Abstract

Infrared transmission characteristics of magnetic fluids were measured in the 410μm wavelength range by using suspensions of kerosene and magnetite nanoparticles. The optical density of the magnetic fluid increased gradually toward short wavelengths, which indicated that scattering was a principal origin of the optical loss. When a magnetic field of 900G was applied in the direction perpendicular to the optical path, the optical density increased or decreased depending on whether the polarization direction of the probe beam was parallel or perpendicular to the magnetic field. By contrast, an axial magnetic field reduced the optical density for both polarizations.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2010 (3)

2009 (2)

2008 (3)

I. Yamada, K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, S. Akioka, Y. Yamagishi, and M. Saito, “Mid-infrared wire-grid polarizer with silicides,” Opt. Lett. 33, 258–260 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Philip, J. M. Laskar, and B. Raj, “Magnetic field induced extinction of light in a suspension of Fe3O4 nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221911 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-D. Deng, J. Liu, W.-R. Zhao, W. Zhang, X.-S. Lin, T. Sun, Q.-F. Dai, L.-J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, “Enhancement of switching speed by laser-induced clustering of nanoparticles in magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

B. García-Cámara, F. Moreno, F. González, and J. M. Saiz, “Comment on “Experimental evidence of zero forward scattering by magnetic spheres”,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 179701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

R. V. Mehta, R. Patel, R. Desai, R. V. Upadhyay, and K. Parekh, “Experimental evidence of zero forward scattering by magnetic spheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Di, X. Chen, S. Pu, X. Hu, and Y. Xia, “Magnetic-field-induced birefringence and particle agglomeration in magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

G. N. Rao, Y. D. Yao, Y. L. Chen, K. T. Wu, and J. W. Chen, “Particle size and magnetic field-induced optical properties of magnetic fluid nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 031408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Horng, J. J. Chieh, Y. H. Chao, S. Y. Yang, C.-Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Designing optical-fiber modulators by using magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 30, 543–545 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Pu, X. Chen, Y. Chen, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Measurement of the refractive index of a magnetic fluid by the retrorefraction on the fiber-optic end face,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 171904(2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Pu, X. Chen, L. Chen, W. Liao, Y. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Tunable magnetic fluid grating by applying a magnetic field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 021901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

2003 (2)

P. C. Morais, O. Silva, P. P. Gravina, L. C. Figueiredo, E. C. D. Lima, L. P. Silva, R. B. Azevedo, and K. S. Neto, “Cadmium-ferrite-based magnetic fluid: birefringence and transmission electron microscopy investigation,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 39, 2639–2641 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, and H. C. Yang, “Designing the refractive indices by using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2434–2436 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. Lenke, C. Eisenmann, D. Reinke, and G. Maret, “Measurement of the magneto-optical correlation length in turbid media,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 056610 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

G. L. J. A. Rikken and B. A. van Tiggelen, “Observation of magnetically induced transverse diffusion of light,” Nature 381, 54–55 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

P.-V. Gerligand, B. L. Jeune, J. Cariou, and J. Lotrian, “Spatial homogeneities evaluation of ferrofluid thin plates polarimetric characteristics for active imagery,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1581–1588(1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Saito, M. Takakuwa, and M. Miyagi, “Optical constants of magnetic fluids and their application to optical switches,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E78-C, 1465–1469 (1995).

1994 (2)

H. Wang, Y. Zhu, C. Boyd, W. Luo, A. Cebers, and R. E. Rosensweig, “Periodic branched structures in a phase-separated magnetic colloid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1929–1932 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Wirtz and M. Fermigier, “One-dimensional patterns and wavelength selection in magnetic fluids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2294–2297 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

1987 (2)

R. V. Mehta, S. P. Vaidya, J. M. Patel, and P. M. Vora, “Magnetically induced spatial filtering effect,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2297–2298(1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Taketomi, M. Ukita, M. Mizukami, H. Miyajima, and S. Chikazumi, “Magneto-optical effects of magnetic fluid,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 56, 3362–3374 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

H. W. Davies and J. P. Llewellyn, “Magnetic birefringence of ferrofluids: I. Estimation of particle size,” J. Phys. D 12, 311–319(1979).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

U. Neitzel and K. Bärner, “Optical measurement on ferromagnetic colloids,” Phys. Lett. A 63, 327–329 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (2)

W. E. L. Haas and J. E. Adams, “Diffraction effects in ferrofluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 571–572 (1975).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Sholten, “Magnetic measurement on particles in suspension,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 11, 1400–1402 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

P. Goldberg, J. Hansford, and P. J. van Heerden, “Polarization of light in suspensions of small ferrite particles in a magnetic field,” J. Appl. Phys. 42, 3874–3876 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1938 (1)

W. C. Elmore, “Ferromagnetic colloid for studying magnetic structures,” Phys. Rev. 54, 309–310 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Adams, J. E.

W. E. L. Haas and J. E. Adams, “Diffraction effects in ferrofluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 571–572 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Akioka, S.

Amara, F. B.

Azevedo, R. B.

P. C. Morais, O. Silva, P. P. Gravina, L. C. Figueiredo, E. C. D. Lima, L. P. Silva, R. B. Azevedo, and K. S. Neto, “Cadmium-ferrite-based magnetic fluid: birefringence and transmission electron microscopy investigation,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 39, 2639–2641 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bärner, K.

U. Neitzel and K. Bärner, “Optical measurement on ferromagnetic colloids,” Phys. Lett. A 63, 327–329 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, C.

H. Wang, Y. Zhu, C. Boyd, W. Luo, A. Cebers, and R. E. Rosensweig, “Periodic branched structures in a phase-separated magnetic colloid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1929–1932 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cariou, J.

P.-V. Gerligand, B. L. Jeune, J. Cariou, and J. Lotrian, “Spatial homogeneities evaluation of ferrofluid thin plates polarimetric characteristics for active imagery,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1581–1588(1995).
[CrossRef]

Cebers, A.

H. Wang, Y. Zhu, C. Boyd, W. Luo, A. Cebers, and R. E. Rosensweig, “Periodic branched structures in a phase-separated magnetic colloid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1929–1932 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chao, C.-H.

Chao, Y. H.

Chen, J. W.

G. N. Rao, Y. D. Yao, Y. L. Chen, K. T. Wu, and J. W. Chen, “Particle size and magnetic field-induced optical properties of magnetic fluid nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 031408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

S. Pu, X. Chen, L. Chen, W. Liao, Y. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Tunable magnetic fluid grating by applying a magnetic field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 021901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Pu, X. Chen, Y. Chen, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Measurement of the refractive index of a magnetic fluid by the retrorefraction on the fiber-optic end face,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 171904(2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

Z. Di, X. Chen, S. Pu, X. Hu, and Y. Xia, “Magnetic-field-induced birefringence and particle agglomeration in magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Pu, X. Chen, L. Chen, W. Liao, Y. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Tunable magnetic fluid grating by applying a magnetic field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 021901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Pu, X. Chen, Y. Chen, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Measurement of the refractive index of a magnetic fluid by the retrorefraction on the fiber-optic end face,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 171904(2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

S. Pu, X. Chen, Y. Chen, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Measurement of the refractive index of a magnetic fluid by the retrorefraction on the fiber-optic end face,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 171904(2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Pu, X. Chen, L. Chen, W. Liao, Y. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Tunable magnetic fluid grating by applying a magnetic field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 021901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. L.

G. N. Rao, Y. D. Yao, Y. L. Chen, K. T. Wu, and J. W. Chen, “Particle size and magnetic field-induced optical properties of magnetic fluid nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 031408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chieh, J. J.

Chieh, J.-J.

Chikazumi, S.

S. Taketomi, M. Ukita, M. Mizukami, H. Miyajima, and S. Chikazumi, “Magneto-optical effects of magnetic fluid,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 56, 3362–3374 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Dai, M.

S. Pu, M. Dai, and G. Sun, “Longitudinal field-induced polarized light transmittance of magnetic fluids,” Opt. Commun. 283, 4012–4016 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Q.-F.

Q.-F. Dai, H.-D. Deng, W.-R. Zhao, J. Liu, L.-J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, “All-optical switching mediated by magnetic nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 35, 97–99 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-D. Deng, J. Liu, W.-R. Zhao, W. Zhang, X.-S. Lin, T. Sun, Q.-F. Dai, L.-J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, “Enhancement of switching speed by laser-induced clustering of nanoparticles in magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Davies, H. W.

H. W. Davies and J. P. Llewellyn, “Magnetic birefringence of ferrofluids: I. Estimation of particle size,” J. Phys. D 12, 311–319(1979).
[CrossRef]

Deng, H.-D.

Q.-F. Dai, H.-D. Deng, W.-R. Zhao, J. Liu, L.-J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, “All-optical switching mediated by magnetic nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 35, 97–99 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-D. Deng, J. Liu, W.-R. Zhao, W. Zhang, X.-S. Lin, T. Sun, Q.-F. Dai, L.-J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, “Enhancement of switching speed by laser-induced clustering of nanoparticles in magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Desai, R.

R. V. Mehta, R. Patel, R. Desai, R. V. Upadhyay, and K. Parekh, “Experimental evidence of zero forward scattering by magnetic spheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Di, Z.

Z. Di, X. Chen, S. Pu, X. Hu, and Y. Xia, “Magnetic-field-induced birefringence and particle agglomeration in magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eisenmann, C.

R. Lenke, C. Eisenmann, D. Reinke, and G. Maret, “Measurement of the magneto-optical correlation length in turbid media,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 056610 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Elmore, W. C.

W. C. Elmore, “Ferromagnetic colloid for studying magnetic structures,” Phys. Rev. 54, 309–310 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Fermigier, M.

D. Wirtz and M. Fermigier, “One-dimensional patterns and wavelength selection in magnetic fluids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2294–2297 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Figueiredo, L. C.

P. C. Morais, O. Silva, P. P. Gravina, L. C. Figueiredo, E. C. D. Lima, L. P. Silva, R. B. Azevedo, and K. S. Neto, “Cadmium-ferrite-based magnetic fluid: birefringence and transmission electron microscopy investigation,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 39, 2639–2641 (2003).
[CrossRef]

García-Cámara, B.

B. García-Cámara, F. Moreno, F. González, and J. M. Saiz, “Comment on “Experimental evidence of zero forward scattering by magnetic spheres”,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 179701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gerligand, P.-V.

P.-V. Gerligand, B. L. Jeune, J. Cariou, and J. Lotrian, “Spatial homogeneities evaluation of ferrofluid thin plates polarimetric characteristics for active imagery,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1581–1588(1995).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, P.

P. Goldberg, J. Hansford, and P. J. van Heerden, “Polarization of light in suspensions of small ferrite particles in a magnetic field,” J. Appl. Phys. 42, 3874–3876 (1971).
[CrossRef]

González, F.

B. García-Cámara, F. Moreno, F. González, and J. M. Saiz, “Comment on “Experimental evidence of zero forward scattering by magnetic spheres”,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 179701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gopal, A. V.

Q.-F. Dai, H.-D. Deng, W.-R. Zhao, J. Liu, L.-J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, “All-optical switching mediated by magnetic nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 35, 97–99 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-D. Deng, J. Liu, W.-R. Zhao, W. Zhang, X.-S. Lin, T. Sun, Q.-F. Dai, L.-J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, “Enhancement of switching speed by laser-induced clustering of nanoparticles in magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gravina, P. P.

P. C. Morais, O. Silva, P. P. Gravina, L. C. Figueiredo, E. C. D. Lima, L. P. Silva, R. B. Azevedo, and K. S. Neto, “Cadmium-ferrite-based magnetic fluid: birefringence and transmission electron microscopy investigation,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 39, 2639–2641 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Haas, W. E. L.

W. E. L. Haas and J. E. Adams, “Diffraction effects in ferrofluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 571–572 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Hagenbüchle, M.

Hansford, J.

P. Goldberg, J. Hansford, and P. J. van Heerden, “Polarization of light in suspensions of small ferrite particles in a magnetic field,” J. Appl. Phys. 42, 3874–3876 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C.-Y.

Horng, H. E.

H. E. Horng, J. J. Chieh, Y. H. Chao, S. Y. Yang, C.-Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Designing optical-fiber modulators by using magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 30, 543–545 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, and H. C. Yang, “Designing the refractive indices by using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2434–2436 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Horng, H.-E.

Hu, S.-T.

Hu, X.

Z. Di, X. Chen, S. Pu, X. Hu, and Y. Xia, “Magnetic-field-induced birefringence and particle agglomeration in magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. W.

Hung, J.-C.

Iqbal, A.

Jacobs, S. D.

Jeune, B. L.

P.-V. Gerligand, B. L. Jeune, J. Cariou, and J. Lotrian, “Spatial homogeneities evaluation of ferrofluid thin plates polarimetric characteristics for active imagery,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1581–1588(1995).
[CrossRef]

Kintaka, K.

Lambropoulos, J. C.

Lan, S.

Q.-F. Dai, H.-D. Deng, W.-R. Zhao, J. Liu, L.-J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, “All-optical switching mediated by magnetic nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 35, 97–99 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-D. Deng, J. Liu, W.-R. Zhao, W. Zhang, X.-S. Lin, T. Sun, Q.-F. Dai, L.-J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, “Enhancement of switching speed by laser-induced clustering of nanoparticles in magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Laskar, J. M.

J. Philip, J. M. Laskar, and B. Raj, “Magnetic field induced extinction of light in a suspension of Fe3O4 nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221911 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lenke, R.

R. Lenke, C. Eisenmann, D. Reinke, and G. Maret, “Measurement of the magneto-optical correlation length in turbid media,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 056610 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liao, W.

S. Pu, X. Chen, Y. Chen, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Measurement of the refractive index of a magnetic fluid by the retrorefraction on the fiber-optic end face,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 171904(2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Pu, X. Chen, L. Chen, W. Liao, Y. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Tunable magnetic fluid grating by applying a magnetic field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 021901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lima, E. C. D.

P. C. Morais, O. Silva, P. P. Gravina, L. C. Figueiredo, E. C. D. Lima, L. P. Silva, R. B. Azevedo, and K. S. Neto, “Cadmium-ferrite-based magnetic fluid: birefringence and transmission electron microscopy investigation,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 39, 2639–2641 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-F.

Lin, X.-S.

H.-D. Deng, J. Liu, W.-R. Zhao, W. Zhang, X.-S. Lin, T. Sun, Q.-F. Dai, L.-J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, “Enhancement of switching speed by laser-induced clustering of nanoparticles in magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

Q.-F. Dai, H.-D. Deng, W.-R. Zhao, J. Liu, L.-J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, “All-optical switching mediated by magnetic nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 35, 97–99 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-D. Deng, J. Liu, W.-R. Zhao, W. Zhang, X.-S. Lin, T. Sun, Q.-F. Dai, L.-J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, “Enhancement of switching speed by laser-induced clustering of nanoparticles in magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Hagenbüchle and J. Liu, “Chain formation and chain dynamics in a dilute magnetorheological fluid,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7664–7671 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Llewellyn, J. P.

H. W. Davies and J. P. Llewellyn, “Magnetic birefringence of ferrofluids: I. Estimation of particle size,” J. Phys. D 12, 311–319(1979).
[CrossRef]

Lotrian, J.

P.-V. Gerligand, B. L. Jeune, J. Cariou, and J. Lotrian, “Spatial homogeneities evaluation of ferrofluid thin plates polarimetric characteristics for active imagery,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1581–1588(1995).
[CrossRef]

Luo, W.

H. Wang, Y. Zhu, C. Boyd, W. Luo, A. Cebers, and R. E. Rosensweig, “Periodic branched structures in a phase-separated magnetic colloid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1929–1932 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maret, G.

R. Lenke, C. Eisenmann, D. Reinke, and G. Maret, “Measurement of the magneto-optical correlation length in turbid media,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 056610 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, N.

Mehta, R. V.

Miao, C.

Miyagi, M.

M. Saito, M. Takakuwa, and M. Miyagi, “Optical constants of magnetic fluids and their application to optical switches,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E78-C, 1465–1469 (1995).

M. Saito and M. Miyagi, “Micropolarizer using anodized alumina with implanted metallic columns: theoretical analysis,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3529–3533 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyajima, H.

S. Taketomi, M. Ukita, M. Mizukami, H. Miyajima, and S. Chikazumi, “Magneto-optical effects of magnetic fluid,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 56, 3362–3374 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Mizukami, M.

S. Taketomi, M. Ukita, M. Mizukami, H. Miyajima, and S. Chikazumi, “Magneto-optical effects of magnetic fluid,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 56, 3362–3374 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Morais, P. C.

P. C. Morais, O. Silva, P. P. Gravina, L. C. Figueiredo, E. C. D. Lima, L. P. Silva, R. B. Azevedo, and K. S. Neto, “Cadmium-ferrite-based magnetic fluid: birefringence and transmission electron microscopy investigation,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 39, 2639–2641 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, F.

B. García-Cámara, F. Moreno, F. González, and J. M. Saiz, “Comment on “Experimental evidence of zero forward scattering by magnetic spheres”,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 179701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Neitzel, U.

U. Neitzel and K. Bärner, “Optical measurement on ferromagnetic colloids,” Phys. Lett. A 63, 327–329 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Neto, K. S.

P. C. Morais, O. Silva, P. P. Gravina, L. C. Figueiredo, E. C. D. Lima, L. P. Silva, R. B. Azevedo, and K. S. Neto, “Cadmium-ferrite-based magnetic fluid: birefringence and transmission electron microscopy investigation,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 39, 2639–2641 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nishii, J.

Nishimura, J.

Parekh, K.

R. V. Mehta, R. Patel, R. Desai, R. V. Upadhyay, and K. Parekh, “Experimental evidence of zero forward scattering by magnetic spheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Trivedi, R. Patel, K. Parekh, R. V. Upadhyay, and R. V. Mehta, “Magneto-optical effects in temperature-sensitive ferrofluids,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3619–3622 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patel, J. M.

Patel, R.

R. V. Mehta, R. Patel, R. Desai, R. V. Upadhyay, and K. Parekh, “Experimental evidence of zero forward scattering by magnetic spheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Trivedi, R. Patel, K. Parekh, R. V. Upadhyay, and R. V. Mehta, “Magneto-optical effects in temperature-sensitive ferrofluids,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3619–3622 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Philip, J.

J. Philip, J. M. Laskar, and B. Raj, “Magnetic field induced extinction of light in a suspension of Fe3O4 nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221911 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pu, S.

S. Pu, M. Dai, and G. Sun, “Longitudinal field-induced polarized light transmittance of magnetic fluids,” Opt. Commun. 283, 4012–4016 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Di, X. Chen, S. Pu, X. Hu, and Y. Xia, “Magnetic-field-induced birefringence and particle agglomeration in magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Pu, X. Chen, L. Chen, W. Liao, Y. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Tunable magnetic fluid grating by applying a magnetic field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 021901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Pu, X. Chen, Y. Chen, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Measurement of the refractive index of a magnetic fluid by the retrorefraction on the fiber-optic end face,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 171904(2005).
[CrossRef]

Raj, B.

J. Philip, J. M. Laskar, and B. Raj, “Magnetic field induced extinction of light in a suspension of Fe3O4 nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221911 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rao, G. N.

G. N. Rao, Y. D. Yao, Y. L. Chen, K. T. Wu, and J. W. Chen, “Particle size and magnetic field-induced optical properties of magnetic fluid nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 031408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reinke, D.

R. Lenke, C. Eisenmann, D. Reinke, and G. Maret, “Measurement of the magneto-optical correlation length in turbid media,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 056610 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rikken, G. L. J. A.

G. L. J. A. Rikken and B. A. van Tiggelen, “Observation of magnetically induced transverse diffusion of light,” Nature 381, 54–55 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rosensweig, R. E.

H. Wang, Y. Zhu, C. Boyd, W. Luo, A. Cebers, and R. E. Rosensweig, “Periodic branched structures in a phase-separated magnetic colloid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1929–1932 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saito, M.

Saiz, J. M.

B. García-Cámara, F. Moreno, F. González, and J. M. Saiz, “Comment on “Experimental evidence of zero forward scattering by magnetic spheres”,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 179701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sholten, P. C.

P. C. Sholten, “Magnetic measurement on particles in suspension,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 11, 1400–1402 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Silva, L. P.

P. C. Morais, O. Silva, P. P. Gravina, L. C. Figueiredo, E. C. D. Lima, L. P. Silva, R. B. Azevedo, and K. S. Neto, “Cadmium-ferrite-based magnetic fluid: birefringence and transmission electron microscopy investigation,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 39, 2639–2641 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Silva, O.

P. C. Morais, O. Silva, P. P. Gravina, L. C. Figueiredo, E. C. D. Lima, L. P. Silva, R. B. Azevedo, and K. S. Neto, “Cadmium-ferrite-based magnetic fluid: birefringence and transmission electron microscopy investigation,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 39, 2639–2641 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sun, G.

S. Pu, M. Dai, and G. Sun, “Longitudinal field-induced polarized light transmittance of magnetic fluids,” Opt. Commun. 283, 4012–4016 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, T.

H.-D. Deng, J. Liu, W.-R. Zhao, W. Zhang, X.-S. Lin, T. Sun, Q.-F. Dai, L.-J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, “Enhancement of switching speed by laser-induced clustering of nanoparticles in magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Takakuwa, M.

M. Saito, M. Takakuwa, and M. Miyagi, “Optical constants of magnetic fluids and their application to optical switches,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E78-C, 1465–1469 (1995).

Taketomi, S.

S. Taketomi, M. Ukita, M. Mizukami, H. Miyajima, and S. Chikazumi, “Magneto-optical effects of magnetic fluid,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 56, 3362–3374 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Trivedi, P.

Ukita, M.

S. Taketomi, M. Ukita, M. Mizukami, H. Miyajima, and S. Chikazumi, “Magneto-optical effects of magnetic fluid,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 56, 3362–3374 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Upadhyay, R. V.

R. V. Mehta, R. Patel, R. Desai, R. V. Upadhyay, and K. Parekh, “Experimental evidence of zero forward scattering by magnetic spheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Trivedi, R. Patel, K. Parekh, R. V. Upadhyay, and R. V. Mehta, “Magneto-optical effects in temperature-sensitive ferrofluids,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3619–3622 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vaidya, S. P.

van Heerden, P. J.

P. Goldberg, J. Hansford, and P. J. van Heerden, “Polarization of light in suspensions of small ferrite particles in a magnetic field,” J. Appl. Phys. 42, 3874–3876 (1971).
[CrossRef]

van Tiggelen, B. A.

G. L. J. A. Rikken and B. A. van Tiggelen, “Observation of magnetically induced transverse diffusion of light,” Nature 381, 54–55 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vora, P. M.

Wang, H.

H. Wang, Y. Zhu, C. Boyd, W. Luo, A. Cebers, and R. E. Rosensweig, “Periodic branched structures in a phase-separated magnetic colloid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1929–1932 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wirtz, D.

D. Wirtz and M. Fermigier, “One-dimensional patterns and wavelength selection in magnetic fluids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2294–2297 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, K. T.

G. N. Rao, Y. D. Yao, Y. L. Chen, K. T. Wu, and J. W. Chen, “Particle size and magnetic field-induced optical properties of magnetic fluid nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 031408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, L.-J.

Q.-F. Dai, H.-D. Deng, W.-R. Zhao, J. Liu, L.-J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, “All-optical switching mediated by magnetic nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 35, 97–99 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-D. Deng, J. Liu, W.-R. Zhao, W. Zhang, X.-S. Lin, T. Sun, Q.-F. Dai, L.-J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, “Enhancement of switching speed by laser-induced clustering of nanoparticles in magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z.

Xia, Y.

Z. Di, X. Chen, S. Pu, X. Hu, and Y. Xia, “Magnetic-field-induced birefringence and particle agglomeration in magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Pu, X. Chen, L. Chen, W. Liao, Y. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Tunable magnetic fluid grating by applying a magnetic field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 021901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Pu, X. Chen, Y. Chen, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Measurement of the refractive index of a magnetic fluid by the retrorefraction on the fiber-optic end face,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 171904(2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, I.

Yamagishi, Y.

Yang, H. C.

Yang, H.-C.

Yang, S. Y.

H. E. Horng, J. J. Chieh, Y. H. Chao, S. Y. Yang, C.-Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Designing optical-fiber modulators by using magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 30, 543–545 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, and H. C. Yang, “Designing the refractive indices by using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2434–2436 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.-Y.

Yao, Y. D.

G. N. Rao, Y. D. Yao, Y. L. Chen, K. T. Wu, and J. W. Chen, “Particle size and magnetic field-induced optical properties of magnetic fluid nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 031408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yeung, W. B.

Zhang, W.

H.-D. Deng, J. Liu, W.-R. Zhao, W. Zhang, X.-S. Lin, T. Sun, Q.-F. Dai, L.-J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, “Enhancement of switching speed by laser-induced clustering of nanoparticles in magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, W.-R.

Q.-F. Dai, H.-D. Deng, W.-R. Zhao, J. Liu, L.-J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, “All-optical switching mediated by magnetic nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 35, 97–99 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-D. Deng, J. Liu, W.-R. Zhao, W. Zhang, X.-S. Lin, T. Sun, Q.-F. Dai, L.-J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, “Enhancement of switching speed by laser-induced clustering of nanoparticles in magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

H. Wang, Y. Zhu, C. Boyd, W. Luo, A. Cebers, and R. E. Rosensweig, “Periodic branched structures in a phase-separated magnetic colloid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1929–1932 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (8)

M. Saito and M. Miyagi, “Micropolarizer using anodized alumina with implanted metallic columns: theoretical analysis,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3529–3533 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hagenbüchle and J. Liu, “Chain formation and chain dynamics in a dilute magnetorheological fluid,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7664–7671 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Saito, N. Matsumoto, and J. Nishimura, “Measurement of the complex refractive-index spectrum for birefringent and absorptive liquids,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5169–5175 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H.-E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, W. B. Yeung, and H. C. Yang, “Magnetochromatic effects in magnetic fluid thin films,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2674–2680 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Trivedi, R. Patel, K. Parekh, R. V. Upadhyay, and R. V. Mehta, “Magneto-optical effects in temperature-sensitive ferrofluids,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3619–3622 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. V. Mehta, S. P. Vaidya, J. M. Patel, and P. M. Vora, “Magnetically induced spatial filtering effect,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2297–2298(1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-Y. Hong, J.-J. Chieh, S.-Y. Yang, H.-C. Yang, and H.-E. Horng, “Simultaneous identification of the low-field-induced tiny variation of complex refractive index for anisotropic and opaque magnetic-fluid thin film by a stable heterodyne Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 48, 5604–5611 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Miao, J. C. Lambropoulos, and S. D. Jacobs, “Process parameter effects on material removal in magnetorheological finishing of borosilicate glass,” Appl. Opt. 49, 1951–1963(2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, and H. C. Yang, “Designing the refractive indices by using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2434–2436 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Pu, X. Chen, Y. Chen, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Measurement of the refractive index of a magnetic fluid by the retrorefraction on the fiber-optic end face,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 171904(2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Pu, X. Chen, L. Chen, W. Liao, Y. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Tunable magnetic fluid grating by applying a magnetic field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 021901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Philip, J. M. Laskar, and B. Raj, “Magnetic field induced extinction of light in a suspension of Fe3O4 nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221911 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-D. Deng, J. Liu, W.-R. Zhao, W. Zhang, X.-S. Lin, T. Sun, Q.-F. Dai, L.-J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, “Enhancement of switching speed by laser-induced clustering of nanoparticles in magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. E. L. Haas and J. E. Adams, “Diffraction effects in ferrofluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 571–572 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Z. Di, X. Chen, S. Pu, X. Hu, and Y. Xia, “Magnetic-field-induced birefringence and particle agglomeration in magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Magn. (2)

P. C. Sholten, “Magnetic measurement on particles in suspension,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 11, 1400–1402 (1975).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Morais, O. Silva, P. P. Gravina, L. C. Figueiredo, E. C. D. Lima, L. P. Silva, R. B. Azevedo, and K. S. Neto, “Cadmium-ferrite-based magnetic fluid: birefringence and transmission electron microscopy investigation,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 39, 2639–2641 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

M. Saito, M. Takakuwa, and M. Miyagi, “Optical constants of magnetic fluids and their application to optical switches,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E78-C, 1465–1469 (1995).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. Goldberg, J. Hansford, and P. J. van Heerden, “Polarization of light in suspensions of small ferrite particles in a magnetic field,” J. Appl. Phys. 42, 3874–3876 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

H. W. Davies and J. P. Llewellyn, “Magnetic birefringence of ferrofluids: I. Estimation of particle size,” J. Phys. D 12, 311–319(1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. (1)

S. Taketomi, M. Ukita, M. Mizukami, H. Miyajima, and S. Chikazumi, “Magneto-optical effects of magnetic fluid,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 56, 3362–3374 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

G. L. J. A. Rikken and B. A. van Tiggelen, “Observation of magnetically induced transverse diffusion of light,” Nature 381, 54–55 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Pu, M. Dai, and G. Sun, “Longitudinal field-induced polarized light transmittance of magnetic fluids,” Opt. Commun. 283, 4012–4016 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

P.-V. Gerligand, B. L. Jeune, J. Cariou, and J. Lotrian, “Spatial homogeneities evaluation of ferrofluid thin plates polarimetric characteristics for active imagery,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1581–1588(1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

U. Neitzel and K. Bärner, “Optical measurement on ferromagnetic colloids,” Phys. Lett. A 63, 327–329 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

W. C. Elmore, “Ferromagnetic colloid for studying magnetic structures,” Phys. Rev. 54, 309–310 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (2)

G. N. Rao, Y. D. Yao, Y. L. Chen, K. T. Wu, and J. W. Chen, “Particle size and magnetic field-induced optical properties of magnetic fluid nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 031408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Lenke, C. Eisenmann, D. Reinke, and G. Maret, “Measurement of the magneto-optical correlation length in turbid media,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 056610 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

R. V. Mehta, R. Patel, R. Desai, R. V. Upadhyay, and K. Parekh, “Experimental evidence of zero forward scattering by magnetic spheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. García-Cámara, F. Moreno, F. González, and J. M. Saiz, “Comment on “Experimental evidence of zero forward scattering by magnetic spheres”,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 179701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, Y. Zhu, C. Boyd, W. Luo, A. Cebers, and R. E. Rosensweig, “Periodic branched structures in a phase-separated magnetic colloid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1929–1932 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Wirtz and M. Fermigier, “One-dimensional patterns and wavelength selection in magnetic fluids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2294–2297 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

Technical sheet on “Ferricolloid” (Taiho Industries Corporation, 1995).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for IR spectroscopic measurements. A magnetic field was created either (a) perpendicular or (b) parallel to the optical path.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Magnetic field distribution that was measured along the x, y, and z axes. The inset shows the magnet arrangement and the directions of light propagation and polarization (H, horizontal polarization; V, vertical polarization).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Measured spectra of the transmittance (T) or the optical density ( D = log T ). Particle concentration was 1.0, 2.1, or 4.2   vol. % . These data were taken for horizontal polarization. (b) Dependence of the optical density on the particle concentration. Numerals beside the lines denote wavelengths. (c) Attenuation constants that were evaluated at various wavelengths. The black and gray curves show the values for horizontal and vertical polarizations, respectively. Evaluation was impossible in the 6.7 7.3 μm wavelength range, since the original data, i.e., spectra in (a), scattered heavily.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Effect of the perpendicular magnetic field, showing (a) and (b) optical density increase, Δ D , that was induced by the magnetic field of 900 G . The thick and thin curves show the data for horizontal and vertical polarizations, respectively. (c) and (d) Magnetic field dependence of Δ D . Circles, triangles, and squares show the data at 4, 6, and 8 μm wavelengths, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical density change by application of an axial magnetic field ( 1000 G ). These data were taken for horizontal polarization. (The data taken for vertical polarization were similar to these.)

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Models of the particle arrangement in the (a) perpendicular or (b) axial magnetic field.

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