 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leite, J. R. R.

G. T. Boyd, Th. Rasing, J. R. R. Leite, and Y. R. Shen, “Local-field enhancement on rough surfaces of metals, semimetals, and semiconductors with the use of optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. B 30, 519–526 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Leosson, K.

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, C. Yu, and S. Sheu, “Low concentration rhodamine 6G observed by surface-enhanced Raman scattering on optimally electrochemically roughened silver substrates,” J. Mater. Chem. 16, 3546–3551 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Luneva, O. G.

N. A. Brazhe, S. Abdali, A. R. Brazhe, O. G. Luneva, N. Y. Bryzgalova, E. Y. Parshina, O. V. Sosnovtseva, and G. V. Maksimov, “New insight into erythrocyte through in vivo surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 97, 3206–3214 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maksimov, G. V.

N. A. Brazhe, S. Abdali, A. R. Brazhe, O. G. Luneva, N. Y. Bryzgalova, E. Y. Parshina, O. V. Sosnovtseva, and G. V. Maksimov, “New insight into erythrocyte through in vivo surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 97, 3206–3214 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Markel, V. M.

V. M. Markel and T. F. George, Optics of Nanostructured Materials (Wiley, 2001).

Martin, O. J. F.

P. Muhlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308, 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Paulus and O. J. F. Martin, “Light propagation and scattering in stratified media: a Green’s tensor approach,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 854–861 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Martin-Moreno, L.

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. Garcia-Vidal, J. Beermann, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Spectroscopy and nonlinear microscopy of gold nanoparticle arrays on gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 085104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. Garcia-Vidal, J. Beermann, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Spectroscopy and nonlinear microscopy of gold nanoparticle arrays on gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 085104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moerner, W. E.

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, A. Kinkhabwala, P. J Schuck, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Exploring the chemical enhancement for surface-enhanced Raman scattering with Au bowtie nanoantennas,” J. Chem. Phys. 124, 061101(2006).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Muhlschlegel, P.

P. Muhlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308, 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, M. G.

Novikov, S. M.

Novotny, L.

E. J. Sanchez, L. Novotny, and X. S. Xie, “Near-field fluorescence microscopy based on two-photon excitation with metal tips,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4014–4017 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Otto, A.

A. Otto, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering of adsorbates,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 22, 743–752 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ovsianikov, A.

Parshina, E. Y.

N. A. Brazhe, S. Abdali, A. R. Brazhe, O. G. Luneva, N. Y. Bryzgalova, E. Y. Parshina, O. V. Sosnovtseva, and G. V. Maksimov, “New insight into erythrocyte through in vivo surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 97, 3206–3214 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Paulus, M.

Perelman, L. T.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasar, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

P. Muhlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308, 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rasing, Th.

G. T. Boyd, Th. Rasing, J. R. R. Leite, and Y. R. Shen, “Local-field enhancement on rough surfaces of metals, semimetals, and semiconductors with the use of optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. B 30, 519–526 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Reinhardt, C.

Rodrigo, S. G.

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. Garcia-Vidal, J. Beermann, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Spectroscopy and nonlinear microscopy of gold nanoparticle arrays on gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 085104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. Garcia-Vidal, J. Beermann, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Spectroscopy and nonlinear microscopy of gold nanoparticle arrays on gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 085104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, E. J.

E. J. Sanchez, L. Novotny, and X. S. Xie, “Near-field fluorescence microscopy based on two-photon excitation with metal tips,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4014–4017 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sarychev, A. K.

A. K. Sarychev and V. M. Shalaev, “Electromagnetic field fluctuations and optical nonlinearities in metal-dielectric composites,” Phys. Rep. 335, 275–371 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schuck, P. J

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, A. Kinkhabwala, P. J Schuck, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Exploring the chemical enhancement for surface-enhanced Raman scattering with Au bowtie nanoantennas,” J. Chem. Phys. 124, 061101(2006).
[CrossRef]

Schuck, P. J.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schuller, J. A.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9, 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Seidel, A.

Shalaev, V. M.

A. K. Sarychev and V. M. Shalaev, “Electromagnetic field fluctuations and optical nonlinearities in metal-dielectric composites,” Phys. Rep. 335, 275–371 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shappir, J.

A. Hai, A. Dormann, J. Shappir, S. Yitzchaik, C. Bartic, G. Borghs, J. P. M. Langedijk, and M. E. Spira, “Spine-shaped gold protrusions improve the adherence and electrical coupling of neurons with the surface of micro-electronic devices,” J. R. Soc. Interface 6, 1153–1165 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

G. T. Boyd, Th. Rasing, J. R. R. Leite, and Y. R. Shen, “Local-field enhancement on rough surfaces of metals, semimetals, and semiconductors with the use of optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. B 30, 519–526 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, S.

Y. Liu, C. Yu, and S. Sheu, “Low concentration rhodamine 6G observed by surface-enhanced Raman scattering on optimally electrochemically roughened silver substrates,” J. Mater. Chem. 16, 3546–3551 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Søndergaard, T.

T. Søndergaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. M. Novikov, J. Beermann, E. Deavux, and T. Ebbesen, “Extraordinary optical transmission enhanced by nanofocusing,” Nano Lett. 10, 3123–3128 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Beermann, S. M. Novikov, T. Søndergaard, A. E. Boltasseva, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Two-photon mapping of localized field enhancements in thin nanostrip antennas,” Opt. Express 16, 17302–17309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sosnovtseva, O. V.

N. A. Brazhe, S. Abdali, A. R. Brazhe, O. G. Luneva, N. Y. Bryzgalova, E. Y. Parshina, O. V. Sosnovtseva, and G. V. Maksimov, “New insight into erythrocyte through in vivo surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 97, 3206–3214 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Spira, M. E.

A. Hai, A. Dormann, J. Shappir, S. Yitzchaik, C. Bartic, G. Borghs, J. P. M. Langedijk, and M. E. Spira, “Spine-shaped gold protrusions improve the adherence and electrical coupling of neurons with the surface of micro-electronic devices,” J. R. Soc. Interface 6, 1153–1165 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sundaramurthy, A.

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, A. Kinkhabwala, P. J Schuck, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Exploring the chemical enhancement for surface-enhanced Raman scattering with Au bowtie nanoantennas,” J. Chem. Phys. 124, 061101(2006).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Unger, C.

A. I. Kuznetsov, C. Unger, J. Koch, and B. N. Chichkov, “Laser-induced jet formation and droplet ejection from thin gold films,” Appl. Phys. A (submitted).

Wang, Y.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasar, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

White, J. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9, 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X. S.

E. J. Sanchez, L. Novotny, and X. S. Xie, “Near-field fluorescence microscopy based on two-photon excitation with metal tips,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4014–4017 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yitzchaik, S.

A. Hai, A. Dormann, J. Shappir, S. Yitzchaik, C. Bartic, G. Borghs, J. P. M. Langedijk, and M. E. Spira, “Spine-shaped gold protrusions improve the adherence and electrical coupling of neurons with the surface of micro-electronic devices,” J. R. Soc. Interface 6, 1153–1165 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C.

Y. Liu, C. Yu, and S. Sheu, “Low concentration rhodamine 6G observed by surface-enhanced Raman scattering on optimally electrochemically roughened silver substrates,” J. Mater. Chem. 16, 3546–3551 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A (1)

A. I. Kuznetsov, J. Koch, and B. N. Chichkov, “Nanostructuring of thin gold films by femtosecond lasers,” Appl. Phys. A 94, pp. 221–230 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (1)

N. A. Brazhe, S. Abdali, A. R. Brazhe, O. G. Luneva, N. Y. Bryzgalova, E. Y. Parshina, O. V. Sosnovtseva, and G. V. Maksimov, “New insight into erythrocyte through in vivo surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 97, 3206–3214 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, A. Kinkhabwala, P. J Schuck, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Exploring the chemical enhancement for surface-enhanced Raman scattering with Au bowtie nanoantennas,” J. Chem. Phys. 124, 061101(2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

Y. Liu, C. Yu, and S. Sheu, “Low concentration rhodamine 6G observed by surface-enhanced Raman scattering on optimally electrochemically roughened silver substrates,” J. Mater. Chem. 16, 3546–3551 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and biophysics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, R597–R624 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Soc. Interface (1)

A. Hai, A. Dormann, J. Shappir, S. Yitzchaik, C. Bartic, G. Borghs, J. P. M. Langedijk, and M. E. Spira, “Spine-shaped gold protrusions improve the adherence and electrical coupling of neurons with the surface of micro-electronic devices,” J. R. Soc. Interface 6, 1153–1165 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Raman Spectrosc. (1)

A. Otto, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering of adsorbates,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 22, 743–752 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

T. Søndergaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. M. Novikov, J. Beermann, E. Deavux, and T. Ebbesen, “Extraordinary optical transmission enhanced by nanofocusing,” Nano Lett. 10, 3123–3128 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9, 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Rep. (1)

A. K. Sarychev and V. M. Shalaev, “Electromagnetic field fluctuations and optical nonlinearities in metal-dielectric composites,” Phys. Rep. 335, 275–371 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. Garcia-Vidal, J. Beermann, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Spectroscopy and nonlinear microscopy of gold nanoparticle arrays on gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 085104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Boyd, Th. Rasing, J. R. R. Leite, and Y. R. Shen, “Local-field enhancement on rough surfaces of metals, semimetals, and semiconductors with the use of optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. B 30, 519–526 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. Garcia-Vidal, J. Beermann, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Spectroscopy and nonlinear microscopy of gold nanoparticle arrays on gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 085104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Sanchez, L. Novotny, and X. S. Xie, “Near-field fluorescence microscopy based on two-photon excitation with metal tips,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4014–4017 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasar, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Beermann, and V. Coello, “Direct observation of localized second-harmonic enhancement in random metal nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 197403 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi C (1)

J. Beermann and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Two-photon luminescence microscopy of field enhancement at gold nanoparticles,” Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 3983–3987 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

J. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, and K. Kneipp, “Two-photon vibrational spectroscopy for biosciences based on surface-enhanced hyper-Raman scattering,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 17149–17153 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

P. Muhlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308, 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

V. M. Markel and T. F. George, Optics of Nanostructured Materials (Wiley, 2001).

A. I. Kuznetsov, C. Unger, J. Koch, and B. N. Chichkov, “Laser-induced jet formation and droplet ejection from thin gold films,” Appl. Phys. A (submitted).

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

SEM images of (a) a needle and (b) a needle with a sphere on the top, and (c), (d) arrays with them.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Measured reflection spectra for a needle and a needle with a sphere on the top. Calculated scattering and extinction cross sections for the following structures: (b) a rod and a sphere, (c) a rod with a disk and a rod, (d) a rod with a disk and a rod with a disk plus a sphere. (e) Schematic illustrations of the modeled structures. R , radius; H , height. The polarization of incident light plane waves is along the x axis.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Raman images of (a) a needle and (b) a needle with a sphere on the top, along with (c) Raman spectra of adsorbed R6G. Insert in (c) shows a zoom on the reference spectra.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Relative Raman enhancement from the needle and the needle with a sphere on the top estimated by comparing levels at each Raman peak with levels obtained in the reference spectra. For each curve, the uncertainty marks are based upon three–four measurements from different places with the same configuration.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

FH image of (a) a needle and (b) a needle with a sphere on the top, along with the (c), (d) the corresponding TPL images, and (e), (f) the intensity cross sections, respectively.

Equations (1)

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α = S str ( P ref ) 2 A ref S ref ( P str ) 2 A str ,

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