Abstract

A series of silver (Ag0) nanoclusters embedded in bismuthate glasses (Bi2O3-B2O3-TiO2) were synthesized by the thermochemical reduction method. When B2O3 was substituted with TiO2, the refractive index of the encapsulating medium increased, leading to redshifting of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption band of Ag0, which was initially located at 612nm. Z-scan measurements with femtosecond laser pulses at 800nm showed that third-order optical nonlinearities (TONs) were significantly enhanced in the SPR redshifted samples, and calculation of the figure of merit manifested excellent performances of present Ag0-bismuthate nanocomposites for TON-based all-optical switching.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. P. Chakraborty, “Metal nanoclusters in glasses as non-linear photonic materials,” J. Mater. Sci. 33, 2235–2249 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. C. Skillman and C. R. Berry, “Effect of particle shape on the spectral absorption of colloidal silver in gelatin,” J. Chem. Phys. 48, 3297 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Noguez, “Optical properties of isolated and supported metal nanoparticles,” Opt. Mater. 27, 1204–1211 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. Irimpan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Spectral and nonlinear optical characteristics of nanocomposites of ZnO-Ag,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 455, 265–269 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Hache, D. Ricard, and C. Flytzanis, “Optical nonlinearities of small metal particles: surface-mediated resonance and quantum size effects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 1647–1655 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Som and B. Karmakar, “Nanosilver enhanced upconversion fluorescence of erbium ions in Er3+: Ag-antimony glass nanocomposites,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 013102 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. A. Lazarides, K. L. Kelly, T. R. Jensen, and G. C. Schatz, “Optical properties of metal nanoparticles and nanoparticle aggregates important in biosensors,” J. Mol. Struct., Theochem 529, 59–63 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Som and B. Karmakar, “Core-shell Au-Ag nanoparticles in dielectric nanocomposites with plasmon-enhanced fluorescence: A new paradigm in antimony glasses,” Nano Res. 2, 607–616(2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Som and B. Karmakar, “Plasmon tuning of nano-Au in dichroic devitrified antimony glass nanocomposites by refractive index control,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 479, 100–104 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Som and B. Karmakar, “Enhancement of Er3+ upconverted luminescence in Er3+: Au-antimony glass dichroic nanocomposites containing hexagonal Au nanoparticles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, B21–B27 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Xu, F. Chen, X. Shen, S. Dai, Q. Nie, and X. Wang, “Observation of surface plasmon resonance of silver particles and enhanced third-order optical nonlinearities in AgCl doped Bi2O3-B2O3-SiO2 ternary glasses,” Mater. Res. Bull. 45, 1501–1506 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. Cattaruzza, G. Battaglin, P. Calvelli, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, C. Maurizio, P. Mazzoldi, S. Padovani, R. Polloni, C. Sada, B. F. Scremin, and F. D’Acapito, “Fast nonlinear refractive index of pure and alloy metallic nanoclusters in silica glass,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 63, 1203–1208 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Kozuka, “Metal nanoparticles in gel-derived oxide coating films: control and application of surface plasma resonance,” Proc. SPIE 3136, 304–314 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Zhou, G. J. You, Y. G. Li, T. Han, J. Li, S. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, Y. Liu, and S. X. Qian, “Linear and ultrafast nonlinear optical response of Ag:Bi2O3 composite films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3876–3878 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. Tanaka, “Nonlinear optics in glasses: how can we analyze?,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 68, 896–900 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. N. Sugimoto, H. Kanbara, S. Fujiwara, K. Tanaka, Y. Shimizugawa, and K. Hirao, “Third-order optical nonlinearities and their ultrafast response in Bi2O3-B2O3-SiO2 glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1904–1908 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. Chen, Q. Nie, T. Xu, S. Dai, X. Wang, and X. Shen, “A study of nonlinear optical properties in Bi2O3-WO3-TeO2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 3468–3472 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Yin, H. P. Li, S. H. Tang, and W. Ji, “Determination of nonlinear absorption and refraction by single Z-scan method,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 587–591 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. E. Stone, A. C. Wright, R. N. Sinclair, S. A. Feller, M. Affatigato, D. L. Hogan, N. D. Nelson, C. Vira, Y. B. Dimitriev, E. M. Gattef, and D. Ehrt, “Structure of bismuth borate glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses, Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B 41, 409–412(2000).
  21. G. Lenz, J. Zimmermann, T. Katsufuji, M. E. Lines, H. Y. Hwang, S. Spälter, R. E. Slusher, S. W. Cheong, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Large Kerr effect in bulk Se-based chalcogenide glasses,” Opt. Lett. 25, 254–256 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  22. V. Dimitrov and S. Sakka, “Electronic oxide polarizability and optical basicity of simple oxides. I,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1736–1740(1996).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H. I. Elim, J. Yang, J. Y. Lee, J. Mi, and W. Ji, “Observation of saturable and reverse-saturable absorption at longitudinal surface plasmon resonance in gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083107 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  24. K. Tanaka, “Two-photon optical absorption in amorphous materials,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 338–340, 534–538 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  25. X. Zhu and Z. Meng, “The optical nonlinearity and structure for a PbO, TiO2, SiO2, and K2O quaternary glass system,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 3756–3760 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  26. T. Xu, F. Chen, S. Dai, Q. Nie, X. Shen, and X. Wang, “Third-order optical nonlinear characterizations of Bi2O3-B2O3-TiO2 ternary glasses,” Physica B 404, 2012–2015 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  27. S. Qu, Y. Zhang, H. Li, J. Qiu, and C. Zhu, “Nanosecond nonlinear absorption in Au and Ag nanoparticles precipitated glasses induced by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Mater. 28, 259–265 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  28. D. Y. Kim, B. L. Lawrence, W. E. Torruellas, G. I. Stegeman, G. Baker, and J. Meth, “Assessment of single crystal p-toluene sulfonate as an all-optical switching material at 1.3 um,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1742–1744 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  29. F. Chen, T. Xu, S. Dai, Q. Nie, X. Shen, J. Zhang, and X. Wang, “Linear and non-linear characteristics of tellurite glasses within TeO2-Bi2O3-TiO2 ternary system,” Opt. Mater. 32, 868–872(2010).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (2)

T. Xu, F. Chen, X. Shen, S. Dai, Q. Nie, and X. Wang, “Observation of surface plasmon resonance of silver particles and enhanced third-order optical nonlinearities in AgCl doped Bi2O3-B2O3-SiO2 ternary glasses,” Mater. Res. Bull. 45, 1501–1506 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, T. Xu, S. Dai, Q. Nie, X. Shen, J. Zhang, and X. Wang, “Linear and non-linear characteristics of tellurite glasses within TeO2-Bi2O3-TiO2 ternary system,” Opt. Mater. 32, 868–872(2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

T. Som and B. Karmakar, “Enhancement of Er3+ upconverted luminescence in Er3+: Au-antimony glass dichroic nanocomposites containing hexagonal Au nanoparticles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, B21–B27 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Xu, F. Chen, S. Dai, Q. Nie, X. Shen, and X. Wang, “Third-order optical nonlinear characterizations of Bi2O3-B2O3-TiO2 ternary glasses,” Physica B 404, 2012–2015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Som and B. Karmakar, “Nanosilver enhanced upconversion fluorescence of erbium ions in Er3+: Ag-antimony glass nanocomposites,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 013102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Som and B. Karmakar, “Core-shell Au-Ag nanoparticles in dielectric nanocomposites with plasmon-enhanced fluorescence: A new paradigm in antimony glasses,” Nano Res. 2, 607–616(2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Som and B. Karmakar, “Plasmon tuning of nano-Au in dichroic devitrified antimony glass nanocomposites by refractive index control,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 479, 100–104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

L. Irimpan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Spectral and nonlinear optical characteristics of nanocomposites of ZnO-Ag,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 455, 265–269 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, Q. Nie, T. Xu, S. Dai, X. Wang, and X. Shen, “A study of nonlinear optical properties in Bi2O3-WO3-TeO2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 3468–3472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

K. Tanaka, “Nonlinear optics in glasses: how can we analyze?,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 68, 896–900 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

S. Qu, Y. Zhang, H. Li, J. Qiu, and C. Zhu, “Nanosecond nonlinear absorption in Au and Ag nanoparticles precipitated glasses induced by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Mater. 28, 259–265 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. I. Elim, J. Yang, J. Y. Lee, J. Mi, and W. Ji, “Observation of saturable and reverse-saturable absorption at longitudinal surface plasmon resonance in gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

C. Noguez, “Optical properties of isolated and supported metal nanoparticles,” Opt. Mater. 27, 1204–1211 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. Tanaka, “Two-photon optical absorption in amorphous materials,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 338–340, 534–538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

P. Zhou, G. J. You, Y. G. Li, T. Han, J. Li, S. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, Y. Liu, and S. X. Qian, “Linear and ultrafast nonlinear optical response of Ag:Bi2O3 composite films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3876–3878 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Cattaruzza, G. Battaglin, P. Calvelli, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, C. Maurizio, P. Mazzoldi, S. Padovani, R. Polloni, C. Sada, B. F. Scremin, and F. D’Acapito, “Fast nonlinear refractive index of pure and alloy metallic nanoclusters in silica glass,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 63, 1203–1208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

M. Yin, H. P. Li, S. H. Tang, and W. Ji, “Determination of nonlinear absorption and refraction by single Z-scan method,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 587–591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Stone, A. C. Wright, R. N. Sinclair, S. A. Feller, M. Affatigato, D. L. Hogan, N. D. Nelson, C. Vira, Y. B. Dimitriev, E. M. Gattef, and D. Ehrt, “Structure of bismuth borate glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses, Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B 41, 409–412(2000).

A. A. Lazarides, K. L. Kelly, T. R. Jensen, and G. C. Schatz, “Optical properties of metal nanoparticles and nanoparticle aggregates important in biosensors,” J. Mol. Struct., Theochem 529, 59–63 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Lenz, J. Zimmermann, T. Katsufuji, M. E. Lines, H. Y. Hwang, S. Spälter, R. E. Slusher, S. W. Cheong, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Large Kerr effect in bulk Se-based chalcogenide glasses,” Opt. Lett. 25, 254–256 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

P. Chakraborty, “Metal nanoclusters in glasses as non-linear photonic materials,” J. Mater. Sci. 33, 2235–2249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

H. Kozuka, “Metal nanoparticles in gel-derived oxide coating films: control and application of surface plasma resonance,” Proc. SPIE 3136, 304–314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

V. Dimitrov and S. Sakka, “Electronic oxide polarizability and optical basicity of simple oxides. I,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1736–1740(1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

X. Zhu and Z. Meng, “The optical nonlinearity and structure for a PbO, TiO2, SiO2, and K2O quaternary glass system,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 3756–3760 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, B. L. Lawrence, W. E. Torruellas, G. I. Stegeman, G. Baker, and J. Meth, “Assessment of single crystal p-toluene sulfonate as an all-optical switching material at 1.3 um,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1742–1744 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1968 (1)

D. C. Skillman and C. R. Berry, “Effect of particle shape on the spectral absorption of colloidal silver in gelatin,” J. Chem. Phys. 48, 3297 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Affatigato, M.

C. E. Stone, A. C. Wright, R. N. Sinclair, S. A. Feller, M. Affatigato, D. L. Hogan, N. D. Nelson, C. Vira, Y. B. Dimitriev, E. M. Gattef, and D. Ehrt, “Structure of bismuth borate glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses, Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B 41, 409–412(2000).

Aggarwal, I. D.

Baker, G.

D. Y. Kim, B. L. Lawrence, W. E. Torruellas, G. I. Stegeman, G. Baker, and J. Meth, “Assessment of single crystal p-toluene sulfonate as an all-optical switching material at 1.3 um,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1742–1744 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Battaglin, G.

E. Cattaruzza, G. Battaglin, P. Calvelli, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, C. Maurizio, P. Mazzoldi, S. Padovani, R. Polloni, C. Sada, B. F. Scremin, and F. D’Acapito, “Fast nonlinear refractive index of pure and alloy metallic nanoclusters in silica glass,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 63, 1203–1208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Berry, C. R.

D. C. Skillman and C. R. Berry, “Effect of particle shape on the spectral absorption of colloidal silver in gelatin,” J. Chem. Phys. 48, 3297 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Calvelli, P.

E. Cattaruzza, G. Battaglin, P. Calvelli, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, C. Maurizio, P. Mazzoldi, S. Padovani, R. Polloni, C. Sada, B. F. Scremin, and F. D’Acapito, “Fast nonlinear refractive index of pure and alloy metallic nanoclusters in silica glass,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 63, 1203–1208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cattaruzza, E.

E. Cattaruzza, G. Battaglin, P. Calvelli, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, C. Maurizio, P. Mazzoldi, S. Padovani, R. Polloni, C. Sada, B. F. Scremin, and F. D’Acapito, “Fast nonlinear refractive index of pure and alloy metallic nanoclusters in silica glass,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 63, 1203–1208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chakraborty, P.

P. Chakraborty, “Metal nanoclusters in glasses as non-linear photonic materials,” J. Mater. Sci. 33, 2235–2249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

T. Xu, F. Chen, X. Shen, S. Dai, Q. Nie, and X. Wang, “Observation of surface plasmon resonance of silver particles and enhanced third-order optical nonlinearities in AgCl doped Bi2O3-B2O3-SiO2 ternary glasses,” Mater. Res. Bull. 45, 1501–1506 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, T. Xu, S. Dai, Q. Nie, X. Shen, J. Zhang, and X. Wang, “Linear and non-linear characteristics of tellurite glasses within TeO2-Bi2O3-TiO2 ternary system,” Opt. Mater. 32, 868–872(2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Xu, F. Chen, S. Dai, Q. Nie, X. Shen, and X. Wang, “Third-order optical nonlinear characterizations of Bi2O3-B2O3-TiO2 ternary glasses,” Physica B 404, 2012–2015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. Y.

P. Zhou, G. J. You, Y. G. Li, T. Han, J. Li, S. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, Y. Liu, and S. X. Qian, “Linear and ultrafast nonlinear optical response of Ag:Bi2O3 composite films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3876–3878 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, Q. Nie, T. Xu, S. Dai, X. Wang, and X. Shen, “A study of nonlinear optical properties in Bi2O3-WO3-TeO2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 3468–3472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cheong, S. W.

D’Acapito, F.

E. Cattaruzza, G. Battaglin, P. Calvelli, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, C. Maurizio, P. Mazzoldi, S. Padovani, R. Polloni, C. Sada, B. F. Scremin, and F. D’Acapito, “Fast nonlinear refractive index of pure and alloy metallic nanoclusters in silica glass,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 63, 1203–1208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dai, S.

F. Chen, T. Xu, S. Dai, Q. Nie, X. Shen, J. Zhang, and X. Wang, “Linear and non-linear characteristics of tellurite glasses within TeO2-Bi2O3-TiO2 ternary system,” Opt. Mater. 32, 868–872(2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Xu, F. Chen, X. Shen, S. Dai, Q. Nie, and X. Wang, “Observation of surface plasmon resonance of silver particles and enhanced third-order optical nonlinearities in AgCl doped Bi2O3-B2O3-SiO2 ternary glasses,” Mater. Res. Bull. 45, 1501–1506 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Xu, F. Chen, S. Dai, Q. Nie, X. Shen, and X. Wang, “Third-order optical nonlinear characterizations of Bi2O3-B2O3-TiO2 ternary glasses,” Physica B 404, 2012–2015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, Q. Nie, T. Xu, S. Dai, X. Wang, and X. Shen, “A study of nonlinear optical properties in Bi2O3-WO3-TeO2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 3468–3472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dimitriev, Y. B.

C. E. Stone, A. C. Wright, R. N. Sinclair, S. A. Feller, M. Affatigato, D. L. Hogan, N. D. Nelson, C. Vira, Y. B. Dimitriev, E. M. Gattef, and D. Ehrt, “Structure of bismuth borate glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses, Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B 41, 409–412(2000).

Dimitrov, V.

V. Dimitrov and S. Sakka, “Electronic oxide polarizability and optical basicity of simple oxides. I,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1736–1740(1996).
[CrossRef]

Ehrt, D.

C. E. Stone, A. C. Wright, R. N. Sinclair, S. A. Feller, M. Affatigato, D. L. Hogan, N. D. Nelson, C. Vira, Y. B. Dimitriev, E. M. Gattef, and D. Ehrt, “Structure of bismuth borate glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses, Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B 41, 409–412(2000).

Elim, H. I.

H. I. Elim, J. Yang, J. Y. Lee, J. Mi, and W. Ji, “Observation of saturable and reverse-saturable absorption at longitudinal surface plasmon resonance in gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Feller, S. A.

C. E. Stone, A. C. Wright, R. N. Sinclair, S. A. Feller, M. Affatigato, D. L. Hogan, N. D. Nelson, C. Vira, Y. B. Dimitriev, E. M. Gattef, and D. Ehrt, “Structure of bismuth borate glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses, Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B 41, 409–412(2000).

Flytzanis, C.

Fujiwara, S.

Gattef, E. M.

C. E. Stone, A. C. Wright, R. N. Sinclair, S. A. Feller, M. Affatigato, D. L. Hogan, N. D. Nelson, C. Vira, Y. B. Dimitriev, E. M. Gattef, and D. Ehrt, “Structure of bismuth borate glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses, Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B 41, 409–412(2000).

Gonella, F.

E. Cattaruzza, G. Battaglin, P. Calvelli, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, C. Maurizio, P. Mazzoldi, S. Padovani, R. Polloni, C. Sada, B. F. Scremin, and F. D’Acapito, “Fast nonlinear refractive index of pure and alloy metallic nanoclusters in silica glass,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 63, 1203–1208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hache, F.

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Han, T.

P. Zhou, G. J. You, Y. G. Li, T. Han, J. Li, S. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, Y. Liu, and S. X. Qian, “Linear and ultrafast nonlinear optical response of Ag:Bi2O3 composite films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3876–3878 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

Hogan, D. L.

C. E. Stone, A. C. Wright, R. N. Sinclair, S. A. Feller, M. Affatigato, D. L. Hogan, N. D. Nelson, C. Vira, Y. B. Dimitriev, E. M. Gattef, and D. Ehrt, “Structure of bismuth borate glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses, Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B 41, 409–412(2000).

Hwang, H. Y.

Irimpan, L.

L. Irimpan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Spectral and nonlinear optical characteristics of nanocomposites of ZnO-Ag,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 455, 265–269 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, T. R.

A. A. Lazarides, K. L. Kelly, T. R. Jensen, and G. C. Schatz, “Optical properties of metal nanoparticles and nanoparticle aggregates important in biosensors,” J. Mol. Struct., Theochem 529, 59–63 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ji, W.

H. I. Elim, J. Yang, J. Y. Lee, J. Mi, and W. Ji, “Observation of saturable and reverse-saturable absorption at longitudinal surface plasmon resonance in gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Yin, H. P. Li, S. H. Tang, and W. Ji, “Determination of nonlinear absorption and refraction by single Z-scan method,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 587–591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kanbara, H.

Karmakar, B.

T. Som and B. Karmakar, “Enhancement of Er3+ upconverted luminescence in Er3+: Au-antimony glass dichroic nanocomposites containing hexagonal Au nanoparticles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, B21–B27 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Som and B. Karmakar, “Nanosilver enhanced upconversion fluorescence of erbium ions in Er3+: Ag-antimony glass nanocomposites,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 013102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Som and B. Karmakar, “Core-shell Au-Ag nanoparticles in dielectric nanocomposites with plasmon-enhanced fluorescence: A new paradigm in antimony glasses,” Nano Res. 2, 607–616(2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Som and B. Karmakar, “Plasmon tuning of nano-Au in dichroic devitrified antimony glass nanocomposites by refractive index control,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 479, 100–104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Katsufuji, T.

Kelly, K. L.

A. A. Lazarides, K. L. Kelly, T. R. Jensen, and G. C. Schatz, “Optical properties of metal nanoparticles and nanoparticle aggregates important in biosensors,” J. Mol. Struct., Theochem 529, 59–63 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. Y.

D. Y. Kim, B. L. Lawrence, W. E. Torruellas, G. I. Stegeman, G. Baker, and J. Meth, “Assessment of single crystal p-toluene sulfonate as an all-optical switching material at 1.3 um,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1742–1744 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kozuka, H.

H. Kozuka, “Metal nanoparticles in gel-derived oxide coating films: control and application of surface plasma resonance,” Proc. SPIE 3136, 304–314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, B. L.

D. Y. Kim, B. L. Lawrence, W. E. Torruellas, G. I. Stegeman, G. Baker, and J. Meth, “Assessment of single crystal p-toluene sulfonate as an all-optical switching material at 1.3 um,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1742–1744 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lazarides, A. A.

A. A. Lazarides, K. L. Kelly, T. R. Jensen, and G. C. Schatz, “Optical properties of metal nanoparticles and nanoparticle aggregates important in biosensors,” J. Mol. Struct., Theochem 529, 59–63 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. Y.

H. I. Elim, J. Yang, J. Y. Lee, J. Mi, and W. Ji, “Observation of saturable and reverse-saturable absorption at longitudinal surface plasmon resonance in gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lenz, G.

Li, H.

S. Qu, Y. Zhang, H. Li, J. Qiu, and C. Zhu, “Nanosecond nonlinear absorption in Au and Ag nanoparticles precipitated glasses induced by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Mater. 28, 259–265 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, H. P.

M. Yin, H. P. Li, S. H. Tang, and W. Ji, “Determination of nonlinear absorption and refraction by single Z-scan method,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 587–591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

P. Zhou, G. J. You, Y. G. Li, T. Han, J. Li, S. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, Y. Liu, and S. X. Qian, “Linear and ultrafast nonlinear optical response of Ag:Bi2O3 composite films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3876–3878 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. G.

P. Zhou, G. J. You, Y. G. Li, T. Han, J. Li, S. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, Y. Liu, and S. X. Qian, “Linear and ultrafast nonlinear optical response of Ag:Bi2O3 composite films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3876–3878 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lines, M. E.

Liu, Y.

P. Zhou, G. J. You, Y. G. Li, T. Han, J. Li, S. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, Y. Liu, and S. X. Qian, “Linear and ultrafast nonlinear optical response of Ag:Bi2O3 composite films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3876–3878 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mattei, G.

E. Cattaruzza, G. Battaglin, P. Calvelli, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, C. Maurizio, P. Mazzoldi, S. Padovani, R. Polloni, C. Sada, B. F. Scremin, and F. D’Acapito, “Fast nonlinear refractive index of pure and alloy metallic nanoclusters in silica glass,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 63, 1203–1208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Maurizio, C.

E. Cattaruzza, G. Battaglin, P. Calvelli, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, C. Maurizio, P. Mazzoldi, S. Padovani, R. Polloni, C. Sada, B. F. Scremin, and F. D’Acapito, “Fast nonlinear refractive index of pure and alloy metallic nanoclusters in silica glass,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 63, 1203–1208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mazzoldi, P.

E. Cattaruzza, G. Battaglin, P. Calvelli, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, C. Maurizio, P. Mazzoldi, S. Padovani, R. Polloni, C. Sada, B. F. Scremin, and F. D’Acapito, “Fast nonlinear refractive index of pure and alloy metallic nanoclusters in silica glass,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 63, 1203–1208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meng, Z.

X. Zhu and Z. Meng, “The optical nonlinearity and structure for a PbO, TiO2, SiO2, and K2O quaternary glass system,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 3756–3760 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Meth, J.

D. Y. Kim, B. L. Lawrence, W. E. Torruellas, G. I. Stegeman, G. Baker, and J. Meth, “Assessment of single crystal p-toluene sulfonate as an all-optical switching material at 1.3 um,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1742–1744 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mi, J.

H. I. Elim, J. Yang, J. Y. Lee, J. Mi, and W. Ji, “Observation of saturable and reverse-saturable absorption at longitudinal surface plasmon resonance in gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nampoori, V. P. N.

L. Irimpan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Spectral and nonlinear optical characteristics of nanocomposites of ZnO-Ag,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 455, 265–269 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, N. D.

C. E. Stone, A. C. Wright, R. N. Sinclair, S. A. Feller, M. Affatigato, D. L. Hogan, N. D. Nelson, C. Vira, Y. B. Dimitriev, E. M. Gattef, and D. Ehrt, “Structure of bismuth borate glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses, Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B 41, 409–412(2000).

Nie, Q.

F. Chen, T. Xu, S. Dai, Q. Nie, X. Shen, J. Zhang, and X. Wang, “Linear and non-linear characteristics of tellurite glasses within TeO2-Bi2O3-TiO2 ternary system,” Opt. Mater. 32, 868–872(2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Xu, F. Chen, X. Shen, S. Dai, Q. Nie, and X. Wang, “Observation of surface plasmon resonance of silver particles and enhanced third-order optical nonlinearities in AgCl doped Bi2O3-B2O3-SiO2 ternary glasses,” Mater. Res. Bull. 45, 1501–1506 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Xu, F. Chen, S. Dai, Q. Nie, X. Shen, and X. Wang, “Third-order optical nonlinear characterizations of Bi2O3-B2O3-TiO2 ternary glasses,” Physica B 404, 2012–2015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, Q. Nie, T. Xu, S. Dai, X. Wang, and X. Shen, “A study of nonlinear optical properties in Bi2O3-WO3-TeO2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 3468–3472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Noguez, C.

C. Noguez, “Optical properties of isolated and supported metal nanoparticles,” Opt. Mater. 27, 1204–1211 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Padovani, S.

E. Cattaruzza, G. Battaglin, P. Calvelli, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, C. Maurizio, P. Mazzoldi, S. Padovani, R. Polloni, C. Sada, B. F. Scremin, and F. D’Acapito, “Fast nonlinear refractive index of pure and alloy metallic nanoclusters in silica glass,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 63, 1203–1208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Polloni, R.

E. Cattaruzza, G. Battaglin, P. Calvelli, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, C. Maurizio, P. Mazzoldi, S. Padovani, R. Polloni, C. Sada, B. F. Scremin, and F. D’Acapito, “Fast nonlinear refractive index of pure and alloy metallic nanoclusters in silica glass,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 63, 1203–1208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Qian, S. X.

P. Zhou, G. J. You, Y. G. Li, T. Han, J. Li, S. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, Y. Liu, and S. X. Qian, “Linear and ultrafast nonlinear optical response of Ag:Bi2O3 composite films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3876–3878 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

S. Qu, Y. Zhang, H. Li, J. Qiu, and C. Zhu, “Nanosecond nonlinear absorption in Au and Ag nanoparticles precipitated glasses induced by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Mater. 28, 259–265 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Qu, S.

S. Qu, Y. Zhang, H. Li, J. Qiu, and C. Zhu, “Nanosecond nonlinear absorption in Au and Ag nanoparticles precipitated glasses induced by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Mater. 28, 259–265 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Radhakrishnan, P.

L. Irimpan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Spectral and nonlinear optical characteristics of nanocomposites of ZnO-Ag,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 455, 265–269 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ricard, D.

Sada, C.

E. Cattaruzza, G. Battaglin, P. Calvelli, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, C. Maurizio, P. Mazzoldi, S. Padovani, R. Polloni, C. Sada, B. F. Scremin, and F. D’Acapito, “Fast nonlinear refractive index of pure and alloy metallic nanoclusters in silica glass,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 63, 1203–1208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sakka, S.

V. Dimitrov and S. Sakka, “Electronic oxide polarizability and optical basicity of simple oxides. I,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1736–1740(1996).
[CrossRef]

Sanghera, J. S.

Schatz, G. C.

A. A. Lazarides, K. L. Kelly, T. R. Jensen, and G. C. Schatz, “Optical properties of metal nanoparticles and nanoparticle aggregates important in biosensors,” J. Mol. Struct., Theochem 529, 59–63 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Scremin, B. F.

E. Cattaruzza, G. Battaglin, P. Calvelli, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, C. Maurizio, P. Mazzoldi, S. Padovani, R. Polloni, C. Sada, B. F. Scremin, and F. D’Acapito, “Fast nonlinear refractive index of pure and alloy metallic nanoclusters in silica glass,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 63, 1203–1208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shen, X.

T. Xu, F. Chen, X. Shen, S. Dai, Q. Nie, and X. Wang, “Observation of surface plasmon resonance of silver particles and enhanced third-order optical nonlinearities in AgCl doped Bi2O3-B2O3-SiO2 ternary glasses,” Mater. Res. Bull. 45, 1501–1506 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, T. Xu, S. Dai, Q. Nie, X. Shen, J. Zhang, and X. Wang, “Linear and non-linear characteristics of tellurite glasses within TeO2-Bi2O3-TiO2 ternary system,” Opt. Mater. 32, 868–872(2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Xu, F. Chen, S. Dai, Q. Nie, X. Shen, and X. Wang, “Third-order optical nonlinear characterizations of Bi2O3-B2O3-TiO2 ternary glasses,” Physica B 404, 2012–2015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, Q. Nie, T. Xu, S. Dai, X. Wang, and X. Shen, “A study of nonlinear optical properties in Bi2O3-WO3-TeO2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 3468–3472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shimizugawa, Y.

Sinclair, R. N.

C. E. Stone, A. C. Wright, R. N. Sinclair, S. A. Feller, M. Affatigato, D. L. Hogan, N. D. Nelson, C. Vira, Y. B. Dimitriev, E. M. Gattef, and D. Ehrt, “Structure of bismuth borate glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses, Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B 41, 409–412(2000).

Skillman, D. C.

D. C. Skillman and C. R. Berry, “Effect of particle shape on the spectral absorption of colloidal silver in gelatin,” J. Chem. Phys. 48, 3297 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R. E.

Som, T.

T. Som and B. Karmakar, “Nanosilver enhanced upconversion fluorescence of erbium ions in Er3+: Ag-antimony glass nanocomposites,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 013102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Som and B. Karmakar, “Enhancement of Er3+ upconverted luminescence in Er3+: Au-antimony glass dichroic nanocomposites containing hexagonal Au nanoparticles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, B21–B27 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Som and B. Karmakar, “Core-shell Au-Ag nanoparticles in dielectric nanocomposites with plasmon-enhanced fluorescence: A new paradigm in antimony glasses,” Nano Res. 2, 607–616(2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Som and B. Karmakar, “Plasmon tuning of nano-Au in dichroic devitrified antimony glass nanocomposites by refractive index control,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 479, 100–104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Spälter, S.

Stegeman, G. I.

D. Y. Kim, B. L. Lawrence, W. E. Torruellas, G. I. Stegeman, G. Baker, and J. Meth, “Assessment of single crystal p-toluene sulfonate as an all-optical switching material at 1.3 um,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1742–1744 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stone, C. E.

C. E. Stone, A. C. Wright, R. N. Sinclair, S. A. Feller, M. Affatigato, D. L. Hogan, N. D. Nelson, C. Vira, Y. B. Dimitriev, E. M. Gattef, and D. Ehrt, “Structure of bismuth borate glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses, Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B 41, 409–412(2000).

Sugimoto, N.

Tanaka, K.

K. Tanaka, “Nonlinear optics in glasses: how can we analyze?,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 68, 896–900 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka, “Two-photon optical absorption in amorphous materials,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 338–340, 534–538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Sugimoto, H. Kanbara, S. Fujiwara, K. Tanaka, Y. Shimizugawa, and K. Hirao, “Third-order optical nonlinearities and their ultrafast response in Bi2O3-B2O3-SiO2 glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1904–1908 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tang, S. H.

M. Yin, H. P. Li, S. H. Tang, and W. Ji, “Determination of nonlinear absorption and refraction by single Z-scan method,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 587–591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Torruellas, W. E.

D. Y. Kim, B. L. Lawrence, W. E. Torruellas, G. I. Stegeman, G. Baker, and J. Meth, “Assessment of single crystal p-toluene sulfonate as an all-optical switching material at 1.3 um,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1742–1744 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Vira, C.

C. E. Stone, A. C. Wright, R. N. Sinclair, S. A. Feller, M. Affatigato, D. L. Hogan, N. D. Nelson, C. Vira, Y. B. Dimitriev, E. M. Gattef, and D. Ehrt, “Structure of bismuth borate glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses, Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B 41, 409–412(2000).

Wang, S. Y.

P. Zhou, G. J. You, Y. G. Li, T. Han, J. Li, S. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, Y. Liu, and S. X. Qian, “Linear and ultrafast nonlinear optical response of Ag:Bi2O3 composite films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3876–3878 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

F. Chen, T. Xu, S. Dai, Q. Nie, X. Shen, J. Zhang, and X. Wang, “Linear and non-linear characteristics of tellurite glasses within TeO2-Bi2O3-TiO2 ternary system,” Opt. Mater. 32, 868–872(2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Xu, F. Chen, X. Shen, S. Dai, Q. Nie, and X. Wang, “Observation of surface plasmon resonance of silver particles and enhanced third-order optical nonlinearities in AgCl doped Bi2O3-B2O3-SiO2 ternary glasses,” Mater. Res. Bull. 45, 1501–1506 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Xu, F. Chen, S. Dai, Q. Nie, X. Shen, and X. Wang, “Third-order optical nonlinear characterizations of Bi2O3-B2O3-TiO2 ternary glasses,” Physica B 404, 2012–2015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, Q. Nie, T. Xu, S. Dai, X. Wang, and X. Shen, “A study of nonlinear optical properties in Bi2O3-WO3-TeO2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 3468–3472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T.-H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wright, A. C.

C. E. Stone, A. C. Wright, R. N. Sinclair, S. A. Feller, M. Affatigato, D. L. Hogan, N. D. Nelson, C. Vira, Y. B. Dimitriev, E. M. Gattef, and D. Ehrt, “Structure of bismuth borate glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses, Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B 41, 409–412(2000).

Xu, T.

F. Chen, T. Xu, S. Dai, Q. Nie, X. Shen, J. Zhang, and X. Wang, “Linear and non-linear characteristics of tellurite glasses within TeO2-Bi2O3-TiO2 ternary system,” Opt. Mater. 32, 868–872(2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Xu, F. Chen, X. Shen, S. Dai, Q. Nie, and X. Wang, “Observation of surface plasmon resonance of silver particles and enhanced third-order optical nonlinearities in AgCl doped Bi2O3-B2O3-SiO2 ternary glasses,” Mater. Res. Bull. 45, 1501–1506 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Xu, F. Chen, S. Dai, Q. Nie, X. Shen, and X. Wang, “Third-order optical nonlinear characterizations of Bi2O3-B2O3-TiO2 ternary glasses,” Physica B 404, 2012–2015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, Q. Nie, T. Xu, S. Dai, X. Wang, and X. Shen, “A study of nonlinear optical properties in Bi2O3-WO3-TeO2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 3468–3472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

H. I. Elim, J. Yang, J. Y. Lee, J. Mi, and W. Ji, “Observation of saturable and reverse-saturable absorption at longitudinal surface plasmon resonance in gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yin, M.

M. Yin, H. P. Li, S. H. Tang, and W. Ji, “Determination of nonlinear absorption and refraction by single Z-scan method,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 587–591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

You, G. J.

P. Zhou, G. J. You, Y. G. Li, T. Han, J. Li, S. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, Y. Liu, and S. X. Qian, “Linear and ultrafast nonlinear optical response of Ag:Bi2O3 composite films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3876–3878 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

F. Chen, T. Xu, S. Dai, Q. Nie, X. Shen, J. Zhang, and X. Wang, “Linear and non-linear characteristics of tellurite glasses within TeO2-Bi2O3-TiO2 ternary system,” Opt. Mater. 32, 868–872(2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

S. Qu, Y. Zhang, H. Li, J. Qiu, and C. Zhu, “Nanosecond nonlinear absorption in Au and Ag nanoparticles precipitated glasses induced by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Mater. 28, 259–265 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, P.

P. Zhou, G. J. You, Y. G. Li, T. Han, J. Li, S. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, Y. Liu, and S. X. Qian, “Linear and ultrafast nonlinear optical response of Ag:Bi2O3 composite films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3876–3878 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, C.

S. Qu, Y. Zhang, H. Li, J. Qiu, and C. Zhu, “Nanosecond nonlinear absorption in Au and Ag nanoparticles precipitated glasses induced by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Mater. 28, 259–265 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, X.

X. Zhu and Z. Meng, “The optical nonlinearity and structure for a PbO, TiO2, SiO2, and K2O quaternary glass system,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 3756–3760 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, J.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. Yin, H. P. Li, S. H. Tang, and W. Ji, “Determination of nonlinear absorption and refraction by single Z-scan method,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 587–591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

P. Zhou, G. J. You, Y. G. Li, T. Han, J. Li, S. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, Y. Liu, and S. X. Qian, “Linear and ultrafast nonlinear optical response of Ag:Bi2O3 composite films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3876–3878 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. I. Elim, J. Yang, J. Y. Lee, J. Mi, and W. Ji, “Observation of saturable and reverse-saturable absorption at longitudinal surface plasmon resonance in gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, B. L. Lawrence, W. E. Torruellas, G. I. Stegeman, G. Baker, and J. Meth, “Assessment of single crystal p-toluene sulfonate as an all-optical switching material at 1.3 um,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1742–1744 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

L. Irimpan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Spectral and nonlinear optical characteristics of nanocomposites of ZnO-Ag,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 455, 265–269 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Som and B. Karmakar, “Plasmon tuning of nano-Au in dichroic devitrified antimony glass nanocomposites by refractive index control,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 479, 100–104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Compos. Sci. Technol. (1)

E. Cattaruzza, G. Battaglin, P. Calvelli, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, C. Maurizio, P. Mazzoldi, S. Padovani, R. Polloni, C. Sada, B. F. Scremin, and F. D’Acapito, “Fast nonlinear refractive index of pure and alloy metallic nanoclusters in silica glass,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 63, 1203–1208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

V. Dimitrov and S. Sakka, “Electronic oxide polarizability and optical basicity of simple oxides. I,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1736–1740(1996).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhu and Z. Meng, “The optical nonlinearity and structure for a PbO, TiO2, SiO2, and K2O quaternary glass system,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 3756–3760 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Som and B. Karmakar, “Nanosilver enhanced upconversion fluorescence of erbium ions in Er3+: Ag-antimony glass nanocomposites,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 013102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

D. C. Skillman and C. R. Berry, “Effect of particle shape on the spectral absorption of colloidal silver in gelatin,” J. Chem. Phys. 48, 3297 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

P. Chakraborty, “Metal nanoclusters in glasses as non-linear photonic materials,” J. Mater. Sci. 33, 2235–2249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Struct., Theochem (1)

A. A. Lazarides, K. L. Kelly, T. R. Jensen, and G. C. Schatz, “Optical properties of metal nanoparticles and nanoparticle aggregates important in biosensors,” J. Mol. Struct., Theochem 529, 59–63 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

Y. Chen, Q. Nie, T. Xu, S. Dai, X. Wang, and X. Shen, “A study of nonlinear optical properties in Bi2O3-WO3-TeO2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 3468–3472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka, “Two-photon optical absorption in amorphous materials,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 338–340, 534–538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

K. Tanaka, “Nonlinear optics in glasses: how can we analyze?,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 68, 896–900 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Bull. (1)

T. Xu, F. Chen, X. Shen, S. Dai, Q. Nie, and X. Wang, “Observation of surface plasmon resonance of silver particles and enhanced third-order optical nonlinearities in AgCl doped Bi2O3-B2O3-SiO2 ternary glasses,” Mater. Res. Bull. 45, 1501–1506 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nano Res. (1)

T. Som and B. Karmakar, “Core-shell Au-Ag nanoparticles in dielectric nanocomposites with plasmon-enhanced fluorescence: A new paradigm in antimony glasses,” Nano Res. 2, 607–616(2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (3)

S. Qu, Y. Zhang, H. Li, J. Qiu, and C. Zhu, “Nanosecond nonlinear absorption in Au and Ag nanoparticles precipitated glasses induced by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Mater. 28, 259–265 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, T. Xu, S. Dai, Q. Nie, X. Shen, J. Zhang, and X. Wang, “Linear and non-linear characteristics of tellurite glasses within TeO2-Bi2O3-TiO2 ternary system,” Opt. Mater. 32, 868–872(2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Noguez, “Optical properties of isolated and supported metal nanoparticles,” Opt. Mater. 27, 1204–1211 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Chem. Glasses, Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B (1)

C. E. Stone, A. C. Wright, R. N. Sinclair, S. A. Feller, M. Affatigato, D. L. Hogan, N. D. Nelson, C. Vira, Y. B. Dimitriev, E. M. Gattef, and D. Ehrt, “Structure of bismuth borate glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses, Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B 41, 409–412(2000).

Physica B (1)

T. Xu, F. Chen, S. Dai, Q. Nie, X. Shen, and X. Wang, “Third-order optical nonlinear characterizations of Bi2O3-B2O3-TiO2 ternary glasses,” Physica B 404, 2012–2015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

H. Kozuka, “Metal nanoparticles in gel-derived oxide coating films: control and application of surface plasma resonance,” Proc. SPIE 3136, 304–314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SEM images taken from (a) host glass in molar composition of 60 Bi 2 O 3 - 30 B 2 O 3 - 10 TiO 2 and (b) BBT-Ag3.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a)–(c) TEM images taken from BBT-Ag3 in three resolutions. The inset in (a) is a SAED image; the red rings in (b) are indicative of the encapsulated structure. (d) Silver cluster diameter histogram.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Absorption spectra of ANCs embedded in bismuthate composites with the inset showing the enlarged spectra at the SPR region and (b) normalized absorption spectra at the SPR region (a, BBT-Ag1; b, BBT-Ag2; c, BBT-Ag3; d, BBT-Ag4; e, BBT-Ag5).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relationship between the linear refractive index ( n 0 ) and the SPR peak wavelength ( λ max ).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

CA curves of the silver–bismuthate nanocomposites measured at 800 nm .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Dependence of NR intensity Δ T on optical power for three representative samples (BBT-Ag1, 3, 4).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

OA curves of the silver–bismuthate nanocomposites (a, BBT-Ag2; b, BBT-Ag3; c, BBT-Ag5) measured at 800 nm .

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Linear Refractive Index n 0 , Optical Bandgap E opg , SPR Peak Wavelength λ max , NR γ, NA Coefficient β, Third-Order Nonlinear Susceptibilities χ ( 3 ) , Optical Density for 2 π Nonlinear Phase Shifting I 2 π , and Figure of Merit F of the Composites Studied and References for Comparison

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

λ max = [ ( 2 π c ) 2 m N e 2 ( ε c + 2 n 0 2 ) / ε 0 ] 1 / 2 ,
Re ( χ ( 3 ) ) = n 0 2 ε 0 c π γ ,
Im ( χ ( 3 ) ) = n 0 2 ε 0 c 2 λ 4 π 2 β ,
| χ ( 3 ) | = [ Re ( χ ( 3 ) ) 2 + Im ( χ ( 3 ) ) 2 ] 1 / 2 ,
W = γ I 2 π / α λ > 1 ,
T = 2 β λ / γ < 1 ,

Metrics