Abstract

Biological and chemical materials can be detected, identified, and characterized through their optical activity: optical rotation and circular dichroism. The optical activity of chiral materials leaves their footprints on the elements of the two off-diagonal quadrants of the Mueller matrices, which are proportional to the cross-linearly polarized reflection and transmission coefficients. At the free-space–chiral interface, lateral waves that propagate just below the interface are excited by waves that enter and emerge from the chiral material at the critical angle for total internal reflection. As the waves enter and emerge from the chiral material, the transmitted waves also undergo cross polarization. In the neighborhood of the critical angle, the cross-polarized transmission coefficients are relatively large, and they also exhibit the impact of the optical activity of the material. Therefore, the lateral waves can also be used to identify optically active materials.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. Bahar, “Mueller matrices for waves reflected and transmitted through chiral materials: waveguide modal solutions and applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1610–1619 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. Bahar, “Reflection and transmission matrices at a free-space–chiral interface based on the invariant constitutive relations for gyrotropic media and the Drude–Born–Federov constitutive relations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 1834–1838 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. Bahar, “Total transmission of incident plane waves that satisfy the Brewster conditions at a free-space–chiral interface,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, 2055–2060 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. M. Brekhovskikh, Waves in Layered Media (Academic, 1960).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Crittenden, “Electromagnetic sensing of chiral materials,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Nebraska–Lincoln, 2002).
  10. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 4th ed. (Pergamon, 1970).
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    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Silverman and T. Black, “Experimental method to detect chiral asymmetry in specular light scattering from a naturally optically active medium,” Phys. Lett. A 126, 171–176 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. Bahar, “Optimum electromagnetic wave excitation of complex media characterized by positive or negative refractive indices and by chiral properties,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2807–2812 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. Bahar, “Characterizations of natural and artificial optical activity by the Mueller matrices for oblique incidence, total internal reflection and Brewster angle,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1294–1302 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Lakhtakia, Beltrami Fields in Chiral Media (World Scientific, 1994).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. Barron, Molecular Light Scattering and Optical Activity, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University Press, 2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Lenker, “Optical properties of isotropic chiral media,” Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 417–443 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  18. E. Bahar, “Road maps for the use of Mueller matrix measurements to detect and identify biological materials through their optical activity: potential applications in biomedicine, biochemistry, security and industry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 364–370(2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. E. Bahar, “Detection and identification of optical activity using polarimetry—applications to biophotonics, biomedicine and biochemistry,” J. Biophoton. doi:10.1002/jbio.200810021, 1, 230–237 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  20. E. Bahar and R. Kubik, “Description of versatile optical polarimetric scatterometer that measures all 16 elements of the Mueller matrix for reflection and transmission: application to measurements of scatter cross sections, ellipsometric parameters, optical activity and the complex chiral parameter,” Opt. Eng. 47, 093603 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2011 (1)

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

E. Bahar and R. Kubik, “Description of versatile optical polarimetric scatterometer that measures all 16 elements of the Mueller matrix for reflection and transmission: application to measurements of scatter cross sections, ellipsometric parameters, optical activity and the complex chiral parameter,” Opt. Eng. 47, 093603 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Bahar, “Characterizations of natural and artificial optical activity by the Mueller matrices for oblique incidence, total internal reflection and Brewster angle,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1294–1302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

P. Crittenden and E. Bahar, “A modal solution for reflection and transmission at a chiral–chiral interface,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 1267–1290 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

1996 (2)

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

M. Silverman and T. Black, “Experimental method to detect chiral asymmetry in specular light scattering from a naturally optically active medium,” Phys. Lett. A 126, 171–176 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1972 (1)

E. Bahar, “Generalized Fourier transforms for stratified media,” Can. J. Phys. 50, 3123–3131 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bahar, E.

E. Bahar, “Guided surface waves over a free-space-chiral planar interface: applications to identification of optically active materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B , 28, 867–872 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Bahar, “Total transmission of incident plane waves that satisfy the Brewster conditions at a free-space–chiral interface,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, 2055–2060 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Bahar, “Reflection and transmission matrices at a free-space–chiral interface based on the invariant constitutive relations for gyrotropic media and the Drude–Born–Federov constitutive relations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 1834–1838 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Bahar, “Road maps for the use of Mueller matrix measurements to detect and identify biological materials through their optical activity: potential applications in biomedicine, biochemistry, security and industry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 364–370(2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Bahar and R. Kubik, “Description of versatile optical polarimetric scatterometer that measures all 16 elements of the Mueller matrix for reflection and transmission: application to measurements of scatter cross sections, ellipsometric parameters, optical activity and the complex chiral parameter,” Opt. Eng. 47, 093603 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Bahar, “Characterizations of natural and artificial optical activity by the Mueller matrices for oblique incidence, total internal reflection and Brewster angle,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1294–1302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Bahar, “Optimum electromagnetic wave excitation of complex media characterized by positive or negative refractive indices and by chiral properties,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2807–2812 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Bahar, “Mueller matrices for waves reflected and transmitted through chiral materials: waveguide modal solutions and applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1610–1619 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Crittenden and E. Bahar, “A modal solution for reflection and transmission at a chiral–chiral interface,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 1267–1290 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Bahar, “Generalized Fourier transforms for stratified media,” Can. J. Phys. 50, 3123–3131 (1972).
[CrossRef]

E. Bahar, “Detection and identification of optical activity using polarimetry—applications to biophotonics, biomedicine and biochemistry,” J. Biophoton. doi:10.1002/jbio.200810021, 1, 230–237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barron, L.

L. Barron, Molecular Light Scattering and Optical Activity, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University Press, 2004).
[CrossRef]

Black, T.

M. Silverman and T. Black, “Experimental method to detect chiral asymmetry in specular light scattering from a naturally optically active medium,” Phys. Lett. A 126, 171–176 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 4th ed. (Pergamon, 1970).

Bottinger, J.

Brekhovskikh, L. M.

L. M. Brekhovskikh, Waves in Layered Media (Academic, 1960).

Buddhiwant, P.

Carrieri, A.

Chipman, R. A.

Crittenden, P.

P. Crittenden and E. Bahar, “A modal solution for reflection and transmission at a chiral–chiral interface,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 1267–1290 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Crittenden, “Electromagnetic sensing of chiral materials,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Nebraska–Lincoln, 2002).

Cushman, G.

Fisher, B.

Ghosh, N.

Goudail, F.

Gupta, P. K.

Kubik, R.

E. Bahar and R. Kubik, “Description of versatile optical polarimetric scatterometer that measures all 16 elements of the Mueller matrix for reflection and transmission: application to measurements of scatter cross sections, ellipsometric parameters, optical activity and the complex chiral parameter,” Opt. Eng. 47, 093603 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lakhtakia, A.

A. Lakhtakia, Beltrami Fields in Chiral Media (World Scientific, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Lenker, J.

J. Lenker, “Optical properties of isotropic chiral media,” Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 417–443 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lu, S. Y.

Manhas, S.

Morio, J.

Owens, D.

Ritche, N.

Roese, E.

Silverman, M.

Singh, K.

Swami, M. K.

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 4th ed. (Pergamon, 1970).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Can. J. Phys. (2)

E. Bahar, “Generalized Fourier transforms for stratified media,” Can. J. Phys. 50, 3123–3131 (1972).
[CrossRef]

P. Crittenden and E. Bahar, “A modal solution for reflection and transmission at a chiral–chiral interface,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 1267–1290 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (5)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (5)

Opt. Eng. (1)

E. Bahar and R. Kubik, “Description of versatile optical polarimetric scatterometer that measures all 16 elements of the Mueller matrix for reflection and transmission: application to measurements of scatter cross sections, ellipsometric parameters, optical activity and the complex chiral parameter,” Opt. Eng. 47, 093603 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

M. Silverman and T. Black, “Experimental method to detect chiral asymmetry in specular light scattering from a naturally optically active medium,” Phys. Lett. A 126, 171–176 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Lenker, “Optical properties of isotropic chiral media,” Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 417–443 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

E. Bahar, “Detection and identification of optical activity using polarimetry—applications to biophotonics, biomedicine and biochemistry,” J. Biophoton. doi:10.1002/jbio.200810021, 1, 230–237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Lakhtakia, Beltrami Fields in Chiral Media (World Scientific, 1994).
[CrossRef]

L. Barron, Molecular Light Scattering and Optical Activity, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University Press, 2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Crittenden, “Electromagnetic sensing of chiral materials,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Nebraska–Lincoln, 2002).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 4th ed. (Pergamon, 1970).

L. M. Brekhovskikh, Waves in Layered Media (Academic, 1960).

M. Silverman, Waves and Grains (Princeton University Press1998).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of lateral waves.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Block diagram for the lateral wave transfer function in terms of circularly polarized waves.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Block diagram for the lateral wave transfer function in terms of linearly polarized waves.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Plots of Mueller matrix elements (a)  m 14 k 0 β and (b)  m 28 k 0 β as functions of the angle of incidence in free space. The parameter for each plot is the complex refractive index of the host medium.

Equations (28)

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E r c = P 1 c T 1 c P L c T 0 c P 0 c E i c .
E c = ( E R E L ) = A E L = ( 1 j 1 j ) ( E V E H ) and E L = A 1 E c .
A 1 = 1 2 ( 1 1 j j ) .
E r L = P 1 c T 1 L P L L T 0 L P 0 c E i L .
T j L = A 1 T j c A , j = 0 , 1 ,
P 0 L = A 1 P 0 c A = P 0 c ,
P L L = A 1 P L c A ,
P 1 L = A 1 P 1 c A = P 1 c ,
T c = ( T R R T R L T L R T L L ) and T L = ( T V V T V H T H V T H H ) ,
P k c = ( e i k 0 L k 0 0 e i k 0 L k ) , k = 0 , 1.
P k L = P k c = e j k 0 L k I , k = 0 , 1.
P L c = ( e j γ 11 L 0 0 e j γ 21 L ) .
u 11 = ( γ 11 2 q 2 ) 1 2 = γ 11 cos θ 11 ,
u 21 = ( γ 21 2 q 2 ) 1 2 = γ 21 cos θ 21 .
γ 11 = k 1 1 β 1 k 1 = k 0 ( n 1 j n 1 ) γ 21 = k 1 1 + β 1 k 1 = k 0 ( n 2 j n 2 ) .
q = k 0 sin θ 0 = γ 11 sin θ 11 = γ 21 sin θ 21 .
sin θ 11 c = 1 and sin θ 21 c = 1.
sin θ 10 c = γ 11 k 0 and sin θ 20 c = γ 21 k 0 .
T c = T c 0 + k 1 β 1 T c 0 .
T L = A 1 T c A = ( T V V T V H T H V T H H ) .
R L = ( R V V R V H R H V R H H ) .
T V H = T H V ( Z 0 Z 1 ) = R V H = R H V = 1 2 j β 1 k 1 T 01 H H T 10 V V tan 2 θ 1 1 2 j β 1 k 1 F = j f F / 2.
Z 0 = ( μ 0 ϵ 0 ) 1 2
Z 1 = ( μ 1 ϵ 1 ) 1 2
k 0 sin θ 0 = k 1 sin θ 1 .
O R + j C D = ( γ 1 γ 2 ) l 2 = Re ( γ 1 γ 2 ) l 2 + j Im ( γ 1 γ 2 ) l 2 = k 0 ( n 1 n 2 ) l 2 + j k 0 ( n 1 n 2 ) l 2 .
O R + j C D = k 1 2 β 1 = k 0 2 ( n j n ) 2 ( β 1 + j β 1 ) .
O R + j C D = k 1 2 β 1 .

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