Abstract

Effects of chloride ion introduction on structural and 1.5μm emission properties in Er3+-doped fluorophosphate have been investigated. The structural changes revealed by the measured Raman spectra indicate that the chloride ions have an important influence on the phonon density of host glasses. With increasing chloride content, the phonon density of fluorophosphate glasses decreases. The chloride modified fluorophosphate glasses possessing higher thermal stability are suitable for broadband amplifier fiber fabrication. Desirable thermal resistance properties and spectroscopic characteristics of Er3+-doped chloride fluorophosphate glass indicate that it is a promising material for 1.5μm lasers.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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Corrections

Ying Tian, Rongrong Xu, Lili Hu, and Junjie Zhang, "Effect of chloride ion introduction on structural and 1.5 μm emission properties in Er3+-doped fluorophosphate glass: publisher’s note," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 2701-2701 (2011)
https://www.osapublishing.org/josab/abstract.cfm?uri=josab-28-11-2701

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2010 (2)

Y. Tian, L. Zhang, S. Feng, R. Xu, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “2 μm Emission of Ho3+-doped fluorophosphate glass sensitized by Yb3+,” Opt. Mater. 32, 1508–1513 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tian, R. Xu, L. Zhang, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “1.8 μm emission of highly thulium doped fluorophosphate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 083504–083507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

M. Wang, L. Yi, Y. Chen, C. Yu, G. Wang, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Effect of Al(PO3)3 content on physical, chemical and optical properties of fluorophosphate glasses for 2 μm application,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 114, 295–299 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2005 (6)

H. Yamauchi and Y. Ohishi, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+-doped PbO-Ga2O3-GeO2 glass for optical amplifiers,” Opt. Mater. 27, 679–690 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Choi, A. Margaryan, A. Margaryan, and F. G. Shi, “Spectroscopic properties of Yb3+ in heavy metal contained fluorophosphate glasses,” Mater. Res. Bull. 40, 2189–2197 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Pisarski, “Spectroscopic analysis of praseodymium and erbium ions in heavy metal fluoride and oxide glasses,” J. Mol. Struct. 744–747, 473–479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Petit, T. Cardinal, J. J. Videau, Y. Guyot, G. Boulon, M. Couzi, and T. Buffeteau, “Erbium luminescence properties of niobium-rich oxide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 2076–2084 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Jayasimhadri, L. R. Moorthy, K. Kojima, K. Yamamoto, N. Wada, and N. Wada, “Er3+ -doped tellurofluorophosphate glasses for lasers and optical amplifiers,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17, 7705–7715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Sun, L. Hu, C. Yu, G. Zhou, Z. Duan, J. Zhang, and Z. Jiang, “Investigation of the effect of fluoride ions introduction on structural, OH− content and up-conversion luminescence properties in Er3+-doped heavy metal oxide glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 408, 179–185 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

X. Qiao, X. Fan, M. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Up-conversion luminescence and near infrared luminescence of Er3+ in transparent oxyfluoride glass-ceramics,” Opt. Mater. 27, 597–603 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (6)

R. Rolli, M. Montagna, S. Chaussedent, A. Monteil, V. K. Tikhomirov, and M. Ferrari, “Erbium-doped tellurite glasses with high quantum efficiency and broadband stimulated emission cross section at 1.5 μm,” Opt. Mater. 21, 743–748(2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang, S. Dai, L. Wen, N. Dai, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Mixed heavy metal effect on emission properties of Er3+-doped borosilicate glasses,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 1, 294–295 (2003).

J. Yang, N. Dai, S. Dai, L. Wen, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Enhancement of upconversion luminescence in Er3+ doped tellurite glasses due to the introduction of PbCl2,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 376, 671–675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang, S. Dai, N. Dai, S. Xu, L. Wen, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Effect of Bi2O3 on the spectroscopic properties of erbium-doped bismuth silicate glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 810–815 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Marjanovic, J. Toulouse, H. Jain, C. Sandmann, V. Dierolf, A. R. Kortan, N. Kopylov, and R. G. Ahrens, “Characterization of new erbium-doped tellurite glasses and fibers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 322, 311–318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Y. Zhang and L. L. Hu, “Evaluation of broadband spectral properties of erbium-doped aluminium fluorophosphate glass,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 20, 1836–1837 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

W. S. Tsang, W. M. Yu, C. L. Mak, W. L. Tsui, K. H. Wong, and H. K. Hui, “Evidence of the influence of phonon density on Tm3+ upconversion luminescence in tellurite and germanate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 1871–1874 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Shen, A. Jha, X. Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. J. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, “Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1391–1395 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (5)

R. Rolli, A. Chiasera, M. Montagna, E. Moser, S. Ronchin, S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, A. Jha, V. K. Tikhomirov, S. A. Tikhomirova, C. Duverger, P. Galinetto, and M. Ferrari, “Rare-earth-activated fluoride and tellurite glasses: optical and spectroscopic properties,” Proc. SPIE 4282, 109–122 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Feng, S. Tanabe, and T. Hanada, “Spectroscopic properties of erbium-doped ultraphosphate glasses for 1.5 μm amplification,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 3560–3567 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, M. Fossi, M. Brenci, A. A. Lipovskii, E. V. Kolobkova, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Characterization of Er-doped sodium-niobium phosphate glasses,” Proc. SPIE 4282, 210–215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Philipps, T. Töpfer, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, D. Ehrt, and R. Sauerbrey, “Spectroscopic and lasing properties of Er3+:Yb3+-doped fluoride phosphate glasses,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 399–405 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Lebullenger, L. A. O. Nunes, and A. C. Hernandes, “Properties of glasses from fluoride to phosphate composition,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 284, 55–60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (6)

L. R. Moorthy, T. S. Rao, K. Janardhnam, and A. Radhapathy, “Absorption and emission characteristics of Er3+ ions in alkali chloroborophosphate glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 56, 1759–1771 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Jha, S. Shen, and M. Naftaly, “Structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5 μm emission in Er3+-doped tellurite glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 6215–6227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, N. Sugimoto, S. Ito, and T. Hanada, “Broad-band 1.5 μm emission of Er3+ ions in bismuth-based oxide glasses for potential WDM amplifier,” J. Lumin. 87–89, 670–672 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, G. Sorbello, and N. Peyghambarian, “Cooperative upconversion and energy transfer of new high Er3+- and Yb3+−Er3+-doped phosphate glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 833–839 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Choi, K. H. Kim, S. H. Park, and J. Heo, “Comparative study of energy transfers from Er3+ to Ce3+ in tellurite and sulfide glasses under 980 nm excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 3832–3839(2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ding, S. Jiang, B.-C. Hwang, T. Luo, N. Peyghambarian, and Y. Miura, “Spectral properties of erbium-doped lead halotellurite glasses,” Proc. SPIE 3942, 166–173 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

S. Tanabe, “Optical transitions of rare earth ions for amplifiers: how the local structure works in glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 259, 1–9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, D. Ehrt, M. Bettinelli, and A. Speghini, “Spectroscopic properties of rare-earth ions in heavy metal oxide and phosphate-containing glasses,” Proc. SPIE 3622, 19–30 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Le Neindre, S. Jiang, B.-C. Hwang, T. Luo, J. Watson, and N. Peyghambarian, “Effect of relative alkali content on absorption linewidth in erbium-doped tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 255, 97–102 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

Y. Messaddeq, D. Grando, P. Melnikov, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and L. F. C. Oliveira, “In(PO3)3 stabilised fluoroindate glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 275–277, 81–85 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohishi, A. Mori, M. Yamada, H. Ono, Y. Nishida, and K. Oikawa, “Gain characteristics of tellurite-based erbium-doped fiber amplifiers for 1.5 μm broadband amplification,” Opt. Lett. 23, 274–276 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

M. Shojiya, M. Takahashi, R. Kanno, Y. Kawamoto, and K. Kadono, “Optical transitions of Er3+ ions in ZnCl2-based glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 6259–6266 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Hehlen, N. J. Cockroft, T. R. Gosnell, and A. J. Bruce, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+- and Yb3+-doped soda-lime silicate and aluminosilicate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 9302–9318(1997).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Brow and D. R. Tallant, “Structural design of sealing glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 222, 396–406 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

R. Balda, J. Fernández, A. de Pablos, J. M. Fdez-Navarro, and M. A. Arriandiaga, “Temperature-dependent concentration quenching and site-dependent effects of Nd3+ fluorescence in fluorophosphate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 5181–5189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono, K. Nakagawa, M. Yamada, and S. Sudo, “Er3+-doped fluorophosphate glass fibre amplifier for WDM systems,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1586–1587 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. K. Bogdanov, W. E. K. Gibbs, D. J. Booth, J. S. Javorniczky, P. J. Newman, and D. R. MacFarlane, “Fluorescence from highly-doped erbium fluorozirconate glasses pumped at 800 nm,” Opt. Commun. 132, 73–76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

Y. Yan, A. J. Faber, and H. de Waal, “Luminescence quenching by OH groups in highly Er-doped phosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 181, 283–290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, K. Takahara, M. Takahashi, and Y. Kawamoto, “Spectroscopic studies of radiative transitions and upconversion characteristics of Er3+ ions in simple pseudoternary fluoride glasses MFn-BaF2-YF3 (M: Zr, Hf, Al, Sc, Ga, In, or Zn),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 786–793 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Wei, D. P. Machewirth, J. Wenzel, E. Snitzer, and G. H. Sigel, “Pr3+-doped Ge-Ga-S glasses for 1.3 μm optical fiber amplifiers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 182, 257–261 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, “Tellurite glass: a new candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mater. 3, 187–203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Bayart, B. Clesca, L. Hamon, and J. L. Beylat, “Experimental investigation of the gain flatness characteristics for 1.55 μmerbium-doped fluoride fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 613–615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (4)

D. Ehrt, “Structure and properties of fluoride phosphate glasses,” Proc. SPIE 1761, 213–222 (1993).
[CrossRef]

X. Zou and T. Izumitani, “Spectroscopic properties and mechanisms of excited state absorption and energy transfer upconversion for Er3+-doped glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 162, 68–80(1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, T. Hanada, T. Ohyagi, and N. Soga, “Correlation between Eu151 Mössbauer isomer shift and Judd-Ofelt Ω6 parameters of Nd3+ ions in phosphate and silicate laser glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 10591–10594 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, T. Ohyagi, S. Todoroki, T. Hanada, and N. Soga, “Relation between the Ω6 intensity parameter of Er3+ ions and the Eu151 isomer shift in oxide glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8451–8454 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

S. Tanabe, T. Ohyagi, N. Soga, and T. Hanada, “Compositional dependence of Judd-Ofelt parameters of Er3+ ions in alkali-metal borate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 3305–3310 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

W. J. Miniscalco and R. S. Quimby, “General procedure for the analysis of Er3+ cross sections,” Opt. Lett. 16, 258–260 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Kashchieva and Y. Ivanova, “Electron microscopic investigations of microheterogeneous structure in glasses from the GeO2-PbO-PbF2 oxide-halide system,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 10, 1356–1358 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

A. Elyamani, M. Poulain, S. J. Saggese, and G. H. Sigel Jr., “Properties of chlorofluorozirconate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 119, 187–194 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Massicott, J. R. Armitage, R. Wyatt, B. J. Ainslie, and S. P. Craig-Ryan, “High gain, broadband, 1.6 μmEr3+ doped silica fibre amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 26, 1645–1646 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

E. Heumann, M. Ledig, D. Ehrt, W. Seeber, E. W. Duczynski, H. J. v. d. Heide, and G. Huber, “Cw laser action of Er3+ in double sensitized fluoroaluminate glass at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 255–256 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

J. Parker, A. Clare, A. Seddon, J. Morris, and N. Pitt, “Chloride doped ZBLAN glasses,” Mater. Sci. Forum 19, 475–482 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

L. Koudelka, J. Klikorka, M. Frumar, M. Pisárčik, V. Kellö, V. D. Khalilev, V. I. Vakhrameev, and G. D. Chkhenkeli, “Raman spectra and structure of fluorophosphate glasses of ((1−x)Ba(PO3)2−xLiRAlF6,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 85, 204–210 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

M. Weber, J. Lynch, D. Blackburn, and D. Cronin, “Dependence of the stimulated emission cross section of Yb3+ on host glass composition,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1600–1608(1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

M. J. Weber, D. C. Ziegler, and C. A. Angell, “Tailoring stimulated emission cross sections of Nd3+ laser glass: observation of large cross sections for BiCl3 glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 4344–4350(1982).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Videau, J. Portier, and B. Piriou, “Raman spectroscopic studies of fluorophosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 48, 385–392 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

C. B. Layne and M. J. Weber, “Multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in beryllium-fluoride glass,” Phys. Rev. B 16, 3259–3261 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 494424–4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

M. J. Weber, “Probabilities for radiative and nonradiative decay of Er3+ in LaF3,” Phys. Rev. 157, 262–272 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1962 (2)

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Ahrens, R. G.

S. Marjanovic, J. Toulouse, H. Jain, C. Sandmann, V. Dierolf, A. R. Kortan, N. Kopylov, and R. G. Ahrens, “Characterization of new erbium-doped tellurite glasses and fibers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 322, 311–318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ainslie, B. J.

J. F. Massicott, J. R. Armitage, R. Wyatt, B. J. Ainslie, and S. P. Craig-Ryan, “High gain, broadband, 1.6 μmEr3+ doped silica fibre amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 26, 1645–1646 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Angell, C. A.

M. J. Weber, D. C. Ziegler, and C. A. Angell, “Tailoring stimulated emission cross sections of Nd3+ laser glass: observation of large cross sections for BiCl3 glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 4344–4350(1982).
[CrossRef]

Armitage, J. R.

J. F. Massicott, J. R. Armitage, R. Wyatt, B. J. Ainslie, and S. P. Craig-Ryan, “High gain, broadband, 1.6 μmEr3+ doped silica fibre amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 26, 1645–1646 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Arriandiaga, M. A.

R. Balda, J. Fernández, A. de Pablos, J. M. Fdez-Navarro, and M. A. Arriandiaga, “Temperature-dependent concentration quenching and site-dependent effects of Nd3+ fluorescence in fluorophosphate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 5181–5189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Babu, P.

Balakrishnaiah, R.

Balda, R.

R. Balda, J. Fernández, A. de Pablos, J. M. Fdez-Navarro, and M. A. Arriandiaga, “Temperature-dependent concentration quenching and site-dependent effects of Nd3+ fluorescence in fluorophosphate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 5181–5189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bayart, D.

D. Bayart, B. Clesca, L. Hamon, and J. L. Beylat, “Experimental investigation of the gain flatness characteristics for 1.55 μmerbium-doped fluoride fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 613–615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bettinelli, M.

G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, M. Fossi, M. Brenci, A. A. Lipovskii, E. V. Kolobkova, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Characterization of Er-doped sodium-niobium phosphate glasses,” Proc. SPIE 4282, 210–215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, D. Ehrt, M. Bettinelli, and A. Speghini, “Spectroscopic properties of rare-earth ions in heavy metal oxide and phosphate-containing glasses,” Proc. SPIE 3622, 19–30 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Beylat, J. L.

D. Bayart, B. Clesca, L. Hamon, and J. L. Beylat, “Experimental investigation of the gain flatness characteristics for 1.55 μmerbium-doped fluoride fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 613–615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bindra, K.

S. Shen, A. Jha, X. Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. J. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, “Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1391–1395 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Binnemans, K.

C. Görller-Walrand, K. Binnemans, Karl A. Gschneidner Jr. , and E. LeRoy, “Spectral intensities of f−f transitions,” in Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, K. A. Gschneidner Jr. and L. Eyring, eds. (Elsevier, 1998), pp. 101–264.

Blackburn, D.

M. Weber, J. Lynch, D. Blackburn, and D. Cronin, “Dependence of the stimulated emission cross section of Yb3+ on host glass composition,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1600–1608(1983).
[CrossRef]

Bogdanov, V. K.

V. K. Bogdanov, W. E. K. Gibbs, D. J. Booth, J. S. Javorniczky, P. J. Newman, and D. R. MacFarlane, “Fluorescence from highly-doped erbium fluorozirconate glasses pumped at 800 nm,” Opt. Commun. 132, 73–76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bookey, H. J.

S. Shen, A. Jha, X. Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. J. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, “Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1391–1395 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Booth, D. J.

V. K. Bogdanov, W. E. K. Gibbs, D. J. Booth, J. S. Javorniczky, P. J. Newman, and D. R. MacFarlane, “Fluorescence from highly-doped erbium fluorozirconate glasses pumped at 800 nm,” Opt. Commun. 132, 73–76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Boulon, G.

L. Petit, T. Cardinal, J. J. Videau, Y. Guyot, G. Boulon, M. Couzi, and T. Buffeteau, “Erbium luminescence properties of niobium-rich oxide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 2076–2084 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brenci, M.

G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, M. Fossi, M. Brenci, A. A. Lipovskii, E. V. Kolobkova, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Characterization of Er-doped sodium-niobium phosphate glasses,” Proc. SPIE 4282, 210–215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brow, R. K.

R. K. Brow and D. R. Tallant, “Structural design of sealing glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 222, 396–406 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bruce, A. J.

M. P. Hehlen, N. J. Cockroft, T. R. Gosnell, and A. J. Bruce, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+- and Yb3+-doped soda-lime silicate and aluminosilicate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 9302–9318(1997).
[CrossRef]

Buffeteau, T.

L. Petit, T. Cardinal, J. J. Videau, Y. Guyot, G. Boulon, M. Couzi, and T. Buffeteau, “Erbium luminescence properties of niobium-rich oxide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 2076–2084 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cardinal, T.

L. Petit, T. Cardinal, J. J. Videau, Y. Guyot, G. Boulon, M. Couzi, and T. Buffeteau, “Erbium luminescence properties of niobium-rich oxide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 2076–2084 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Carnall, W. T.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 494424–4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Chaussedent, S.

R. Rolli, M. Montagna, S. Chaussedent, A. Monteil, V. K. Tikhomirov, and M. Ferrari, “Erbium-doped tellurite glasses with high quantum efficiency and broadband stimulated emission cross section at 1.5 μm,” Opt. Mater. 21, 743–748(2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

M. Wang, L. Yi, Y. Chen, C. Yu, G. Wang, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Effect of Al(PO3)3 content on physical, chemical and optical properties of fluorophosphate glasses for 2 μm application,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 114, 295–299 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chiasera, A.

R. Rolli, A. Chiasera, M. Montagna, E. Moser, S. Ronchin, S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, A. Jha, V. K. Tikhomirov, S. A. Tikhomirova, C. Duverger, P. Galinetto, and M. Ferrari, “Rare-earth-activated fluoride and tellurite glasses: optical and spectroscopic properties,” Proc. SPIE 4282, 109–122 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chkhenkeli, G. D.

L. Koudelka, J. Klikorka, M. Frumar, M. Pisárčik, V. Kellö, V. D. Khalilev, V. I. Vakhrameev, and G. D. Chkhenkeli, “Raman spectra and structure of fluorophosphate glasses of ((1−x)Ba(PO3)2−xLiRAlF6,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 85, 204–210 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J. H.

J. H. Choi, A. Margaryan, A. Margaryan, and F. G. Shi, “Spectroscopic properties of Yb3+ in heavy metal contained fluorophosphate glasses,” Mater. Res. Bull. 40, 2189–2197 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Choi, Y. G.

Y. G. Choi, K. H. Kim, S. H. Park, and J. Heo, “Comparative study of energy transfers from Er3+ to Ce3+ in tellurite and sulfide glasses under 980 nm excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 3832–3839(2000).
[CrossRef]

Clare, A.

J. Parker, A. Clare, A. Seddon, J. Morris, and N. Pitt, “Chloride doped ZBLAN glasses,” Mater. Sci. Forum 19, 475–482 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Clesca, B.

D. Bayart, B. Clesca, L. Hamon, and J. L. Beylat, “Experimental investigation of the gain flatness characteristics for 1.55 μmerbium-doped fluoride fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 613–615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cockroft, N. J.

M. P. Hehlen, N. J. Cockroft, T. R. Gosnell, and A. J. Bruce, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+- and Yb3+-doped soda-lime silicate and aluminosilicate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 9302–9318(1997).
[CrossRef]

Couzi, M.

L. Petit, T. Cardinal, J. J. Videau, Y. Guyot, G. Boulon, M. Couzi, and T. Buffeteau, “Erbium luminescence properties of niobium-rich oxide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 2076–2084 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Craig-Ryan, S. P.

J. F. Massicott, J. R. Armitage, R. Wyatt, B. J. Ainslie, and S. P. Craig-Ryan, “High gain, broadband, 1.6 μmEr3+ doped silica fibre amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 26, 1645–1646 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cronin, D.

M. Weber, J. Lynch, D. Blackburn, and D. Cronin, “Dependence of the stimulated emission cross section of Yb3+ on host glass composition,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1600–1608(1983).
[CrossRef]

Dai, N.

Dai, S.

de Pablos, A.

R. Balda, J. Fernández, A. de Pablos, J. M. Fdez-Navarro, and M. A. Arriandiaga, “Temperature-dependent concentration quenching and site-dependent effects of Nd3+ fluorescence in fluorophosphate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 5181–5189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

de Waal, H.

Y. Yan, A. J. Faber, and H. de Waal, “Luminescence quenching by OH groups in highly Er-doped phosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 181, 283–290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dierolf, V.

S. Marjanovic, J. Toulouse, H. Jain, C. Sandmann, V. Dierolf, A. R. Kortan, N. Kopylov, and R. G. Ahrens, “Characterization of new erbium-doped tellurite glasses and fibers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 322, 311–318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Y.

Y. Ding, S. Jiang, B.-C. Hwang, T. Luo, N. Peyghambarian, and Y. Miura, “Spectral properties of erbium-doped lead halotellurite glasses,” Proc. SPIE 3942, 166–173 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Duan, Z.

H. Sun, L. Hu, C. Yu, G. Zhou, Z. Duan, J. Zhang, and Z. Jiang, “Investigation of the effect of fluoride ions introduction on structural, OH− content and up-conversion luminescence properties in Er3+-doped heavy metal oxide glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 408, 179–185 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Duczynski, E. W.

E. Heumann, M. Ledig, D. Ehrt, W. Seeber, E. W. Duczynski, H. J. v. d. Heide, and G. Huber, “Cw laser action of Er3+ in double sensitized fluoroaluminate glass at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 255–256 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Duverger, C.

R. Rolli, A. Chiasera, M. Montagna, E. Moser, S. Ronchin, S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, A. Jha, V. K. Tikhomirov, S. A. Tikhomirova, C. Duverger, P. Galinetto, and M. Ferrari, “Rare-earth-activated fluoride and tellurite glasses: optical and spectroscopic properties,” Proc. SPIE 4282, 109–122 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

J. F. Philipps, T. Töpfer, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, D. Ehrt, and R. Sauerbrey, “Spectroscopic and lasing properties of Er3+:Yb3+-doped fluoride phosphate glasses,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 399–405 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, D. Ehrt, M. Bettinelli, and A. Speghini, “Spectroscopic properties of rare-earth ions in heavy metal oxide and phosphate-containing glasses,” Proc. SPIE 3622, 19–30 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ehrt, D.

J. F. Philipps, T. Töpfer, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, D. Ehrt, and R. Sauerbrey, “Spectroscopic and lasing properties of Er3+:Yb3+-doped fluoride phosphate glasses,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 399–405 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, D. Ehrt, M. Bettinelli, and A. Speghini, “Spectroscopic properties of rare-earth ions in heavy metal oxide and phosphate-containing glasses,” Proc. SPIE 3622, 19–30 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Ehrt, “Structure and properties of fluoride phosphate glasses,” Proc. SPIE 1761, 213–222 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Heumann, M. Ledig, D. Ehrt, W. Seeber, E. W. Duczynski, H. J. v. d. Heide, and G. Huber, “Cw laser action of Er3+ in double sensitized fluoroaluminate glass at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 255–256 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Elyamani, A.

A. Elyamani, M. Poulain, S. J. Saggese, and G. H. Sigel Jr., “Properties of chlorofluorozirconate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 119, 187–194 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Eyring, L.

C. Görller-Walrand, K. Binnemans, Karl A. Gschneidner Jr. , and E. LeRoy, “Spectral intensities of f−f transitions,” in Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, K. A. Gschneidner Jr. and L. Eyring, eds. (Elsevier, 1998), pp. 101–264.

Faber, A. J.

Y. Yan, A. J. Faber, and H. de Waal, “Luminescence quenching by OH groups in highly Er-doped phosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 181, 283–290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X.

X. Qiao, X. Fan, M. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Up-conversion luminescence and near infrared luminescence of Er3+ in transparent oxyfluoride glass-ceramics,” Opt. Mater. 27, 597–603 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fawcett, V.

V. Fawcett, D. Long, and L. Taylor, “Raman spectroscopic studies of sodium phosphate glasses in the range sodium metaphosphate (NaPO3) to sodium pyrophosphate (Na4P2O7),” in Proceedings of the V International Conference on Raman SpectroscopyE.D.Schmid, ed. (Hans Ferdinand Schulz, 1976), pp. 112–113.

Fdez-Navarro, J. M.

R. Balda, J. Fernández, A. de Pablos, J. M. Fdez-Navarro, and M. A. Arriandiaga, “Temperature-dependent concentration quenching and site-dependent effects of Nd3+ fluorescence in fluorophosphate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 5181–5189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Feng, S.

Y. Tian, L. Zhang, S. Feng, R. Xu, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “2 μm Emission of Ho3+-doped fluorophosphate glass sensitized by Yb3+,” Opt. Mater. 32, 1508–1513 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Feng, X.

X. Feng, S. Tanabe, and T. Hanada, “Spectroscopic properties of erbium-doped ultraphosphate glasses for 1.5 μm amplification,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 3560–3567 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fernández, J.

R. Balda, J. Fernández, A. de Pablos, J. M. Fdez-Navarro, and M. A. Arriandiaga, “Temperature-dependent concentration quenching and site-dependent effects of Nd3+ fluorescence in fluorophosphate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 5181–5189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, M.

R. Rolli, M. Montagna, S. Chaussedent, A. Monteil, V. K. Tikhomirov, and M. Ferrari, “Erbium-doped tellurite glasses with high quantum efficiency and broadband stimulated emission cross section at 1.5 μm,” Opt. Mater. 21, 743–748(2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Rolli, A. Chiasera, M. Montagna, E. Moser, S. Ronchin, S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, A. Jha, V. K. Tikhomirov, S. A. Tikhomirova, C. Duverger, P. Galinetto, and M. Ferrari, “Rare-earth-activated fluoride and tellurite glasses: optical and spectroscopic properties,” Proc. SPIE 4282, 109–122 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fields, P. R.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 494424–4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Fossi, M.

G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, M. Fossi, M. Brenci, A. A. Lipovskii, E. V. Kolobkova, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Characterization of Er-doped sodium-niobium phosphate glasses,” Proc. SPIE 4282, 210–215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Frumar, M.

L. Koudelka, J. Klikorka, M. Frumar, M. Pisárčik, V. Kellö, V. D. Khalilev, V. I. Vakhrameev, and G. D. Chkhenkeli, “Raman spectra and structure of fluorophosphate glasses of ((1−x)Ba(PO3)2−xLiRAlF6,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 85, 204–210 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Galinetto, P.

R. Rolli, A. Chiasera, M. Montagna, E. Moser, S. Ronchin, S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, A. Jha, V. K. Tikhomirov, S. A. Tikhomirova, C. Duverger, P. Galinetto, and M. Ferrari, “Rare-earth-activated fluoride and tellurite glasses: optical and spectroscopic properties,” Proc. SPIE 4282, 109–122 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gibbs, W. E. K.

V. K. Bogdanov, W. E. K. Gibbs, D. J. Booth, J. S. Javorniczky, P. J. Newman, and D. R. MacFarlane, “Fluorescence from highly-doped erbium fluorozirconate glasses pumped at 800 nm,” Opt. Commun. 132, 73–76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Görller-Walrand, C.

C. Görller-Walrand, K. Binnemans, Karl A. Gschneidner Jr. , and E. LeRoy, “Spectral intensities of f−f transitions,” in Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, K. A. Gschneidner Jr. and L. Eyring, eds. (Elsevier, 1998), pp. 101–264.

Gosnell, T. R.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Characteristic temperatures ( T x , T g ) and Δ T ( T x - T g ) of samples with different NaCl content. Each data point of T x and T g represents the average temperature, with standard deviations shown (red error bars of less than 2.5% are embedded in the symbols). The measurement was performed three times.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Raman spectra of prepared samples, (b) deconvolution of Raman spectrum on sample A using symmetric Gaussian functions, (c) deconvolution of Raman spectrum on sample E using symmetric Gaussian functions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absorption spectra of Er 3 + -doped samples.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

1.5 μm emission spectra of Er 3 + -doped samples under 980 nm excitation.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Experimental Oscillator Strength ( f exp ) and δ rms of Er 3 + -Doped Glasses

Tables Icon

Table 2 Ω t ( t = 2 , 4 , 6 ) ( × 10 20 cm 2 ) of Er 3 + -Doped Glasses

Tables Icon

Table 3 Emission Parameters of Er 3 + -Doped Glasses

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

f exp = 2.303 m c 2 π e 2 N d λ 2 O D ( λ ) d λ ,
f cal = 8 π 2 m c 3 h λ ( 2 J + 1 ) ( n 2 + 2 ) 2 9 n Ω t | ( S , L ) J U ( t ) ( S , L ) J | 2 ,
δ rms = [ ( f exp f cal ) 2 / ( N tran N para ) ] 1 / 2 ,
S ed = t = 2 , 4 , 6 Ω t | ( S , L ) J U ( t ) ( S , L ) J | 2 ,
S md = 1 4 m 2 c 2 | ( S , L ) J L + 2 S ( S , L ) J | 2 .
S ed ( I 13 / 2 4 I 15 / 2 4 ) = 0.0188 Ω 2 + 0.1176 Ω 4 + 1.4617 Ω 6 .
W MP ( 0 ) = C [ exp ( ω p / k T ) exp ( ω p / k T ) 1 ] P e α Δ E ,
C ρ ( ω ) 5 / 3 ,
Δ λ eff = σ em ( λ ) d λ / σ peak ,

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