Abstract

The full description of the evolution of light during its nonlinear propagation represents a valuable help to the complete understanding of important nonlinear phenomena such as light filamentation. In this paper we present a comparison between theoretical and experimental results of the spatiotemporal structure of a light filament at different propagation distances. In order to obtain the experimental spatiotemporal structure, we have used a technique based on spatially resolved spectral interferometry called STARFISH, for spatiotemporal amplitude-and-phase reconstruction by Fourier transform of interference spectra of high-complex beams. We have been able to observe important nonlinear pulse dynamics during the nonlinear propagation, including pulse splitting and the subsequent competition among the pulses that result from the splitting, obtaining a full insight into the general nonlinear behavior.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2010 (6)

2009 (5)

2008 (4)

S. Champeaux, L. Bergé, D. Gordon, A. Ting, J. Peñano, and P. Sprangle, “(3+1)-dimensional numerical simulations of femtosecond laser filaments in air: toward a quantitative agreement with experiments,” Phys. Rev. E 77, 036406 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Bernhardt, W. Liu, F. Théberge, H. L. Xu, J. F. Daigle, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, “Spectroscopic analysis of femtosecond laser plasma filament in air,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1268–1274 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian and J. P. Wolf, “Physics and applications of atmospheric nonlinear optics and filamentation,” Opt. Express 16, 466–493 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, Z. H. Lu, and L. J. Wang, “Precision refractive index measurements of air, N2, O2, Ar, and CO2 with a frequency comb,” Appl. Opt. 47, 3143–3151 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (5)

A. Zaïr, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, M. Holler, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, and U. Keller, “Spatiotemporal characterization of few-cycle pulses obtained by filamentation,” Opt. Express 15, 5394–5404 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Bowlan, P. Gabolde, and R. Trebino, “Directly measuring the spatiotemporal electric field of focusing ultrashort pulses,” Opt. Express 15, 10219–10230 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633–1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhanvoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 056604(2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, M. Franco, G. Méchain, T. Olivier, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in air at low pressures: Part I: theory and numerical simulations,” Opt. Commun. 259, 265–273 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. San Roman, C. Ruiz, J. A. Pérez, D. Delgado, C. Mendez, L. Plaja, and L. Roso, “Nonlinear Young’s double-slit experiment,” Opt. Express 14, 2817–2824 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Gabolde and R. Trebino, “Single-shot measurement of the full spatiotemporal field of ultrashort pulses with multispectral digital holography,” Opt. Express 14, 11460–11467(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

C. Ruiz, J. San Roman, C. Mendez, V. Diaz, L. Plaja, I. Arias, and L. Roso, “Observation of spontaneous self-channeling of light in air below the collapse threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 053905 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “Propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005)
[CrossRef]

2004 (6)

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977–3979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Trull, O. Jedrkiewicz, P. Di Trapani, A. Matijošius, A. Varanavičius, G. Valiulis, R. Danielius, E. Kucinskas, A. Piskarskas, and S. Trillo, “Spatiotemporal three-dimensional mapping of nonlinear X waves,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 026607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Méjean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple filamentation of terawatt laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 225002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Skupin, L. Bergé, U. Peschel, and F. Lederer, “Interaction of femtosecond light filaments with obscurants in aerosols,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 023901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Matijošius, J. Trull, P. Di Trapani, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarskas, A. Varanavičius, and A. Piskarskas, “Nonlinear space–time dynamics of ultrashort wave packets in water,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1123–1125 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

J. Kasparian, M. Rodríguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Moll, A. L. Gaeta, and G. Fibich, “Self-similar optical wave collapse: observation of the Townes profile,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 203902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (5)

2001 (2)

1999 (2)

M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, “Moving focus versus self-waveguiding model for long distance propagation of femtosecond pulses in air,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1771–1776 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Schillinger and R. Sauerbrey, “Electrical conductivity of long plasma channels in air generated by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 753–756 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

1997 (2)

R. Trebino, K. DeLong, D. Fittinghoff, J. Sweester, M. Krumbügel, B. Richman, and D. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, “Nonlinear optical pulse propagation in the single-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3282–3285(1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

1980 (1)

1972 (1)

C. R. Giuliano, J. H. Marburger, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 58–60 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ackermann, R.

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977–3979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Adams, D. E.

C. G. Durfee, D. E. Adams, and J. A. Squier, “Spatiotemporal characterization of ionizing wavefronts in a filament,” presented at Third International Symposium on Filamentation, Crete, Greece, 31 May–5 June 2010.

Aközbek, N.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “Propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Alonso, B.

André, Y.-B.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodríguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tzortzakis, G. Méchain, G. Patalano, Y.-B. André, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J.-M. Munier, M. Gheudin, G. Beaudin, and P. Encrenaz, “Coherent subterahertz radiation from femtosecond infrared filaments in air,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1944–1946 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Arias, I.

C. Ruiz, J. San Roman, C. Mendez, V. Diaz, L. Plaja, I. Arias, and L. Roso, “Observation of spontaneous self-channeling of light in air below the collapse threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 053905 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnaud, J. A.

Beaudin, G.

Becker, A.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “Propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Bejot, P.

P. Bejot, J. Kasparian, S. Henin, V. Loriot, T. Vieillard, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, and J.-P. Wolf, “Higher-Order Kerr terms allow ionization-free filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 103903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berge, L.

Bergé, L.

C. Bree, A. Demircan, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, and G. Steinmeyer, “Plasma-induced pulse breaking in filamentary self-compression,” Laser Phys. 20, 1107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-recompression of laser filaments exiting a gas cell,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 033838(2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Champeaux, L. Bergé, D. Gordon, A. Ting, J. Peñano, and P. Sprangle, “(3+1)-dimensional numerical simulations of femtosecond laser filaments in air: toward a quantitative agreement with experiments,” Phys. Rev. E 77, 036406 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633–1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhanvoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 056604(2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Skupin, L. Bergé, U. Peschel, and F. Lederer, “Interaction of femtosecond light filaments with obscurants in aerosols,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 023901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Méjean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple filamentation of terawatt laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 225002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernhardt, J.

J. Bernhardt, W. Liu, F. Théberge, H. L. Xu, J. F. Daigle, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, “Spectroscopic analysis of femtosecond laser plasma filament in air,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1268–1274 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Biegert, J.

A. Zaïr, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, M. Holler, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, and U. Keller, “Spatiotemporal characterization of few-cycle pulses obtained by filamentation,” Opt. Express 15, 5394–5404 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Kasparian, M. Rodríguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
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J. Bernhardt, W. Liu, F. Théberge, H. L. Xu, J. F. Daigle, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, “Spectroscopic analysis of femtosecond laser plasma filament in air,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1268–1274 (2008).
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Chin, S. L.

J. Bernhardt, W. Liu, F. Théberge, H. L. Xu, J. F. Daigle, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, “Spectroscopic analysis of femtosecond laser plasma filament in air,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1268–1274 (2008).
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S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “Propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005)
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S. Minardi, A. Gopal, A. Couairon, G. Tamoašuskas, R. Piskarskas, A. Dubietis, and P. Di Trapani, “Accurate retrieval of pulse-splitting dynamics of a femtosecond filament in water by time-resolved shadowgraphy,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3020–3022(2009).
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A. Zaïr, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, M. Holler, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, and U. Keller, “Spatiotemporal characterization of few-cycle pulses obtained by filamentation,” Opt. Express 15, 5394–5404 (2007).
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C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
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J. Trull, O. Jedrkiewicz, P. Di Trapani, A. Matijošius, A. Varanavičius, G. Valiulis, R. Danielius, E. Kucinskas, A. Piskarskas, and S. Trillo, “Spatiotemporal three-dimensional mapping of nonlinear X waves,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 026607 (2004).
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R. Trebino, K. DeLong, D. Fittinghoff, J. Sweester, M. Krumbügel, B. Richman, and D. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
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C. Bree, A. Demircan, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, and G. Steinmeyer, “Plasma-induced pulse breaking in filamentary self-compression,” Laser Phys. 20, 1107 (2010).
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Diaz, V.

C. Ruiz, J. San Roman, C. Mendez, V. Diaz, L. Plaja, I. Arias, and L. Roso, “Observation of spontaneous self-channeling of light in air below the collapse threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 053905 (2005).
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I. Blonskyi, V. Kadan, O. Shpotyuk, and I. Dmituk, “Manifestations of sub- and superluminality in filamented femtosecond laser pulse in fused silica,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1913–1917(2009).
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C. Dorrer, E. M. Kosik, and I. A. Walmsley, “Spatiotemporal characterization of the electric field of ultrashort optical pulses using two-dimensional shearing interferometry,” Appl. Phys. B 74, S209–S217 (2002).
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C. Dorrer, E. M. Kosik, and I. A. Walmsley, “Direct space–time characterization of the electric fields of ultrashort optical pulses,” Opt. Lett. 27, 548–550 (2002).
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Dubietis, A.

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J. Bernhardt, W. Liu, F. Théberge, H. L. Xu, J. F. Daigle, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, “Spectroscopic analysis of femtosecond laser plasma filament in air,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1268–1274 (2008).
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J. Kasparian, M. Rodríguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
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S. Champeaux, L. Bergé, D. Gordon, A. Ting, J. Peñano, and P. Sprangle, “(3+1)-dimensional numerical simulations of femtosecond laser filaments in air: toward a quantitative agreement with experiments,” Phys. Rev. E 77, 036406 (2008).
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Guandalini, A.

Hauri, C. P.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
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I. Blonskyi, V. Kadan, O. Shpotyuk, and I. Dmituk, “Manifestations of sub- and superluminality in filamented femtosecond laser pulse in fused silica,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1913–1917(2009).
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S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “Propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005)
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R. Trebino, K. DeLong, D. Fittinghoff, J. Sweester, M. Krumbügel, B. Richman, and D. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
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P. Bejot, J. Kasparian, S. Henin, V. Loriot, T. Vieillard, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, and J.-P. Wolf, “Higher-Order Kerr terms allow ionization-free filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 103903 (2010).
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L. Bergé, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Méjean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple filamentation of terawatt laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 225002 (2004).
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J. Kasparian, M. Rodríguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
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Keller, U.

A. Zaïr, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, M. Holler, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, and U. Keller, “Spatiotemporal characterization of few-cycle pulses obtained by filamentation,” Opt. Express 15, 5394–5404 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
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Kolesik, M.

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Kornelis, W.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
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S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “Propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005)
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C. Dorrer, E. M. Kosik, and I. A. Walmsley, “Spatiotemporal characterization of the electric field of ultrashort optical pulses using two-dimensional shearing interferometry,” Appl. Phys. B 74, S209–S217 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Dorrer, E. M. Kosik, and I. A. Walmsley, “Direct space–time characterization of the electric fields of ultrashort optical pulses,” Opt. Lett. 27, 548–550 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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T. Brabec and F. Krausz, “Nonlinear optical pulse propagation in the single-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3282–3285(1997).
[CrossRef]

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R. Trebino, K. DeLong, D. Fittinghoff, J. Sweester, M. Krumbügel, B. Richman, and D. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
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J. Trull, O. Jedrkiewicz, P. Di Trapani, A. Matijošius, A. Varanavičius, G. Valiulis, R. Danielius, E. Kucinskas, A. Piskarskas, and S. Trillo, “Spatiotemporal three-dimensional mapping of nonlinear X waves,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 026607 (2004).
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K. Ishikawa, H. Kumagai, and K. Midorikawa, “High-power regime of femtosecond-laser pulse propagation in silica: multiple cone formation,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 056608 (2002).
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Lavorel, B.

P. Bejot, J. Kasparian, S. Henin, V. Loriot, T. Vieillard, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, and J.-P. Wolf, “Higher-Order Kerr terms allow ionization-free filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 103903 (2010).
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S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhanvoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 056604(2006).
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S. Skupin, L. Bergé, U. Peschel, and F. Lederer, “Interaction of femtosecond light filaments with obscurants in aerosols,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 023901 (2004).
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Liu, W.

J. Bernhardt, W. Liu, F. Théberge, H. L. Xu, J. F. Daigle, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, “Spectroscopic analysis of femtosecond laser plasma filament in air,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1268–1274 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “Propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005)
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Lõhmus, M.

Loriot, V.

P. Bejot, J. Kasparian, S. Henin, V. Loriot, T. Vieillard, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, and J.-P. Wolf, “Higher-Order Kerr terms allow ionization-free filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 103903 (2010).
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Luo, Q.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “Propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005)
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C. R. Giuliano, J. H. Marburger, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 58–60 (1972).
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J. Trull, O. Jedrkiewicz, P. Di Trapani, A. Matijošius, A. Varanavičius, G. Valiulis, R. Danielius, E. Kucinskas, A. Piskarskas, and S. Trillo, “Spatiotemporal three-dimensional mapping of nonlinear X waves,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 026607 (2004).
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A. Matijošius, J. Trull, P. Di Trapani, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarskas, A. Varanavičius, and A. Piskarskas, “Nonlinear space–time dynamics of ultrashort wave packets in water,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1123–1125 (2004).
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A. Couairon, M. Franco, G. Méchain, T. Olivier, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in air at low pressures: Part I: theory and numerical simulations,” Opt. Commun. 259, 265–273 (2006).
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S. Tzortzakis, G. Méchain, G. Patalano, Y.-B. André, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J.-M. Munier, M. Gheudin, G. Beaudin, and P. Encrenaz, “Coherent subterahertz radiation from femtosecond infrared filaments in air,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1944–1946 (2002).
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L. Bergé, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Méjean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple filamentation of terawatt laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 225002 (2004).
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J. Kasparian, M. Rodríguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
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K. Ishikawa, H. Kumagai, and K. Midorikawa, “High-power regime of femtosecond-laser pulse propagation in silica: multiple cone formation,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 056608 (2002).
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Mourou, G.

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A. Zaïr, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, M. Holler, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, and U. Keller, “Spatiotemporal characterization of few-cycle pulses obtained by filamentation,” Opt. Express 15, 5394–5404 (2007).
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A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, M. Franco, G. Méchain, T. Olivier, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in air at low pressures: Part I: theory and numerical simulations,” Opt. Commun. 259, 265–273 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodríguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon, S. Tzortzakis, L. Berge, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Infrared femtosecond light filaments in air: simulations and experiments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1117–1131(2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Tzortzakis, G. Méchain, G. Patalano, Y.-B. André, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J.-M. Munier, M. Gheudin, G. Beaudin, and P. Encrenaz, “Coherent subterahertz radiation from femtosecond infrared filaments in air,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1944–1946 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nuter, R.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633–1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O’Shea, P.

Olivier, T.

A. Couairon, M. Franco, G. Méchain, T. Olivier, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in air at low pressures: Part I: theory and numerical simulations,” Opt. Commun. 259, 265–273 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Patalano, G.

Peñano, J.

S. Champeaux, L. Bergé, D. Gordon, A. Ting, J. Peñano, and P. Sprangle, “(3+1)-dimensional numerical simulations of femtosecond laser filaments in air: toward a quantitative agreement with experiments,” Phys. Rev. E 77, 036406 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pérez, J. A.

Peschel, U.

S. Skupin, L. Bergé, U. Peschel, and F. Lederer, “Interaction of femtosecond light filaments with obscurants in aerosols,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 023901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piasecki, J.

Piksarv, P.

Piskarskas, A.

A. Matijošius, J. Trull, P. Di Trapani, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarskas, A. Varanavičius, and A. Piskarskas, “Nonlinear space–time dynamics of ultrashort wave packets in water,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1123–1125 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Trull, O. Jedrkiewicz, P. Di Trapani, A. Matijošius, A. Varanavičius, G. Valiulis, R. Danielius, E. Kucinskas, A. Piskarskas, and S. Trillo, “Spatiotemporal three-dimensional mapping of nonlinear X waves,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 026607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Piskarskas, R.

Plaja, L.

J. San Roman, C. Ruiz, J. A. Pérez, D. Delgado, C. Mendez, L. Plaja, and L. Roso, “Nonlinear Young’s double-slit experiment,” Opt. Express 14, 2817–2824 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Ruiz, J. San Roman, C. Mendez, V. Diaz, L. Plaja, I. Arias, and L. Roso, “Observation of spontaneous self-channeling of light in air below the collapse threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 053905 (2005).
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Potenza, M. A. C.

S. Minardi, M. A. C. Potenza, and J. Trull, “Intensity mapping of three-dimensional optical wave packet: holographic properties and applications,” in Trends in Laser and Electro-optical Research, W.T.Arkin, ed. (2006), pp. 151–182.

Prade, B.

Richman, B.

R. Trebino, K. DeLong, D. Fittinghoff, J. Sweester, M. Krumbügel, B. Richman, and D. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, M.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Méjean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple filamentation of terawatt laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 225002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodríguez, M.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodríguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rohwetter, P.

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977–3979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Roman, J. San

J. San Roman, C. Ruiz, J. A. Pérez, D. Delgado, C. Mendez, L. Plaja, and L. Roso, “Nonlinear Young’s double-slit experiment,” Opt. Express 14, 2817–2824 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Ruiz, J. San Roman, C. Mendez, V. Diaz, L. Plaja, I. Arias, and L. Roso, “Observation of spontaneous self-channeling of light in air below the collapse threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 053905 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Román, J. San

Roso, L.

Ruiz, C.

J. San Roman, C. Ruiz, J. A. Pérez, D. Delgado, C. Mendez, L. Plaja, and L. Roso, “Nonlinear Young’s double-slit experiment,” Opt. Express 14, 2817–2824 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Ruiz, J. San Roman, C. Mendez, V. Diaz, L. Plaja, I. Arias, and L. Roso, “Observation of spontaneous self-channeling of light in air below the collapse threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 053905 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saari, P.

Salmon, E.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Méjean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple filamentation of terawatt laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 225002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977–3979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodríguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sauerbrey, R.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Méjean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple filamentation of terawatt laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 225002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodríguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Schillinger and R. Sauerbrey, “Electrical conductivity of long plasma channels in air generated by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 753–756 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schapper, F.

Schillinger, H.

H. Schillinger and R. Sauerbrey, “Electrical conductivity of long plasma channels in air generated by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 753–756 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schnürer, M.

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhanvoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 056604(2006).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, H.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “Propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005)
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Shpotyuk, O.

I. Blonskyi, V. Kadan, O. Shpotyuk, and I. Dmituk, “Manifestations of sub- and superluminality in filamented femtosecond laser pulse in fused silica,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1913–1917(2009).
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Skupin, S.

C. Bree, A. Demircan, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, and G. Steinmeyer, “Plasma-induced pulse breaking in filamentary self-compression,” Laser Phys. 20, 1107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-recompression of laser filaments exiting a gas cell,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 033838(2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633–1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhanvoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 056604(2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Méjean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple filamentation of terawatt laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 225002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Skupin, L. Bergé, U. Peschel, and F. Lederer, “Interaction of femtosecond light filaments with obscurants in aerosols,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 023901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sokollik, T.

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhanvoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 056604(2006).
[CrossRef]

Sola, I. J.

Sprangle, P.

S. Champeaux, L. Bergé, D. Gordon, A. Ting, J. Peñano, and P. Sprangle, “(3+1)-dimensional numerical simulations of femtosecond laser filaments in air: toward a quantitative agreement with experiments,” Phys. Rev. E 77, 036406 (2008).
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Squier, J.

Squier, J. A.

C. G. Durfee, D. E. Adams, and J. A. Squier, “Spatiotemporal characterization of ionizing wavefronts in a filament,” presented at Third International Symposium on Filamentation, Crete, Greece, 31 May–5 June 2010.

Steinmeyer, G.

C. Bree, A. Demircan, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, and G. Steinmeyer, “Plasma-induced pulse breaking in filamentary self-compression,” Laser Phys. 20, 1107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-recompression of laser filaments exiting a gas cell,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 033838(2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhanvoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 056604(2006).
[CrossRef]

Stelmaszczyk, K.

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977–3979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stibenz, G.

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhanvoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 056604(2006).
[CrossRef]

Sweester, J.

R. Trebino, K. DeLong, D. Fittinghoff, J. Sweester, M. Krumbügel, B. Richman, and D. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
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Tamoašuskas, G.

Théberge, F.

J. Bernhardt, W. Liu, F. Théberge, H. L. Xu, J. F. Daigle, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, “Spectroscopic analysis of femtosecond laser plasma filament in air,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1268–1274 (2008).
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S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “Propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005)
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Ting, A.

S. Champeaux, L. Bergé, D. Gordon, A. Ting, J. Peñano, and P. Sprangle, “(3+1)-dimensional numerical simulations of femtosecond laser filaments in air: toward a quantitative agreement with experiments,” Phys. Rev. E 77, 036406 (2008).
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Trebino, R.

Trillo, S.

J. Trull, O. Jedrkiewicz, P. Di Trapani, A. Matijošius, A. Varanavičius, G. Valiulis, R. Danielius, E. Kucinskas, A. Piskarskas, and S. Trillo, “Spatiotemporal three-dimensional mapping of nonlinear X waves,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 026607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Trull, J.

J. Trull, O. Jedrkiewicz, P. Di Trapani, A. Matijošius, A. Varanavičius, G. Valiulis, R. Danielius, E. Kucinskas, A. Piskarskas, and S. Trillo, “Spatiotemporal three-dimensional mapping of nonlinear X waves,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 026607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Matijošius, J. Trull, P. Di Trapani, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarskas, A. Varanavičius, and A. Piskarskas, “Nonlinear space–time dynamics of ultrashort wave packets in water,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1123–1125 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Minardi, M. A. C. Potenza, and J. Trull, “Intensity mapping of three-dimensional optical wave packet: holographic properties and applications,” in Trends in Laser and Electro-optical Research, W.T.Arkin, ed. (2006), pp. 151–182.

Tzortzakis, S.

Valiulis, G.

J. Trull, O. Jedrkiewicz, P. Di Trapani, A. Matijošius, A. Varanavičius, G. Valiulis, R. Danielius, E. Kucinskas, A. Piskarskas, and S. Trillo, “Spatiotemporal three-dimensional mapping of nonlinear X waves,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 026607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Valtna-Lukner, H.

Vampouille, M.

Varanavicius, A.

A. Matijošius, J. Trull, P. Di Trapani, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarskas, A. Varanavičius, and A. Piskarskas, “Nonlinear space–time dynamics of ultrashort wave packets in water,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1123–1125 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Trull, O. Jedrkiewicz, P. Di Trapani, A. Matijošius, A. Varanavičius, G. Valiulis, R. Danielius, E. Kucinskas, A. Piskarskas, and S. Trillo, “Spatiotemporal three-dimensional mapping of nonlinear X waves,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 026607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Varela, O.

Vieillard, T.

P. Bejot, J. Kasparian, S. Henin, V. Loriot, T. Vieillard, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, and J.-P. Wolf, “Higher-Order Kerr terms allow ionization-free filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 103903 (2010).
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Walmsley, I. A.

Wang, L. J.

Wille, H.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodríguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
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Wolf, J. P.

J. Kasparian and J. P. Wolf, “Physics and applications of atmospheric nonlinear optics and filamentation,” Opt. Express 16, 466–493 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Méjean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple filamentation of terawatt laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 225002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, J.-P.

P. Bejot, J. Kasparian, S. Henin, V. Loriot, T. Vieillard, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, and J.-P. Wolf, “Higher-Order Kerr terms allow ionization-free filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 103903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633–1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977–3979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodríguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wöste, L.

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977–3979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Méjean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple filamentation of terawatt laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 225002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodríguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wright, E. M.

M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, “Moving focus versus self-waveguiding model for long distance propagation of femtosecond pulses in air,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1771–1776 (1999).
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M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, “Dynamic spatial replenishment of femtosecond pulses propagating in air,” Opt. Lett. 23, 382–384 (1998).
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J. Bernhardt, W. Liu, F. Théberge, H. L. Xu, J. F. Daigle, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, “Spectroscopic analysis of femtosecond laser plasma filament in air,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1268–1274 (2008).
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C. R. Giuliano, J. H. Marburger, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 58–60 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977–3979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Méjean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple filamentation of terawatt laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 225002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodríguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zaïr, A.

Zhang, J.

Zhanvoronkov, N.

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhanvoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 056604(2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (3)

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Schillinger and R. Sauerbrey, “Electrical conductivity of long plasma channels in air generated by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 753–756 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Dorrer, E. M. Kosik, and I. A. Walmsley, “Spatiotemporal characterization of the electric field of ultrashort optical pulses using two-dimensional shearing interferometry,” Appl. Phys. B 74, S209–S217 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977–3979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Giuliano, J. H. Marburger, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 58–60 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “Propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005)
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, “Moving focus versus self-waveguiding model for long distance propagation of femtosecond pulses in air,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1771–1776 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Laser Phys. (1)

C. Bree, A. Demircan, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, and G. Steinmeyer, “Plasma-induced pulse breaking in filamentary self-compression,” Laser Phys. 20, 1107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

A. Couairon, M. Franco, G. Méchain, T. Olivier, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in air at low pressures: Part I: theory and numerical simulations,” Opt. Commun. 259, 265–273 (2006).
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S. Minardi, M. A. C. Potenza, and J. Trull, “Intensity mapping of three-dimensional optical wave packet: holographic properties and applications,” in Trends in Laser and Electro-optical Research, W.T.Arkin, ed. (2006), pp. 151–182.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup used for the spatiotemporal study of the filamentation process. The input laser is divided into two beams. The first pulse spectrum is broadened into a hollow core fiber. Then it is compressed and characterized. The second pulse produces filamentation in air, which is sampled by a reflective plate and imaged into the detection. The filament is characterized by the STARFISH technique: an optical fiber coupler collects both pulses to perform spectral interferometry. The propagation of the filament is tracked in a z-scan by moving the lens and iris along the optical axis. SPM, self-phase modulation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Temporal and (b) spectral structure of the input pulse used in the simulations. On both plots, the blue curve represents the intensity of the envelope, while the red one corresponds to the phase. This particular temporal shape comes from the fact that the pulse shows a slight nonlinear propagation while going from the compressor to the experimentation table.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spatially resolved spectrum, experimental (column A) and simulated (column B), and spatiotemporal intensity distribution, experimental (column C) and simulated (column D), for different propagation distances after the focusing lens, given to the left of the images. The color scale for the logarithmic plots comprises three decades.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Column A, experimental, and column B, simulated on-axis pulse reconstruction for different propagation distances after the focusing lens, (indicated at the left of the figure). Color filling stands for the instantaneous wavelength.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

On-axis electronic density generated by the pulse along its propagation obtained in the theoretical simulations.

Equations (6)

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ε z = i 2 k 0 ( 1 + i ω 0 t ) 1 ( 2 r 2 + 1 r r ) ε + n = 2 i n + 1 n ! ( n k ω n ) ω 0 n ε t n + T NL ( ε ) ,
K ( ε ) = i k 0 n 2 ( 1 + i ω 0 t ) [ ( ( 1 x D K ) | ε | 2 + x D K τ D K t e τ t τ D K | ε ( τ ) | 2 d τ ) ε ] ,
I ( ε ) = i k 0 2 ρ C ( 1 + i ω 0 t ) 1 [ ρ ε ] ,
A ( ε ) = 1 2 n ρ a t W n K n ω 0 | ε | 2 ε .
ρ t = n W n ρ n ,
ε ( r , t , z = 0 ) = E 0 exp [ ( r w 0 ) 4 ] exp [ i k r 2 2 f ] f ( t ) .

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