Abstract

Switching and dynamic wavelength conversion of light are demonstrated in a fiber grating cavity detuned by high-voltage electrical pulses. The cavity dynamics is studied using a heterodyne technique in which the frequency-shifted light, trapped by the cavity, mixes with the backreflected light at the incident frequency. We find that the frequency shift scales linearly with the energy of the electric driving pulses.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
  22. T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, “Decay of ultraviolet‐induced fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73–80 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

2011

2010

2009

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, H. Taniyama, and E. Kuramochi, “Dynamic release of trapped light from an ultrahigh-Q nanocavity via adiabatic frequency tuning,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 043907(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Malmström, Z. Yu, W. Margulis, O. Tarasenko, and F. Laurell, “All-fiber cavity dumping,” Opt. Express 17, 17596–17602(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

Z. Yu, O. Tarasenko, W. Margulis, and P.-Y. Fonjallaz, “Birefringence switching of Bragg gratings in fibers with internal electrodes,” Opt. Express 16, 8229–8235 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Lin, T. J. Johnson, C. P. Michael, and O. Painter, “Adiabatic self-tuning in a silicon microdisk optical resonator,” Opt. Express 16, 14801–14811 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yu, P.-Y. Fonjallaz, W. Margulis and O. Tarasenko, “High speed switching of a DFB grating in a twin-hole fibre,” Proc. SPIE 7134, 71341X (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Dong, S. F. Preble, J. T. Robinson, S. Manipatruni, and M. Lipson, “Inducing photonic transitions between discrete modes in a silicon optical microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033904 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

S. F. Preble, Q. F. Xu, and M. Lipson, “Changing the colour of light in a silicon resonator,” Nat. Photon. 1, 293–296(2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yu, W. Margulis, O. Tarasenko, H. Knape, and P.-Y. Fonjallaz, “Nanosecond switching of fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 15, 14948–14953 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

A. M. Yacomotti, F. Raineri, C. Cojocaru, P. Monnier, J. A. Levenson, and R. Raj, “Nonadiabatic dynamics of the electromagnetic field and charge carriers in high-Q photonic crystal resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 093901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Notomi and S. Mitsugi, “Wavelength conversion via dynamic refractive index tuning in a cavity,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 051803(2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. F. Yanik and S. Fan, “Stopping light all optically,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 083901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

1994

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, “Decay of ultraviolet‐induced fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73–80 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991

1990

Araújo, F. M.

Beggs, D. M.

T. Kampfrath, D. M. Beggs, T. P. White, A. Melloni, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, “Ultrafast adiabatic manipulation of slow light in a photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 043837 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. T.

Cojocaru, C.

A. M. Yacomotti, F. Raineri, C. Cojocaru, P. Monnier, J. A. Levenson, and R. Raj, “Nonadiabatic dynamics of the electromagnetic field and charge carriers in high-Q photonic crystal resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 093901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Sterke, C. M.

Dong, P.

P. Dong, S. F. Preble, J. T. Robinson, S. Manipatruni, and M. Lipson, “Inducing photonic transitions between discrete modes in a silicon optical microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033904 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duarte, F. J.

F. J. Duarte, Tunable Laser Applications, 2nd Ed. (CRC Press, 2009).

Eggleton, B. J.

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, “Decay of ultraviolet‐induced fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73–80 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

M. F. Yanik and S. Fan, “Stopping light all optically,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 083901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fonjallaz, P.

Z. Yu, W. Margulis, P. Fonjallaz, and O. Tarasenko, “Physics of electrically switched fiber Bragg gratings,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CMK1.
[PubMed]

Fonjallaz, P.-Y.

Jackson, K. R.

Jannson, T.

Johnson, T. J.

Kabakova, I. V.

Kampfrath, T.

T. Kampfrath, D. M. Beggs, T. P. White, A. Melloni, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, “Ultrafast adiabatic manipulation of slow light in a photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 043837 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Knape, H.

Krauss, T. F.

T. Kampfrath, D. M. Beggs, T. P. White, A. Melloni, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, “Ultrafast adiabatic manipulation of slow light in a photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 043837 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuipers, L.

T. Kampfrath, D. M. Beggs, T. P. White, A. Melloni, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, “Ultrafast adiabatic manipulation of slow light in a photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 043837 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuramochi, E.

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, H. Taniyama, and E. Kuramochi, “Dynamic release of trapped light from an ultrahigh-Q nanocavity via adiabatic frequency tuning,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 043907(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laurell, F.

Lemaire, P. J.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, “Decay of ultraviolet‐induced fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73–80 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Levenson, J. A.

A. M. Yacomotti, F. Raineri, C. Cojocaru, P. Monnier, J. A. Levenson, and R. Raj, “Nonadiabatic dynamics of the electromagnetic field and charge carriers in high-Q photonic crystal resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 093901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, Q.

Lipson, M.

P. Dong, S. F. Preble, J. T. Robinson, S. Manipatruni, and M. Lipson, “Inducing photonic transitions between discrete modes in a silicon optical microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033904 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. F. Preble, Q. F. Xu, and M. Lipson, “Changing the colour of light in a silicon resonator,” Nat. Photon. 1, 293–296(2007).
[CrossRef]

Malmström, M.

Manipatruni, S.

P. Dong, S. F. Preble, J. T. Robinson, S. Manipatruni, and M. Lipson, “Inducing photonic transitions between discrete modes in a silicon optical microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033904 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, Theory of Dielectric Optical Waveguides(Academic, 1991).

Margulis, W.

Melloni, A.

T. Kampfrath, D. M. Beggs, T. P. White, A. Melloni, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, “Ultrafast adiabatic manipulation of slow light in a photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 043837 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Michael, C. P.

Mitsugi, S.

M. Notomi and S. Mitsugi, “Wavelength conversion via dynamic refractive index tuning in a cavity,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 051803(2006).
[CrossRef]

Mizrahi, V.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, “Decay of ultraviolet‐induced fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73–80 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Monnier, P.

A. M. Yacomotti, F. Raineri, C. Cojocaru, P. Monnier, J. A. Levenson, and R. Raj, “Nonadiabatic dynamics of the electromagnetic field and charge carriers in high-Q photonic crystal resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 093901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monroe, D.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, “Decay of ultraviolet‐induced fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73–80 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Notomi, M.

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, H. Taniyama, and E. Kuramochi, “Dynamic release of trapped light from an ultrahigh-Q nanocavity via adiabatic frequency tuning,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 043907(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Notomi and S. Mitsugi, “Wavelength conversion via dynamic refractive index tuning in a cavity,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 051803(2006).
[CrossRef]

Okhotnikov, O. G.

Painter, O.

Preble, S. F.

P. Dong, S. F. Preble, J. T. Robinson, S. Manipatruni, and M. Lipson, “Inducing photonic transitions between discrete modes in a silicon optical microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033904 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. F. Preble, Q. F. Xu, and M. Lipson, “Changing the colour of light in a silicon resonator,” Nat. Photon. 1, 293–296(2007).
[CrossRef]

Raineri, F.

A. M. Yacomotti, F. Raineri, C. Cojocaru, P. Monnier, J. A. Levenson, and R. Raj, “Nonadiabatic dynamics of the electromagnetic field and charge carriers in high-Q photonic crystal resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 093901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raj, R.

A. M. Yacomotti, F. Raineri, C. Cojocaru, P. Monnier, J. A. Levenson, and R. Raj, “Nonadiabatic dynamics of the electromagnetic field and charge carriers in high-Q photonic crystal resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 093901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robert, B. D.

Robinson, J. T.

P. Dong, S. F. Preble, J. T. Robinson, S. Manipatruni, and M. Lipson, “Inducing photonic transitions between discrete modes in a silicon optical microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033904 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rugeland, P.

Sonek, G. J.

Tanabe, T.

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, H. Taniyama, and E. Kuramochi, “Dynamic release of trapped light from an ultrahigh-Q nanocavity via adiabatic frequency tuning,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 043907(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taniyama, H.

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, H. Taniyama, and E. Kuramochi, “Dynamic release of trapped light from an ultrahigh-Q nanocavity via adiabatic frequency tuning,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 043907(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tarasenko, O.

Wang, M.

White, T. P.

T. Kampfrath, D. M. Beggs, T. P. White, A. Melloni, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, “Ultrafast adiabatic manipulation of slow light in a photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 043837 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q. F.

S. F. Preble, Q. F. Xu, and M. Lipson, “Changing the colour of light in a silicon resonator,” Nat. Photon. 1, 293–296(2007).
[CrossRef]

Yacomotti, A. M.

A. M. Yacomotti, F. Raineri, C. Cojocaru, P. Monnier, J. A. Levenson, and R. Raj, “Nonadiabatic dynamics of the electromagnetic field and charge carriers in high-Q photonic crystal resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 093901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yanik, M. F.

M. F. Yanik and S. Fan, “Stopping light all optically,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 083901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, Z.

Appl. Opt.

J. Appl. Phys.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, “Decay of ultraviolet‐induced fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73–80 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nat. Photon.

S. F. Preble, Q. F. Xu, and M. Lipson, “Changing the colour of light in a silicon resonator,” Nat. Photon. 1, 293–296(2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

T. Kampfrath, D. M. Beggs, T. P. White, A. Melloni, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, “Ultrafast adiabatic manipulation of slow light in a photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 043837 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi and S. Mitsugi, “Wavelength conversion via dynamic refractive index tuning in a cavity,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 051803(2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, H. Taniyama, and E. Kuramochi, “Dynamic release of trapped light from an ultrahigh-Q nanocavity via adiabatic frequency tuning,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 043907(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Yanik and S. Fan, “Stopping light all optically,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 083901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Yacomotti, F. Raineri, C. Cojocaru, P. Monnier, J. A. Levenson, and R. Raj, “Nonadiabatic dynamics of the electromagnetic field and charge carriers in high-Q photonic crystal resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 093901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, S. F. Preble, J. T. Robinson, S. Manipatruni, and M. Lipson, “Inducing photonic transitions between discrete modes in a silicon optical microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033904 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

Z. Yu, P.-Y. Fonjallaz, W. Margulis and O. Tarasenko, “High speed switching of a DFB grating in a twin-hole fibre,” Proc. SPIE 7134, 71341X (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other

F. J. Duarte, Tunable Laser Applications, 2nd Ed. (CRC Press, 2009).

D. Marcuse, Theory of Dielectric Optical Waveguides(Academic, 1991).

Z. Yu, W. Margulis, P. Fonjallaz, and O. Tarasenko, “Physics of electrically switched fiber Bragg gratings,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CMK1.
[PubMed]

Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the process. (a) Incident light at λ 1 sets up a strong resonance in a stationary cavity with RI n 0 . (b) If the cavity’s RI is dynamically changed by Δ n , its resonance shifts to λ 2 , and so does the light trapped inside the cavity. The incident light is no longer on resonance and is reflected. Thus, in reflection, two different wavelengths, λ 1 and λ 2 , are present, leading to a beat signal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Scanning electron microscope image of the twin-hole fiber used in the experiment. (b) Experimental setup for the dynamic measurements. (c) Solid curve: RI change for x-polarized light, calculated using a full time-dependent stress model. Markers indicate the reconstructed RI changes from the dynamic measurement.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Oscilloscope measurement of the switching dynamics in reflection. The signal amplitude is normalized to the input; the time origin coincides with the electric pulse. (b) Reconstructed frequency shift of the grating cavity (squares) and corresponding change in the effective RI (triangles). (c) Simulation (red curve) of the dynamic grating tuning compared with the measurement (black curve).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Oscilloscope measurement of a switching trace in reflection for a 13 ns , 1 kV , 10 Hz electric pulse (solid red curve). The dashed–dotted curve shows the electrical energy accumulated in the system. (b) RI change versus time for three different voltages of a 13 ns electric pulse (shown in inset). Absolute value of Δ n is normalized to the square of the voltage ( U 2 ) of the electrical pulse.

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