Abstract

The spectral properties of long-period gratings (LPGs) fabricated in photonic crystal fibers using femtosecond laser pulses by the point-by-point technique, without oil-immersion of the fiber, are investigated in detail. Postfabrication spectral monitoring at room temperature showed significant long-term instability of the gratings and stable spectra only after 600 h. The stabilized spectral properties of the gratings improved with increasing annealing temperature. The observed changes in resonant wavelength, optical strength, and grating birefringence were correlated to the laser inscription energy and were further used to study the mechanism of femtosecond inscription. Furthermore, the femtosecond-laser inscribed LPGs were compared to electric-arc fabricated LPGs. Comparison of experimental results with theoretical models of LPGs and laser propagation during inscription indicate that the major processes responsible for the index change are permanent compaction and thermally induced strain, the latter can be significantly changed through annealing.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2009 (1)

T. Allsop, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, G. Smith, M. Komodromos, K. Sugden, M. Dubov, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Comparison between femtosecond laser and fusion-arc inscribed long period gratings in photonic crystal fibre,” Proc. SPIE 7357, 73570J(2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

C. W. Ponader, J. F. Schroeder, and A. M. Streltsov, “Origin of the refractive-index increase in laser-written waveguides in glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 063516 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, Y. Lai, G. Smith, M. Dubov, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Long period gratings written into a photonic crystal fibre by a femtosecond laser as directional bend sensors,” Optics Commun. 281, 5092–5096 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photon. 2, 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, M. Dubov, Y. Lai, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Annealing and spectral characteristics of femtosecond laser inscribed long period gratings written into a photonic crystal fibre,” Proc. SPIE 7004, 70044I (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (6)

2006 (5)

G. Brambilla, A. A. Fotiadi, S. A. Slattery, and D. N. Nikogosyan, “Two-photon photochemical long-period grating fabrication in pure-fused-silica photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2675–2677 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Dobb, K. Kalli, and D. J. Webb, “Measured sensitivity of arc-induced long-period grating sensors in photonic crystal fibre,” Optics Commun. 260, 184–191 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. G. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-matter interaction in the bulk of a transparent solid: Confined microexplosion and void Formation,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 214101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Saliminia, N. T. Nguyen, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallee, “Densification of silica glass induced by 0.8 and 1.5 μm intense femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 093104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, H. Dobb, A. Main, A. Martinez, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “A comparison of the spectral properties of high temperature annealed long-period gratings inscribed by fs laser, UV, and fusion-arc,” Proc. SPIE 6193, 61930M(2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (5)

2003 (2)

W. S. James and P. R. Tatam, “Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: characteristics and application,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49–R61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “A comparison of the sensing characteristics of long period gratings written in three different types of fiber,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 9, 210–223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

1997 (2)

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, “Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 882–885 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Erdogan, “Cladding-mode resonances in short- and long-period fiber grating filters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1760–1773(1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

Allsop, T.

T. Allsop, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, G. Smith, M. Komodromos, K. Sugden, M. Dubov, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Comparison between femtosecond laser and fusion-arc inscribed long period gratings in photonic crystal fibre,” Proc. SPIE 7357, 73570J(2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, M. Dubov, Y. Lai, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Annealing and spectral characteristics of femtosecond laser inscribed long period gratings written into a photonic crystal fibre,” Proc. SPIE 7004, 70044I (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, Y. Lai, G. Smith, M. Dubov, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Long period gratings written into a photonic crystal fibre by a femtosecond laser as directional bend sensors,” Optics Commun. 281, 5092–5096 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, H. Dobb, A. Main, A. Martinez, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “A comparison of the spectral properties of high temperature annealed long-period gratings inscribed by fs laser, UV, and fusion-arc,” Proc. SPIE 6193, 61930M(2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “A comparison of the sensing characteristics of long period gratings written in three different types of fiber,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 9, 210–223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Asatryan, A. A.

Bennion, I.

T. Allsop, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, G. Smith, M. Komodromos, K. Sugden, M. Dubov, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Comparison between femtosecond laser and fusion-arc inscribed long period gratings in photonic crystal fibre,” Proc. SPIE 7357, 73570J(2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, M. Dubov, Y. Lai, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Annealing and spectral characteristics of femtosecond laser inscribed long period gratings written into a photonic crystal fibre,” Proc. SPIE 7004, 70044I (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, Y. Lai, G. Smith, M. Dubov, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Long period gratings written into a photonic crystal fibre by a femtosecond laser as directional bend sensors,” Optics Commun. 281, 5092–5096 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Petrovic, H. Dobb, V. K. Mezentsev, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Sensitivity of LPGs in PCFs fabricated by an electric arc to temperature, strain, and external refractive index,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 1306–1312 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, H. Dobb, A. Main, A. Martinez, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “A comparison of the spectral properties of high temperature annealed long-period gratings inscribed by fs laser, UV, and fusion-arc,” Proc. SPIE 6193, 61930M(2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “A comparison of the sensing characteristics of long period gratings written in three different types of fiber,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 9, 210–223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bhardwaj, V. R.

Bhatia, V.

Birks, T. A.

Borrelli, N. F.

Botten, L. C.

Brambilla, G.

Canning, J.

H. R. Sørensen, J. Canning, J. Lægsgaard, K. Hansen, and P. Varming, “Liquid filling of photonic crystal fibres for grating writing,” Opt.Commun. 270, 207–210 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

A. Saliminia, N. T. Nguyen, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallee, “Densification of silica glass induced by 0.8 and 1.5 μm intense femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 093104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

Dianov, E.

Dobb, H.

J. S. Petrovic, H. Dobb, V. K. Mezentsev, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Sensitivity of LPGs in PCFs fabricated by an electric arc to temperature, strain, and external refractive index,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 1306–1312 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, H. Dobb, A. Main, A. Martinez, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “A comparison of the spectral properties of high temperature annealed long-period gratings inscribed by fs laser, UV, and fusion-arc,” Proc. SPIE 6193, 61930M(2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Dobb, K. Kalli, and D. J. Webb, “Measured sensitivity of arc-induced long-period grating sensors in photonic crystal fibre,” Optics Commun. 260, 184–191 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Dobb, K. Kalli, and D. J. Webb, “Temperature-insensitive long period grating sensors in photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 40, 657–658 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dubov, M.

T. Allsop, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, G. Smith, M. Komodromos, K. Sugden, M. Dubov, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Comparison between femtosecond laser and fusion-arc inscribed long period gratings in photonic crystal fibre,” Proc. SPIE 7357, 73570J(2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, M. Dubov, Y. Lai, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Annealing and spectral characteristics of femtosecond laser inscribed long period gratings written into a photonic crystal fibre,” Proc. SPIE 7004, 70044I (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, Y. Lai, G. Smith, M. Dubov, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Long period gratings written into a photonic crystal fibre by a femtosecond laser as directional bend sensors,” Optics Commun. 281, 5092–5096 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, H. Dobb, A. Main, A. Martinez, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “A comparison of the spectral properties of high temperature annealed long-period gratings inscribed by fs laser, UV, and fusion-arc,” Proc. SPIE 6193, 61930M(2006).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

Erdogan, T.

Ernst, T.

Evans, S. C.

E. K. Miller, G. S. Macrum, I. J. McKenna, H. W. Herrmann, J. M. Mack, C. S. Young, T. J. Sedillo, S. C. Evans, and C. J. Horsfield, “Accuracy of analog fiber-optic links in pulsed radiation environments,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54, 2457–2462(2007).
[CrossRef]

Février, S.

Fotiadi, A. A.

Gamaly, E. G.

E. G. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-matter interaction in the bulk of a transparent solid: Confined microexplosion and void Formation,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 214101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gattass, R. R.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photon. 2, 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Glezer, E. N.

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, “Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 882–885 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grobnic, D.

Hallo, L.

E. G. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-matter interaction in the bulk of a transparent solid: Confined microexplosion and void Formation,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 214101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, K.

H. R. Sørensen, J. Canning, J. Lægsgaard, K. Hansen, and P. Varming, “Liquid filling of photonic crystal fibres for grating writing,” Opt.Commun. 270, 207–210 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Herrmann, H. W.

E. K. Miller, G. S. Macrum, I. J. McKenna, H. W. Herrmann, J. M. Mack, C. S. Young, T. J. Sedillo, S. C. Evans, and C. J. Horsfield, “Accuracy of analog fiber-optic links in pulsed radiation environments,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54, 2457–2462(2007).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

Hnatovsky, C.

Horsfield, C. J.

E. K. Miller, G. S. Macrum, I. J. McKenna, H. W. Herrmann, J. M. Mack, C. S. Young, T. J. Sedillo, S. C. Evans, and C. J. Horsfield, “Accuracy of analog fiber-optic links in pulsed radiation environments,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54, 2457–2462(2007).
[CrossRef]

Humbert, G.

G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Février, P. Roy, and D. Pagnoux, “Characterizations at high temperatures of long-period gratings written in germanium-free air silica microstructure fiber,” Opt. Lett. 29, 38–40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Humbert and A. Malki, “Characterizations at very high temperature of electric arc-induced long-period fiber gratings,” Optics Commun. 208, 329–335 (2002).
[CrossRef]

James, W. S.

W. S. James and P. R. Tatam, “Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: characteristics and application,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49–R61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jamison, A. O.

C. B. Schaffer, A. O. Jamison, and E. Mazur, “Morphology of femtosecond laser-induced structural changes in bulk transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1441–1443 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Juodkazis, S.

E. G. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-matter interaction in the bulk of a transparent solid: Confined microexplosion and void Formation,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 214101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kakarantzas, G.

Kalli, K.

T. Allsop, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, G. Smith, M. Komodromos, K. Sugden, M. Dubov, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Comparison between femtosecond laser and fusion-arc inscribed long period gratings in photonic crystal fibre,” Proc. SPIE 7357, 73570J(2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, M. Dubov, Y. Lai, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Annealing and spectral characteristics of femtosecond laser inscribed long period gratings written into a photonic crystal fibre,” Proc. SPIE 7004, 70044I (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, Y. Lai, G. Smith, M. Dubov, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Long period gratings written into a photonic crystal fibre by a femtosecond laser as directional bend sensors,” Optics Commun. 281, 5092–5096 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Petrovic, H. Dobb, V. K. Mezentsev, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Sensitivity of LPGs in PCFs fabricated by an electric arc to temperature, strain, and external refractive index,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 1306–1312 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, H. Dobb, A. Main, A. Martinez, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “A comparison of the spectral properties of high temperature annealed long-period gratings inscribed by fs laser, UV, and fusion-arc,” Proc. SPIE 6193, 61930M(2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Dobb, K. Kalli, and D. J. Webb, “Measured sensitivity of arc-induced long-period grating sensors in photonic crystal fibre,” Optics Commun. 260, 184–191 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Dobb, K. Kalli, and D. J. Webb, “Temperature-insensitive long period grating sensors in photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 40, 657–658 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Smith, K. Kalli, and K. Sugden, “Advances in femtosecond micromachining and inscription of micro and nano photonic devices,” in Frontiers in Guided Wave Optics and OptoelectronicsB.Pal, ed. (InTech, 2010), Chap. 15, p. 674.

Kan, D. J.

Komodromos, M.

T. Allsop, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, G. Smith, M. Komodromos, K. Sugden, M. Dubov, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Comparison between femtosecond laser and fusion-arc inscribed long period gratings in photonic crystal fibre,” Proc. SPIE 7357, 73570J(2009).
[CrossRef]

Lægsgaard, J.

H. R. Sørensen, J. Canning, J. Lægsgaard, K. Hansen, and P. Varming, “Liquid filling of photonic crystal fibres for grating writing,” Opt.Commun. 270, 207–210 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lai, Y.

T. Allsop, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, Y. Lai, G. Smith, M. Dubov, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Long period gratings written into a photonic crystal fibre by a femtosecond laser as directional bend sensors,” Optics Commun. 281, 5092–5096 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, M. Dubov, Y. Lai, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Annealing and spectral characteristics of femtosecond laser inscribed long period gratings written into a photonic crystal fibre,” Proc. SPIE 7004, 70044I (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

E. G. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-matter interaction in the bulk of a transparent solid: Confined microexplosion and void Formation,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 214101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mack, J. M.

E. K. Miller, G. S. Macrum, I. J. McKenna, H. W. Herrmann, J. M. Mack, C. S. Young, T. J. Sedillo, S. C. Evans, and C. J. Horsfield, “Accuracy of analog fiber-optic links in pulsed radiation environments,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54, 2457–2462(2007).
[CrossRef]

Macrum, G. S.

E. K. Miller, G. S. Macrum, I. J. McKenna, H. W. Herrmann, J. M. Mack, C. S. Young, T. J. Sedillo, S. C. Evans, and C. J. Horsfield, “Accuracy of analog fiber-optic links in pulsed radiation environments,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54, 2457–2462(2007).
[CrossRef]

Main, A.

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, H. Dobb, A. Main, A. Martinez, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “A comparison of the spectral properties of high temperature annealed long-period gratings inscribed by fs laser, UV, and fusion-arc,” Proc. SPIE 6193, 61930M(2006).
[CrossRef]

Malki, A.

G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Février, P. Roy, and D. Pagnoux, “Characterizations at high temperatures of long-period gratings written in germanium-free air silica microstructure fiber,” Opt. Lett. 29, 38–40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Humbert and A. Malki, “Characterizations at very high temperature of electric arc-induced long-period fiber gratings,” Optics Commun. 208, 329–335 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, G. D.

Martinez, A.

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, H. Dobb, A. Main, A. Martinez, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “A comparison of the spectral properties of high temperature annealed long-period gratings inscribed by fs laser, UV, and fusion-arc,” Proc. SPIE 6193, 61930M(2006).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photon. 2, 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, A. O. Jamison, and E. Mazur, “Morphology of femtosecond laser-induced structural changes in bulk transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1441–1443 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, “Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 882–885 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McKenna, I. J.

E. K. Miller, G. S. Macrum, I. J. McKenna, H. W. Herrmann, J. M. Mack, C. S. Young, T. J. Sedillo, S. C. Evans, and C. J. Horsfield, “Accuracy of analog fiber-optic links in pulsed radiation environments,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54, 2457–2462(2007).
[CrossRef]

Mezentsev, V. K.

Mihailov, S. J.

Miller, E. K.

E. K. Miller, G. S. Macrum, I. J. McKenna, H. W. Herrmann, J. M. Mack, C. S. Young, T. J. Sedillo, S. C. Evans, and C. J. Horsfield, “Accuracy of analog fiber-optic links in pulsed radiation environments,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54, 2457–2462(2007).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

E. G. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-matter interaction in the bulk of a transparent solid: Confined microexplosion and void Formation,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 214101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

Miyake, Y.

Morishita, K.

Nguyen, N. T.

A. Saliminia, N. T. Nguyen, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallee, “Densification of silica glass induced by 0.8 and 1.5 μm intense femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 093104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nicolai, P.

E. G. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-matter interaction in the bulk of a transparent solid: Confined microexplosion and void Formation,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 214101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nikogosyan, D. N.

Nishimura, K.

E. G. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-matter interaction in the bulk of a transparent solid: Confined microexplosion and void Formation,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 214101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Okhotnikov, O.

Pagnoux, D.

Petrovic, J. S.

Ponader, C. W.

C. W. Ponader, J. F. Schroeder, and A. M. Streltsov, “Origin of the refractive-index increase in laser-written waveguides in glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 063516 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rayner, D. M.

Rego, G.

Roy, P.

Russell, P. S. J.

Sakakura, M.

Saliminia, A.

A. Saliminia, N. T. Nguyen, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallee, “Densification of silica glass induced by 0.8 and 1.5 μm intense femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 093104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schaffer, C. B.

C. B. Schaffer, A. O. Jamison, and E. Mazur, “Morphology of femtosecond laser-induced structural changes in bulk transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1441–1443 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, J. F.

C. W. Ponader, J. F. Schroeder, and A. M. Streltsov, “Origin of the refractive-index increase in laser-written waveguides in glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 063516 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sedillo, T. J.

E. K. Miller, G. S. Macrum, I. J. McKenna, H. W. Herrmann, J. M. Mack, C. S. Young, T. J. Sedillo, S. C. Evans, and C. J. Horsfield, “Accuracy of analog fiber-optic links in pulsed radiation environments,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54, 2457–2462(2007).
[CrossRef]

Shimotsumal, Y.

Simova, E.

Slattery, S. A.

Smelser, C. W.

Smith, G.

T. Allsop, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, G. Smith, M. Komodromos, K. Sugden, M. Dubov, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Comparison between femtosecond laser and fusion-arc inscribed long period gratings in photonic crystal fibre,” Proc. SPIE 7357, 73570J(2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, Y. Lai, G. Smith, M. Dubov, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Long period gratings written into a photonic crystal fibre by a femtosecond laser as directional bend sensors,” Optics Commun. 281, 5092–5096 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smith, G. N.

G. N. Smith, K. Kalli, and K. Sugden, “Advances in femtosecond micromachining and inscription of micro and nano photonic devices,” in Frontiers in Guided Wave Optics and OptoelectronicsB.Pal, ed. (InTech, 2010), Chap. 15, p. 674.

Sørensen, H. R.

H. R. Sørensen, J. Canning, J. Lægsgaard, K. Hansen, and P. Varming, “Liquid filling of photonic crystal fibres for grating writing,” Opt.Commun. 270, 207–210 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Spälter, S.

Strasser, T. A.

Streltsov, A. M.

C. W. Ponader, J. F. Schroeder, and A. M. Streltsov, “Origin of the refractive-index increase in laser-written waveguides in glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 063516 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Streltsov and N. F. Borrelli, “Study of femtosecond-laser-written waveguides in glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2496–2504 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sugden, K.

T. Allsop, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, G. Smith, M. Komodromos, K. Sugden, M. Dubov, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Comparison between femtosecond laser and fusion-arc inscribed long period gratings in photonic crystal fibre,” Proc. SPIE 7357, 73570J(2009).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Smith, K. Kalli, and K. Sugden, “Advances in femtosecond micromachining and inscription of micro and nano photonic devices,” in Frontiers in Guided Wave Optics and OptoelectronicsB.Pal, ed. (InTech, 2010), Chap. 15, p. 674.

Sulimov, V.

Tatam, P. R.

W. S. James and P. R. Tatam, “Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: characteristics and application,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49–R61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, R. S.

Terazima, M.

Tikhonchuk, V.

E. G. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-matter interaction in the bulk of a transparent solid: Confined microexplosion and void Formation,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 214101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vallee, R.

A. Saliminia, N. T. Nguyen, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallee, “Densification of silica glass induced by 0.8 and 1.5 μm intense femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 093104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Varming, P.

H. R. Sørensen, J. Canning, J. Lægsgaard, K. Hansen, and P. Varming, “Liquid filling of photonic crystal fibres for grating writing,” Opt.Commun. 270, 207–210 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

Webb, D. J.

T. Allsop, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, G. Smith, M. Komodromos, K. Sugden, M. Dubov, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Comparison between femtosecond laser and fusion-arc inscribed long period gratings in photonic crystal fibre,” Proc. SPIE 7357, 73570J(2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, M. Dubov, Y. Lai, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Annealing and spectral characteristics of femtosecond laser inscribed long period gratings written into a photonic crystal fibre,” Proc. SPIE 7004, 70044I (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, Y. Lai, G. Smith, M. Dubov, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Long period gratings written into a photonic crystal fibre by a femtosecond laser as directional bend sensors,” Optics Commun. 281, 5092–5096 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Petrovic, H. Dobb, V. K. Mezentsev, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Sensitivity of LPGs in PCFs fabricated by an electric arc to temperature, strain, and external refractive index,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 1306–1312 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, H. Dobb, A. Main, A. Martinez, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “A comparison of the spectral properties of high temperature annealed long-period gratings inscribed by fs laser, UV, and fusion-arc,” Proc. SPIE 6193, 61930M(2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Dobb, K. Kalli, and D. J. Webb, “Measured sensitivity of arc-induced long-period grating sensors in photonic crystal fibre,” Optics Commun. 260, 184–191 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Dobb, K. Kalli, and D. J. Webb, “Temperature-insensitive long period grating sensors in photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 40, 657–658 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “A comparison of the sensing characteristics of long period gratings written in three different types of fiber,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 9, 210–223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Westbrook, P. S.

Windeler, R. S.

Withford, M. J.

Young, C. S.

E. K. Miller, G. S. Macrum, I. J. McKenna, H. W. Herrmann, J. M. Mack, C. S. Young, T. J. Sedillo, S. C. Evans, and C. J. Horsfield, “Accuracy of analog fiber-optic links in pulsed radiation environments,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54, 2457–2462(2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, K.

T. Allsop, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, G. Smith, M. Komodromos, K. Sugden, M. Dubov, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Comparison between femtosecond laser and fusion-arc inscribed long period gratings in photonic crystal fibre,” Proc. SPIE 7357, 73570J(2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, M. Dubov, Y. Lai, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Annealing and spectral characteristics of femtosecond laser inscribed long period gratings written into a photonic crystal fibre,” Proc. SPIE 7004, 70044I (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, Y. Lai, G. Smith, M. Dubov, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Long period gratings written into a photonic crystal fibre by a femtosecond laser as directional bend sensors,” Optics Commun. 281, 5092–5096 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

C. B. Schaffer, A. O. Jamison, and E. Mazur, “Morphology of femtosecond laser-induced structural changes in bulk transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1441–1443 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, “Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 882–885 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

H. Dobb, K. Kalli, and D. J. Webb, “Temperature-insensitive long period grating sensors in photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 40, 657–658 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (1)

E. K. Miller, G. S. Macrum, I. J. McKenna, H. W. Herrmann, J. M. Mack, C. S. Young, T. J. Sedillo, S. C. Evans, and C. J. Horsfield, “Accuracy of analog fiber-optic links in pulsed radiation environments,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54, 2457–2462(2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

C. W. Ponader, J. F. Schroeder, and A. M. Streltsov, “Origin of the refractive-index increase in laser-written waveguides in glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 063516 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Saliminia, N. T. Nguyen, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallee, “Densification of silica glass induced by 0.8 and 1.5 μm intense femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 093104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

W. S. James and P. R. Tatam, “Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: characteristics and application,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49–R61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (1)

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photon. 2, 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

T. Allsop, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “A comparison of the sensing characteristics of long period gratings written in three different types of fiber,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 9, 210–223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Opt.Commun. (1)

H. R. Sørensen, J. Canning, J. Lægsgaard, K. Hansen, and P. Varming, “Liquid filling of photonic crystal fibres for grating writing,” Opt.Commun. 270, 207–210 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Optics Commun. (3)

G. Humbert and A. Malki, “Characterizations at very high temperature of electric arc-induced long-period fiber gratings,” Optics Commun. 208, 329–335 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, Y. Lai, G. Smith, M. Dubov, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Long period gratings written into a photonic crystal fibre by a femtosecond laser as directional bend sensors,” Optics Commun. 281, 5092–5096 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Dobb, K. Kalli, and D. J. Webb, “Measured sensitivity of arc-induced long-period grating sensors in photonic crystal fibre,” Optics Commun. 260, 184–191 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

E. G. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-matter interaction in the bulk of a transparent solid: Confined microexplosion and void Formation,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 214101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (3)

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, H. Dobb, A. Main, A. Martinez, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “A comparison of the spectral properties of high temperature annealed long-period gratings inscribed by fs laser, UV, and fusion-arc,” Proc. SPIE 6193, 61930M(2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, M. Dubov, Y. Lai, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Annealing and spectral characteristics of femtosecond laser inscribed long period gratings written into a photonic crystal fibre,” Proc. SPIE 7004, 70044I (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, G. Smith, M. Komodromos, K. Sugden, M. Dubov, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Comparison between femtosecond laser and fusion-arc inscribed long period gratings in photonic crystal fibre,” Proc. SPIE 7357, 73570J(2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

G. N. Smith, K. Kalli, and K. Sugden, “Advances in femtosecond micromachining and inscription of micro and nano photonic devices,” in Frontiers in Guided Wave Optics and OptoelectronicsB.Pal, ed. (InTech, 2010), Chap. 15, p. 674.

COMSOL, “COMSOL multiphysics,” http://www.comsol.com.

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