Abstract

We have developed an experimental system for real-time vibrational spectroscopy of molecules in a specific electronic excited state. A synchronized UV light source and a few-cycle visible laser pulse were utilized to prepare and investigate the ultrafast dynamics of molecules in the electronic excited states. A multichannel lock-in amplifier detection system operating in a tandem double lock-in detection mode was used to extract the signal correlated only to the UV and visible pump pulses. Real-time vibrational spectroscopy of chrysene in the triplet state and 1, 3-dihydro-1, 3, 3-trimethyl-6-nitrospiro [2H-1-benzopyran-2, 2-(2H)-indole] in a photochromic state was demonstrated.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  61. S. Tretiak, A. Piryatinski, A. Saxena, R. L. Martin, and A. R. Bishop, “On the existence of photoexcited breathers in conducting polymers,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 233203(2004).
    [CrossRef]
  62. S. Tretiak, A. Saxena, R. L. Martin, and A. R. Bishop, “Photoexcited breathers in conjugated polyenes: an excited-state molecular dynamics study,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 2185–2190 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (7)

I. Iwakura, A. Yabushita, and T. Kobayashi, “Kinetic isotope effect on the proton-transfer in indigo carmine,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 484, 354–357 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Teramoto and T. Kobayashi, “Multiple mode coupling in Cy3 molecules by impulsive coherent vibrational spectroscopy using a few-cycle laser pulse,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12, 13515–13518 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang and T. Kobayashi, “Electronic and vibrational coherence dynamics in a cyanine dye studied using a few cycles pulsed laser,” Chem. Phys. Chem. 11, 889–896 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kobayashi, J. Du, W. Feng, K. Yoshino, S. Tretiak, A. Saxena, and Alan R. Bishop, “Observation of breather excitons and soliton in a substituted polythiophene with a degenerate ground state,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 075205 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Gadermaier, A. S. Alexandrov, V. V. Kabanov, P. Kusar, T. Mertelj, X. Yao, C. Manzoni, D. Brida, G. Cerullo, and D. Mihailovic, “Electron-phonon coupling in high-temperature cuprate superconductors determined from electron relaxation rates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 257001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Virgili, L. Lüer, G. Cerullo, G. Lanzani, S. Stagira, D. Coles, A. J. H. M. Meijer, and D. G. Lidzey, “Role of intramolecular dynamics on intermolecular coupling in cyanine dye,” Phys. Rev. B. 81, 125317 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Kajimoto, A. Mori, and H. Fukumura, “Photo-controlled phase separation and mixing of a mixture of water and 2-butoxyethanol caused by photochromic isomerisation of spiropyran,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 9, 208–210 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (8)

E. C. Carroll, M. P. Hill, D. Madsen, K. R. Malley, and D. S. Larsen, “A single source femtosecond–millisecond broadband spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 026102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Megerle, I. Pugliesi, C. Schriever, C. F. Sailer, and E. Riedle, “Sub-50 fs broadband absorption spectroscopy with tunable excitation: putting the analysis of ultrafast molecular dynamics on solid ground,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 215–231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Bradler, P. Baum, and E. Riedle, “Femtosecond continuum generation in bulk laser host materials with sub-μJ pump pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 561–574 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Fang, R. R. Frontiera, R. Tran, and R. A. Mathies, “Mapping GFP structure evolution during proton transfer with femtosecond Raman spectroscopy,” Nature 462, 200–205 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Iwakura, A. Yabushita, and T. Kobayashi, “Direct observation of molecular structural change during intersystem crossing by real-time spectroscopy with a few optical cycle laser,” Inorg. Chem. 48, 3523–3528 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Iwakura, A. Yabushita, and T. Kobayashi, “Why is indigo photostable over extremely long periods?” Chem. Lett. 38, 1020–1021 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Kobayashi, J. Zhang, and Z. Wang, “Non-Condon vibronic coupling of coherent molecular vibration in MEH-PPV induced by a visible few-cycle pulse laser,” New J. Phys. 11, 013048 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Teramoto, Z. Wang, V. M. Kobryanskii, T. Taneichi, and T. Kobayashi, “Ultrafast real-time vibronic coupling of a breather soliton in trans-polyacetylene using a laser pulse with few cycles,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 033202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (8)

I. Iwakura, A. Yabushita, and T. Kobayashi, “Observation of transition state in Raman triggered oxidation of chloroform in the ground state by real-time vibrational spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 457, 421–426 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Kobayashi, Y. Wang, Z. Wang, and I. Iwakura, “Circa conservation of vibrational energy among three strongly coupled modes of a cyanine dye molecule studied by quantum-beat spectroscopy with a 7 fs laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 466, 50–55 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Kobayashi, J. Du, W. Feng, and K. Yoshino, “Excited-state molecular vibration observed for a probe pulse preceding the pump pulse by real-time optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 037402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kobayashi, Z. Wang, and I. Iwakura, “The relation between the symmetry of vibrational modes and the potential curve displacement associated with electronic transition studied by using real-time vibrational spectroscopy,” New J. Phys. 10, 065009(2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Kobayashi and Z. Wang, “Correlations of instantaneous transition energy and intensity of absorption peaks during molecular vibration: toward potential hyper-surface,” New J. Phys. 10, 065015 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Kobayashi and Z. Wang, “Spectral oscillation in optical frequency-resolved quantum-beat spectroscopy with a few-cycle pulse laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 1232–1241 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Iwai, M. Tanaka, M. Mitsunaga, T. Kobayashi, and E. Tokunaga, “Excited-state absorption spectra for optically forbidden f–f transitions in an Eu3+:Y2SiO5 crystal and Eu3+ aqueous solution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1046–1050 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Takeuchi, S. Ruhman, T. Tsuneda, M. Chiba, T. Taketsugu, and T. Tahara, “Spectroscopic tracking of structural evolution in ultrafast stilbene photoisomerization,” Science 322, 1073–1077 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

D. Polli, L. Lüer, and G. Cerullo, “High-time-resolution pump-probe system with broadband detection for the study of time-domain vibrational dynamics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 103108(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. H. Anderson, S. L. Sewall, R. R. Cooney, and P. Kambhamptati, “Noise analysis and noise reduction methods in kilohertz pump-probe experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 073101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Elsaesser, N. Huse, J. Dreyer, J. R. Dwyer, K. Heyne, and E. T. J. Nibbering, “Ultrafast vibrational dynamics and anharmonic couplings of hydrogen-bonded dimers in solution,” Chem. Phys. 341, 175–188 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J. R. Dwyer, J. Dreyer, E. T. J. Nibbering, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast dynamics of vibrational N–H stretching excitations in the 7-azaindole dimer,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 432, 146–151 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

A. Yu, X. Ye, D. Ionascu, W. Cao, and P. M. Champion, “Two-color pump-probe laser spectroscopy instrument with picosecond time-resolved electronic delay and extended scan range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 114301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Volkov, R. Schanz, and P. Hamm, “Active phase stabilization in Fourier-transform two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2010–2012 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Wohl and D. Kuciauskas, “Excited-state dynamics of spiropyran-derived merocyanine isomers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 22186–22191 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

S. Tretiak, A. Piryatinski, A. Saxena, R. L. Martin, and A. R. Bishop, “On the existence of photoexcited breathers in conducting polymers,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 233203(2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Ishii, E. Tokunaga, S. Adachi, T. Kimura, H. Matsuda, and T. Kobayashi, “Optical frequency- and vibrational time-resolved two-dimensional spectroscopy by real-time impulsive resonant coherent Raman scattering in polydiacetylene,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 023811 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Heyne, N. Huse, J. Dreyer, E. T. J. Nibbering, and T. Elsaesser, “Coherent low-frequency motions of hydrogen bonded acetic acid dimers in the liquid phase,” J. Chem. Phys. 121, 902–913(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Champion, F. Rosca, D. Ionascu, W. Cao, and X. Ye, “Rapid timescale processes and the role of electronic surface coupling in the photolysis of diatomic ligands from heme proteins,” Faraday Disc. 127, 123–135 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

D. S. Larsen, E. Papagiannakis, I. H. M. van Stokkum, M. Vengris, J. T. M. Kennis, and R. van Grondelle, “Excited state dynamics of beta-carotene explored with dispersed multi-pulse transient absorption,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 381, 733–742 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Tretiak, A. Saxena, R. L. Martin, and A. R. Bishop, “Photoexcited breathers in conjugated polyenes: an excited-state molecular dynamics study,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 2185–2190 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Futami, M. Lim, S. Chin, S. Kudoh, M. Takayanagi, and M. Nakata, “Conformations of nitro-substituted spiropyran and merocyanine studied by low-temperature matrix-isolation infrared spectroscopy and density-functional-theory calculation,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 370, 460–468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Cai, M. Hara, K. Kawai, S. Tojo, and T. Majima, “Properties of chrysene in the higher triplet excited state,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 368, 365–369 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

A. Baltuska, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Visible pulse compression to 4 fs by optical parametric amplification and programmable dispersion control,” Opt. Lett. 27, 306–308 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Adachi, V. M. Kobryanskii, and T. Kobayashi, “Excitation of a breather mode of bound soliton pairs in polymers with degenerate ground state by sub-5 fs optical pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 027401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

A. T. N. Kumar, F. Rosca, A. Widom, and P. M. Champion, “Investigations of ultrafast nuclear response induced by resonant and nonresonant laser pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 114, 701–724(2001).
[CrossRef]

A. T. N. Kumar, F. Rosca, A. Widom, and P. M. Champion, “Investigations of ultrafast nuclear response induced by resonant and nonresonant laser pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 114, 6795–6815(2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

S. Lochbrunner, A. J. Wurzer, and E. Riedle, “Ultrafast excited-state proton transfer and subsequent coherent skeletal motion of 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl) benzothiazole,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 10699–10702 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Irie, “Diarylethenes for memories and switches,” Chem. Rev. 100, 1685–1716 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Berkovic, V. Krongauz, and V. Weiss, “Spiropyrans and spirooxazines for memories and switches,” Chem. Rev. 100, 1741–1753 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata and Y. Kawata, “Three-dimensional optical data storage using photochromic materials,” Chem. Rev. 100, 1777–1788(2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. Yoshizawa and M. Kurosawa, “Femtosecond time-resolved Raman spectroscopy using stimulated Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 013808 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

L. Zhu, A. Widom, and P. M. Champion, “A multidimensional Landau–Zener description of chemical reaction dynamics and vibrational coherence,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 2859–2871 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Pollard, S. L. Dexheimer, Q. Wang, L. A. Peteanu, C. V. Shank, and R. A. Mathies, “Theory of dynamic absorption spectroscopy of nonstationary states. 4. application to 12 fs resonant impulsive Raman spectroscopy of bacteriorhodopsin,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 6147–6158 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

D. M. Jonas, S. E. Bradforth, S. A. Passino, and G. R. Fleming, “Femtosecond wavepacket spectroscopy: influence of temperature, wavelength, and pulse duration,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 2594–2608 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Mukamel, Principles of Nonlinear Optical Spectroscopy(Oxford University Press, 1995).

1994 (2)

L. Dhar, J. A. Rogers, and K. A. Nelson, “Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy in the impulsive limit,” Chem. Rev. 94, 157–193 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Yoshizawa, Y. Hattori, and T. Kobayashi, “Femtosecond time-resolved resonance Raman gain spectroscopy in polydiacetylene,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 13259–13262 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

W. D. Tian, J. T. Sage, V. Srajer, and P. M. Champion, “Relaxation dynamics of myoglobin in solution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 408–411 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

J. Chesnoy and A. Mokhtari, “Resonant impulsive-stimulated Raman scattering on malachite green,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 3566–3576 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (2)

S. Koshihara and T. Kobayashi, “Time-resolved resonance Raman spectrum of chrysene in the S1 and T1 states,” J. Chem. Phys. 85, 1211–1219 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. Koshihara, T. Kobayashi, and S. Iwashima, “Sn←S1 and Tn←T1 absorption spectra of highly purified chrysene in solution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 124, 331–335 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

J. Goree, “Double lock‐in detection for recovering weak coherent radio frequency signals,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 56, 1662–1664(1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley-Interscience, 1984).

1971 (1)

G. H. Brown, Photochromism (Wiley-Interscience, 1971).

Adachi, S.

N. Ishii, E. Tokunaga, S. Adachi, T. Kimura, H. Matsuda, and T. Kobayashi, “Optical frequency- and vibrational time-resolved two-dimensional spectroscopy by real-time impulsive resonant coherent Raman scattering in polydiacetylene,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 023811 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Adachi, V. M. Kobryanskii, and T. Kobayashi, “Excitation of a breather mode of bound soliton pairs in polymers with degenerate ground state by sub-5 fs optical pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 027401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alexandrov, A. S.

C. Gadermaier, A. S. Alexandrov, V. V. Kabanov, P. Kusar, T. Mertelj, X. Yao, C. Manzoni, D. Brida, G. Cerullo, and D. Mihailovic, “Electron-phonon coupling in high-temperature cuprate superconductors determined from electron relaxation rates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 257001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, K. E. H.

K. E. H. Anderson, S. L. Sewall, R. R. Cooney, and P. Kambhamptati, “Noise analysis and noise reduction methods in kilohertz pump-probe experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 073101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baltuska, A.

Baum, P.

M. Bradler, P. Baum, and E. Riedle, “Femtosecond continuum generation in bulk laser host materials with sub-μJ pump pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 561–574 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Berkovic, G.

G. Berkovic, V. Krongauz, and V. Weiss, “Spiropyrans and spirooxazines for memories and switches,” Chem. Rev. 100, 1741–1753 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bishop, A. R.

S. Tretiak, A. Piryatinski, A. Saxena, R. L. Martin, and A. R. Bishop, “On the existence of photoexcited breathers in conducting polymers,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 233203(2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Tretiak, A. Saxena, R. L. Martin, and A. R. Bishop, “Photoexcited breathers in conjugated polyenes: an excited-state molecular dynamics study,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 2185–2190 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bishop, Alan R.

T. Kobayashi, J. Du, W. Feng, K. Yoshino, S. Tretiak, A. Saxena, and Alan R. Bishop, “Observation of breather excitons and soliton in a substituted polythiophene with a degenerate ground state,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 075205 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bradforth, S. E.

D. M. Jonas, S. E. Bradforth, S. A. Passino, and G. R. Fleming, “Femtosecond wavepacket spectroscopy: influence of temperature, wavelength, and pulse duration,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 2594–2608 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bradler, M.

M. Bradler, P. Baum, and E. Riedle, “Femtosecond continuum generation in bulk laser host materials with sub-μJ pump pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 561–574 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brida, D.

C. Gadermaier, A. S. Alexandrov, V. V. Kabanov, P. Kusar, T. Mertelj, X. Yao, C. Manzoni, D. Brida, G. Cerullo, and D. Mihailovic, “Electron-phonon coupling in high-temperature cuprate superconductors determined from electron relaxation rates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 257001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brown, G. H.

G. H. Brown, Photochromism (Wiley-Interscience, 1971).

Cai, X.

X. Cai, M. Hara, K. Kawai, S. Tojo, and T. Majima, “Properties of chrysene in the higher triplet excited state,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 368, 365–369 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W.

A. Yu, X. Ye, D. Ionascu, W. Cao, and P. M. Champion, “Two-color pump-probe laser spectroscopy instrument with picosecond time-resolved electronic delay and extended scan range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 114301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Champion, F. Rosca, D. Ionascu, W. Cao, and X. Ye, “Rapid timescale processes and the role of electronic surface coupling in the photolysis of diatomic ligands from heme proteins,” Faraday Disc. 127, 123–135 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Carroll, E. C.

E. C. Carroll, M. P. Hill, D. Madsen, K. R. Malley, and D. S. Larsen, “A single source femtosecond–millisecond broadband spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 026102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerullo, G.

C. Gadermaier, A. S. Alexandrov, V. V. Kabanov, P. Kusar, T. Mertelj, X. Yao, C. Manzoni, D. Brida, G. Cerullo, and D. Mihailovic, “Electron-phonon coupling in high-temperature cuprate superconductors determined from electron relaxation rates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 257001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Virgili, L. Lüer, G. Cerullo, G. Lanzani, S. Stagira, D. Coles, A. J. H. M. Meijer, and D. G. Lidzey, “Role of intramolecular dynamics on intermolecular coupling in cyanine dye,” Phys. Rev. B. 81, 125317 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Polli, L. Lüer, and G. Cerullo, “High-time-resolution pump-probe system with broadband detection for the study of time-domain vibrational dynamics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 103108(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Champion, P. M.

A. Yu, X. Ye, D. Ionascu, W. Cao, and P. M. Champion, “Two-color pump-probe laser spectroscopy instrument with picosecond time-resolved electronic delay and extended scan range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 114301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Champion, F. Rosca, D. Ionascu, W. Cao, and X. Ye, “Rapid timescale processes and the role of electronic surface coupling in the photolysis of diatomic ligands from heme proteins,” Faraday Disc. 127, 123–135 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. T. N. Kumar, F. Rosca, A. Widom, and P. M. Champion, “Investigations of ultrafast nuclear response induced by resonant and nonresonant laser pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 114, 6795–6815(2001).
[CrossRef]

A. T. N. Kumar, F. Rosca, A. Widom, and P. M. Champion, “Investigations of ultrafast nuclear response induced by resonant and nonresonant laser pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 114, 701–724(2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhu, A. Widom, and P. M. Champion, “A multidimensional Landau–Zener description of chemical reaction dynamics and vibrational coherence,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 2859–2871 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Tian, J. T. Sage, V. Srajer, and P. M. Champion, “Relaxation dynamics of myoglobin in solution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 408–411 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chesnoy, J.

J. Chesnoy and A. Mokhtari, “Resonant impulsive-stimulated Raman scattering on malachite green,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 3566–3576 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiba, M.

S. Takeuchi, S. Ruhman, T. Tsuneda, M. Chiba, T. Taketsugu, and T. Tahara, “Spectroscopic tracking of structural evolution in ultrafast stilbene photoisomerization,” Science 322, 1073–1077 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin, S.

Y. Futami, M. Lim, S. Chin, S. Kudoh, M. Takayanagi, and M. Nakata, “Conformations of nitro-substituted spiropyran and merocyanine studied by low-temperature matrix-isolation infrared spectroscopy and density-functional-theory calculation,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 370, 460–468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Coles, D.

T. Virgili, L. Lüer, G. Cerullo, G. Lanzani, S. Stagira, D. Coles, A. J. H. M. Meijer, and D. G. Lidzey, “Role of intramolecular dynamics on intermolecular coupling in cyanine dye,” Phys. Rev. B. 81, 125317 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cooney, R. R.

K. E. H. Anderson, S. L. Sewall, R. R. Cooney, and P. Kambhamptati, “Noise analysis and noise reduction methods in kilohertz pump-probe experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 073101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dexheimer, S. L.

W. T. Pollard, S. L. Dexheimer, Q. Wang, L. A. Peteanu, C. V. Shank, and R. A. Mathies, “Theory of dynamic absorption spectroscopy of nonstationary states. 4. application to 12 fs resonant impulsive Raman spectroscopy of bacteriorhodopsin,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 6147–6158 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dhar, L.

L. Dhar, J. A. Rogers, and K. A. Nelson, “Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy in the impulsive limit,” Chem. Rev. 94, 157–193 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dreyer, J.

T. Elsaesser, N. Huse, J. Dreyer, J. R. Dwyer, K. Heyne, and E. T. J. Nibbering, “Ultrafast vibrational dynamics and anharmonic couplings of hydrogen-bonded dimers in solution,” Chem. Phys. 341, 175–188 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Dwyer, J. Dreyer, E. T. J. Nibbering, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast dynamics of vibrational N–H stretching excitations in the 7-azaindole dimer,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 432, 146–151 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Heyne, N. Huse, J. Dreyer, E. T. J. Nibbering, and T. Elsaesser, “Coherent low-frequency motions of hydrogen bonded acetic acid dimers in the liquid phase,” J. Chem. Phys. 121, 902–913(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Du, J.

T. Kobayashi, J. Du, W. Feng, K. Yoshino, S. Tretiak, A. Saxena, and Alan R. Bishop, “Observation of breather excitons and soliton in a substituted polythiophene with a degenerate ground state,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 075205 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Kobayashi, J. Du, W. Feng, and K. Yoshino, “Excited-state molecular vibration observed for a probe pulse preceding the pump pulse by real-time optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 037402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dwyer, J. R.

T. Elsaesser, N. Huse, J. Dreyer, J. R. Dwyer, K. Heyne, and E. T. J. Nibbering, “Ultrafast vibrational dynamics and anharmonic couplings of hydrogen-bonded dimers in solution,” Chem. Phys. 341, 175–188 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Dwyer, J. Dreyer, E. T. J. Nibbering, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast dynamics of vibrational N–H stretching excitations in the 7-azaindole dimer,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 432, 146–151 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Elsaesser, T.

T. Elsaesser, N. Huse, J. Dreyer, J. R. Dwyer, K. Heyne, and E. T. J. Nibbering, “Ultrafast vibrational dynamics and anharmonic couplings of hydrogen-bonded dimers in solution,” Chem. Phys. 341, 175–188 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Dwyer, J. Dreyer, E. T. J. Nibbering, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast dynamics of vibrational N–H stretching excitations in the 7-azaindole dimer,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 432, 146–151 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Heyne, N. Huse, J. Dreyer, E. T. J. Nibbering, and T. Elsaesser, “Coherent low-frequency motions of hydrogen bonded acetic acid dimers in the liquid phase,” J. Chem. Phys. 121, 902–913(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, C.

C. Fang, R. R. Frontiera, R. Tran, and R. A. Mathies, “Mapping GFP structure evolution during proton transfer with femtosecond Raman spectroscopy,” Nature 462, 200–205 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, W.

T. Kobayashi, J. Du, W. Feng, K. Yoshino, S. Tretiak, A. Saxena, and Alan R. Bishop, “Observation of breather excitons and soliton in a substituted polythiophene with a degenerate ground state,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 075205 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Kobayashi, J. Du, W. Feng, and K. Yoshino, “Excited-state molecular vibration observed for a probe pulse preceding the pump pulse by real-time optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 037402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleming, G. R.

D. M. Jonas, S. E. Bradforth, S. A. Passino, and G. R. Fleming, “Femtosecond wavepacket spectroscopy: influence of temperature, wavelength, and pulse duration,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 2594–2608 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Frontiera, R. R.

C. Fang, R. R. Frontiera, R. Tran, and R. A. Mathies, “Mapping GFP structure evolution during proton transfer with femtosecond Raman spectroscopy,” Nature 462, 200–205 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuji, T.

Fukumura, H.

S. Kajimoto, A. Mori, and H. Fukumura, “Photo-controlled phase separation and mixing of a mixture of water and 2-butoxyethanol caused by photochromic isomerisation of spiropyran,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 9, 208–210 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Futami, Y.

Y. Futami, M. Lim, S. Chin, S. Kudoh, M. Takayanagi, and M. Nakata, “Conformations of nitro-substituted spiropyran and merocyanine studied by low-temperature matrix-isolation infrared spectroscopy and density-functional-theory calculation,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 370, 460–468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gadermaier, C.

C. Gadermaier, A. S. Alexandrov, V. V. Kabanov, P. Kusar, T. Mertelj, X. Yao, C. Manzoni, D. Brida, G. Cerullo, and D. Mihailovic, “Electron-phonon coupling in high-temperature cuprate superconductors determined from electron relaxation rates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 257001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Goree, J.

J. Goree, “Double lock‐in detection for recovering weak coherent radio frequency signals,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 56, 1662–1664(1985).
[CrossRef]

Hamm, P.

Hara, M.

X. Cai, M. Hara, K. Kawai, S. Tojo, and T. Majima, “Properties of chrysene in the higher triplet excited state,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 368, 365–369 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hattori, Y.

M. Yoshizawa, Y. Hattori, and T. Kobayashi, “Femtosecond time-resolved resonance Raman gain spectroscopy in polydiacetylene,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 13259–13262 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Heyne, K.

T. Elsaesser, N. Huse, J. Dreyer, J. R. Dwyer, K. Heyne, and E. T. J. Nibbering, “Ultrafast vibrational dynamics and anharmonic couplings of hydrogen-bonded dimers in solution,” Chem. Phys. 341, 175–188 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Heyne, N. Huse, J. Dreyer, E. T. J. Nibbering, and T. Elsaesser, “Coherent low-frequency motions of hydrogen bonded acetic acid dimers in the liquid phase,” J. Chem. Phys. 121, 902–913(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hill, M. P.

E. C. Carroll, M. P. Hill, D. Madsen, K. R. Malley, and D. S. Larsen, “A single source femtosecond–millisecond broadband spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 026102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huse, N.

T. Elsaesser, N. Huse, J. Dreyer, J. R. Dwyer, K. Heyne, and E. T. J. Nibbering, “Ultrafast vibrational dynamics and anharmonic couplings of hydrogen-bonded dimers in solution,” Chem. Phys. 341, 175–188 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Heyne, N. Huse, J. Dreyer, E. T. J. Nibbering, and T. Elsaesser, “Coherent low-frequency motions of hydrogen bonded acetic acid dimers in the liquid phase,” J. Chem. Phys. 121, 902–913(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ionascu, D.

A. Yu, X. Ye, D. Ionascu, W. Cao, and P. M. Champion, “Two-color pump-probe laser spectroscopy instrument with picosecond time-resolved electronic delay and extended scan range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 114301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Champion, F. Rosca, D. Ionascu, W. Cao, and X. Ye, “Rapid timescale processes and the role of electronic surface coupling in the photolysis of diatomic ligands from heme proteins,” Faraday Disc. 127, 123–135 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Irie, M.

M. Irie, “Diarylethenes for memories and switches,” Chem. Rev. 100, 1685–1716 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ishii, N.

N. Ishii, E. Tokunaga, S. Adachi, T. Kimura, H. Matsuda, and T. Kobayashi, “Optical frequency- and vibrational time-resolved two-dimensional spectroscopy by real-time impulsive resonant coherent Raman scattering in polydiacetylene,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 023811 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Iwai, S.

Iwakura, I.

I. Iwakura, A. Yabushita, and T. Kobayashi, “Kinetic isotope effect on the proton-transfer in indigo carmine,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 484, 354–357 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Iwakura, A. Yabushita, and T. Kobayashi, “Direct observation of molecular structural change during intersystem crossing by real-time spectroscopy with a few optical cycle laser,” Inorg. Chem. 48, 3523–3528 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Iwakura, A. Yabushita, and T. Kobayashi, “Why is indigo photostable over extremely long periods?” Chem. Lett. 38, 1020–1021 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Iwakura, A. Yabushita, and T. Kobayashi, “Observation of transition state in Raman triggered oxidation of chloroform in the ground state by real-time vibrational spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 457, 421–426 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Kobayashi, Y. Wang, Z. Wang, and I. Iwakura, “Circa conservation of vibrational energy among three strongly coupled modes of a cyanine dye molecule studied by quantum-beat spectroscopy with a 7 fs laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 466, 50–55 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Kobayashi, Z. Wang, and I. Iwakura, “The relation between the symmetry of vibrational modes and the potential curve displacement associated with electronic transition studied by using real-time vibrational spectroscopy,” New J. Phys. 10, 065009(2008).
[CrossRef]

Iwashima, S.

S. Koshihara, T. Kobayashi, and S. Iwashima, “Sn←S1 and Tn←T1 absorption spectra of highly purified chrysene in solution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 124, 331–335 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Jonas, D. M.

D. M. Jonas, S. E. Bradforth, S. A. Passino, and G. R. Fleming, “Femtosecond wavepacket spectroscopy: influence of temperature, wavelength, and pulse duration,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 2594–2608 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kabanov, V. V.

C. Gadermaier, A. S. Alexandrov, V. V. Kabanov, P. Kusar, T. Mertelj, X. Yao, C. Manzoni, D. Brida, G. Cerullo, and D. Mihailovic, “Electron-phonon coupling in high-temperature cuprate superconductors determined from electron relaxation rates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 257001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kajimoto, S.

S. Kajimoto, A. Mori, and H. Fukumura, “Photo-controlled phase separation and mixing of a mixture of water and 2-butoxyethanol caused by photochromic isomerisation of spiropyran,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 9, 208–210 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kambhamptati, P.

K. E. H. Anderson, S. L. Sewall, R. R. Cooney, and P. Kambhamptati, “Noise analysis and noise reduction methods in kilohertz pump-probe experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 073101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawai, K.

X. Cai, M. Hara, K. Kawai, S. Tojo, and T. Majima, “Properties of chrysene in the higher triplet excited state,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 368, 365–369 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

S. Kawata and Y. Kawata, “Three-dimensional optical data storage using photochromic materials,” Chem. Rev. 100, 1777–1788(2000).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, Y.

S. Kawata and Y. Kawata, “Three-dimensional optical data storage using photochromic materials,” Chem. Rev. 100, 1777–1788(2000).
[CrossRef]

Kennis, J. T. M.

D. S. Larsen, E. Papagiannakis, I. H. M. van Stokkum, M. Vengris, J. T. M. Kennis, and R. van Grondelle, “Excited state dynamics of beta-carotene explored with dispersed multi-pulse transient absorption,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 381, 733–742 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, T.

N. Ishii, E. Tokunaga, S. Adachi, T. Kimura, H. Matsuda, and T. Kobayashi, “Optical frequency- and vibrational time-resolved two-dimensional spectroscopy by real-time impulsive resonant coherent Raman scattering in polydiacetylene,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 023811 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

T. Teramoto and T. Kobayashi, “Multiple mode coupling in Cy3 molecules by impulsive coherent vibrational spectroscopy using a few-cycle laser pulse,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12, 13515–13518 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang and T. Kobayashi, “Electronic and vibrational coherence dynamics in a cyanine dye studied using a few cycles pulsed laser,” Chem. Phys. Chem. 11, 889–896 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kobayashi, J. Du, W. Feng, K. Yoshino, S. Tretiak, A. Saxena, and Alan R. Bishop, “Observation of breather excitons and soliton in a substituted polythiophene with a degenerate ground state,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 075205 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Iwakura, A. Yabushita, and T. Kobayashi, “Kinetic isotope effect on the proton-transfer in indigo carmine,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 484, 354–357 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Teramoto, Z. Wang, V. M. Kobryanskii, T. Taneichi, and T. Kobayashi, “Ultrafast real-time vibronic coupling of a breather soliton in trans-polyacetylene using a laser pulse with few cycles,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 033202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Iwakura, A. Yabushita, and T. Kobayashi, “Why is indigo photostable over extremely long periods?” Chem. Lett. 38, 1020–1021 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Kobayashi, J. Zhang, and Z. Wang, “Non-Condon vibronic coupling of coherent molecular vibration in MEH-PPV induced by a visible few-cycle pulse laser,” New J. Phys. 11, 013048 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Iwakura, A. Yabushita, and T. Kobayashi, “Direct observation of molecular structural change during intersystem crossing by real-time spectroscopy with a few optical cycle laser,” Inorg. Chem. 48, 3523–3528 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Iwakura, A. Yabushita, and T. Kobayashi, “Observation of transition state in Raman triggered oxidation of chloroform in the ground state by real-time vibrational spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 457, 421–426 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Kobayashi and Z. Wang, “Correlations of instantaneous transition energy and intensity of absorption peaks during molecular vibration: toward potential hyper-surface,” New J. Phys. 10, 065015 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Kobayashi and Z. Wang, “Spectral oscillation in optical frequency-resolved quantum-beat spectroscopy with a few-cycle pulse laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 1232–1241 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Kobayashi, Z. Wang, and I. Iwakura, “The relation between the symmetry of vibrational modes and the potential curve displacement associated with electronic transition studied by using real-time vibrational spectroscopy,” New J. Phys. 10, 065009(2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Kobayashi, J. Du, W. Feng, and K. Yoshino, “Excited-state molecular vibration observed for a probe pulse preceding the pump pulse by real-time optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 037402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kobayashi, Y. Wang, Z. Wang, and I. Iwakura, “Circa conservation of vibrational energy among three strongly coupled modes of a cyanine dye molecule studied by quantum-beat spectroscopy with a 7 fs laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 466, 50–55 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Iwai, M. Tanaka, M. Mitsunaga, T. Kobayashi, and E. Tokunaga, “Excited-state absorption spectra for optically forbidden f–f transitions in an Eu3+:Y2SiO5 crystal and Eu3+ aqueous solution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1046–1050 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Ishii, E. Tokunaga, S. Adachi, T. Kimura, H. Matsuda, and T. Kobayashi, “Optical frequency- and vibrational time-resolved two-dimensional spectroscopy by real-time impulsive resonant coherent Raman scattering in polydiacetylene,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 023811 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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T. Kobayashi and Z. Wang, “Correlations of instantaneous transition energy and intensity of absorption peaks during molecular vibration: toward potential hyper-surface,” New J. Phys. 10, 065015 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, V.

G. Berkovic, V. Krongauz, and V. Weiss, “Spiropyrans and spirooxazines for memories and switches,” Chem. Rev. 100, 1741–1753 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Widom, A.

A. T. N. Kumar, F. Rosca, A. Widom, and P. M. Champion, “Investigations of ultrafast nuclear response induced by resonant and nonresonant laser pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 114, 701–724(2001).
[CrossRef]

A. T. N. Kumar, F. Rosca, A. Widom, and P. M. Champion, “Investigations of ultrafast nuclear response induced by resonant and nonresonant laser pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 114, 6795–6815(2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhu, A. Widom, and P. M. Champion, “A multidimensional Landau–Zener description of chemical reaction dynamics and vibrational coherence,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 2859–2871 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wohl, C. J.

C. J. Wohl and D. Kuciauskas, “Excited-state dynamics of spiropyran-derived merocyanine isomers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 22186–22191 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wurzer, A. J.

S. Lochbrunner, A. J. Wurzer, and E. Riedle, “Ultrafast excited-state proton transfer and subsequent coherent skeletal motion of 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl) benzothiazole,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 10699–10702 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yabushita, A.

I. Iwakura, A. Yabushita, and T. Kobayashi, “Kinetic isotope effect on the proton-transfer in indigo carmine,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 484, 354–357 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Iwakura, A. Yabushita, and T. Kobayashi, “Why is indigo photostable over extremely long periods?” Chem. Lett. 38, 1020–1021 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Iwakura, A. Yabushita, and T. Kobayashi, “Direct observation of molecular structural change during intersystem crossing by real-time spectroscopy with a few optical cycle laser,” Inorg. Chem. 48, 3523–3528 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Iwakura, A. Yabushita, and T. Kobayashi, “Observation of transition state in Raman triggered oxidation of chloroform in the ground state by real-time vibrational spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 457, 421–426 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yao, X.

C. Gadermaier, A. S. Alexandrov, V. V. Kabanov, P. Kusar, T. Mertelj, X. Yao, C. Manzoni, D. Brida, G. Cerullo, and D. Mihailovic, “Electron-phonon coupling in high-temperature cuprate superconductors determined from electron relaxation rates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 257001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ye, X.

A. Yu, X. Ye, D. Ionascu, W. Cao, and P. M. Champion, “Two-color pump-probe laser spectroscopy instrument with picosecond time-resolved electronic delay and extended scan range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 114301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Champion, F. Rosca, D. Ionascu, W. Cao, and X. Ye, “Rapid timescale processes and the role of electronic surface coupling in the photolysis of diatomic ligands from heme proteins,” Faraday Disc. 127, 123–135 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

T. Kobayashi, J. Du, W. Feng, K. Yoshino, S. Tretiak, A. Saxena, and Alan R. Bishop, “Observation of breather excitons and soliton in a substituted polythiophene with a degenerate ground state,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 075205 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Kobayashi, J. Du, W. Feng, and K. Yoshino, “Excited-state molecular vibration observed for a probe pulse preceding the pump pulse by real-time optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 037402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshizawa, M.

M. Yoshizawa and M. Kurosawa, “Femtosecond time-resolved Raman spectroscopy using stimulated Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 013808 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Yoshizawa, Y. Hattori, and T. Kobayashi, “Femtosecond time-resolved resonance Raman gain spectroscopy in polydiacetylene,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 13259–13262 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yu, A.

A. Yu, X. Ye, D. Ionascu, W. Cao, and P. M. Champion, “Two-color pump-probe laser spectroscopy instrument with picosecond time-resolved electronic delay and extended scan range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 114301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

T. Kobayashi, J. Zhang, and Z. Wang, “Non-Condon vibronic coupling of coherent molecular vibration in MEH-PPV induced by a visible few-cycle pulse laser,” New J. Phys. 11, 013048 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, L.

L. Zhu, A. Widom, and P. M. Champion, “A multidimensional Landau–Zener description of chemical reaction dynamics and vibrational coherence,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 2859–2871 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

U. Megerle, I. Pugliesi, C. Schriever, C. F. Sailer, and E. Riedle, “Sub-50 fs broadband absorption spectroscopy with tunable excitation: putting the analysis of ultrafast molecular dynamics on solid ground,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 215–231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Bradler, P. Baum, and E. Riedle, “Femtosecond continuum generation in bulk laser host materials with sub-μJ pump pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 561–574 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Lett. (1)

I. Iwakura, A. Yabushita, and T. Kobayashi, “Why is indigo photostable over extremely long periods?” Chem. Lett. 38, 1020–1021 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. (1)

T. Elsaesser, N. Huse, J. Dreyer, J. R. Dwyer, K. Heyne, and E. T. J. Nibbering, “Ultrafast vibrational dynamics and anharmonic couplings of hydrogen-bonded dimers in solution,” Chem. Phys. 341, 175–188 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Chem. (1)

Y. Wang and T. Kobayashi, “Electronic and vibrational coherence dynamics in a cyanine dye studied using a few cycles pulsed laser,” Chem. Phys. Chem. 11, 889–896 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (8)

I. Iwakura, A. Yabushita, and T. Kobayashi, “Kinetic isotope effect on the proton-transfer in indigo carmine,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 484, 354–357 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Iwakura, A. Yabushita, and T. Kobayashi, “Observation of transition state in Raman triggered oxidation of chloroform in the ground state by real-time vibrational spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 457, 421–426 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Dwyer, J. Dreyer, E. T. J. Nibbering, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast dynamics of vibrational N–H stretching excitations in the 7-azaindole dimer,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 432, 146–151 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Larsen, E. Papagiannakis, I. H. M. van Stokkum, M. Vengris, J. T. M. Kennis, and R. van Grondelle, “Excited state dynamics of beta-carotene explored with dispersed multi-pulse transient absorption,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 381, 733–742 (2003).
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T. Kobayashi, Y. Wang, Z. Wang, and I. Iwakura, “Circa conservation of vibrational energy among three strongly coupled modes of a cyanine dye molecule studied by quantum-beat spectroscopy with a 7 fs laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 466, 50–55 (2008).
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Y. Futami, M. Lim, S. Chin, S. Kudoh, M. Takayanagi, and M. Nakata, “Conformations of nitro-substituted spiropyran and merocyanine studied by low-temperature matrix-isolation infrared spectroscopy and density-functional-theory calculation,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 370, 460–468 (2003).
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Chem. Rev. (4)

M. Irie, “Diarylethenes for memories and switches,” Chem. Rev. 100, 1685–1716 (2000).
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[CrossRef]

S. Kawata and Y. Kawata, “Three-dimensional optical data storage using photochromic materials,” Chem. Rev. 100, 1777–1788(2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Dhar, J. A. Rogers, and K. A. Nelson, “Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy in the impulsive limit,” Chem. Rev. 94, 157–193 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Faraday Disc. (1)

P. M. Champion, F. Rosca, D. Ionascu, W. Cao, and X. Ye, “Rapid timescale processes and the role of electronic surface coupling in the photolysis of diatomic ligands from heme proteins,” Faraday Disc. 127, 123–135 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Kobayashi and Z. Wang, “Spectral oscillation in optical frequency-resolved quantum-beat spectroscopy with a few-cycle pulse laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 1232–1241 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Inorg. Chem. (1)

I. Iwakura, A. Yabushita, and T. Kobayashi, “Direct observation of molecular structural change during intersystem crossing by real-time spectroscopy with a few optical cycle laser,” Inorg. Chem. 48, 3523–3528 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chem. Phys. (6)

K. Heyne, N. Huse, J. Dreyer, E. T. J. Nibbering, and T. Elsaesser, “Coherent low-frequency motions of hydrogen bonded acetic acid dimers in the liquid phase,” J. Chem. Phys. 121, 902–913(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zhu, A. Widom, and P. M. Champion, “A multidimensional Landau–Zener description of chemical reaction dynamics and vibrational coherence,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 2859–2871 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Lochbrunner, A. J. Wurzer, and E. Riedle, “Ultrafast excited-state proton transfer and subsequent coherent skeletal motion of 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl) benzothiazole,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 10699–10702 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. T. N. Kumar, F. Rosca, A. Widom, and P. M. Champion, “Investigations of ultrafast nuclear response induced by resonant and nonresonant laser pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 114, 701–724(2001).
[CrossRef]

A. T. N. Kumar, F. Rosca, A. Widom, and P. M. Champion, “Investigations of ultrafast nuclear response induced by resonant and nonresonant laser pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 114, 6795–6815(2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Koshihara and T. Kobayashi, “Time-resolved resonance Raman spectrum of chrysene in the S1 and T1 states,” J. Chem. Phys. 85, 1211–1219 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

C. J. Wohl and D. Kuciauskas, “Excited-state dynamics of spiropyran-derived merocyanine isomers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 22186–22191 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

C. Fang, R. R. Frontiera, R. Tran, and R. A. Mathies, “Mapping GFP structure evolution during proton transfer with femtosecond Raman spectroscopy,” Nature 462, 200–205 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (3)

T. Kobayashi, Z. Wang, and I. Iwakura, “The relation between the symmetry of vibrational modes and the potential curve displacement associated with electronic transition studied by using real-time vibrational spectroscopy,” New J. Phys. 10, 065009(2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Kobayashi and Z. Wang, “Correlations of instantaneous transition energy and intensity of absorption peaks during molecular vibration: toward potential hyper-surface,” New J. Phys. 10, 065015 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Kobayashi, J. Zhang, and Z. Wang, “Non-Condon vibronic coupling of coherent molecular vibration in MEH-PPV induced by a visible few-cycle pulse laser,” New J. Phys. 11, 013048 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. (1)

S. Kajimoto, A. Mori, and H. Fukumura, “Photo-controlled phase separation and mixing of a mixture of water and 2-butoxyethanol caused by photochromic isomerisation of spiropyran,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 9, 208–210 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

T. Teramoto and T. Kobayashi, “Multiple mode coupling in Cy3 molecules by impulsive coherent vibrational spectroscopy using a few-cycle laser pulse,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12, 13515–13518 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A (3)

M. Yoshizawa and M. Kurosawa, “Femtosecond time-resolved Raman spectroscopy using stimulated Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 013808 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Chesnoy and A. Mokhtari, “Resonant impulsive-stimulated Raman scattering on malachite green,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 3566–3576 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ishii, E. Tokunaga, S. Adachi, T. Kimura, H. Matsuda, and T. Kobayashi, “Optical frequency- and vibrational time-resolved two-dimensional spectroscopy by real-time impulsive resonant coherent Raman scattering in polydiacetylene,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 023811 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (4)

S. Tretiak, A. Piryatinski, A. Saxena, R. L. Martin, and A. R. Bishop, “On the existence of photoexcited breathers in conducting polymers,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 233203(2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Yoshizawa, Y. Hattori, and T. Kobayashi, “Femtosecond time-resolved resonance Raman gain spectroscopy in polydiacetylene,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 13259–13262 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Kobayashi, J. Du, W. Feng, K. Yoshino, S. Tretiak, A. Saxena, and Alan R. Bishop, “Observation of breather excitons and soliton in a substituted polythiophene with a degenerate ground state,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 075205 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Teramoto, Z. Wang, V. M. Kobryanskii, T. Taneichi, and T. Kobayashi, “Ultrafast real-time vibronic coupling of a breather soliton in trans-polyacetylene using a laser pulse with few cycles,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 033202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B. (1)

T. Virgili, L. Lüer, G. Cerullo, G. Lanzani, S. Stagira, D. Coles, A. J. H. M. Meijer, and D. G. Lidzey, “Role of intramolecular dynamics on intermolecular coupling in cyanine dye,” Phys. Rev. B. 81, 125317 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gadermaier, A. S. Alexandrov, V. V. Kabanov, P. Kusar, T. Mertelj, X. Yao, C. Manzoni, D. Brida, G. Cerullo, and D. Mihailovic, “Electron-phonon coupling in high-temperature cuprate superconductors determined from electron relaxation rates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 257001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Adachi, V. M. Kobryanskii, and T. Kobayashi, “Excitation of a breather mode of bound soliton pairs in polymers with degenerate ground state by sub-5 fs optical pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 027401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kobayashi, J. Du, W. Feng, and K. Yoshino, “Excited-state molecular vibration observed for a probe pulse preceding the pump pulse by real-time optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 037402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

S. Tretiak, A. Saxena, R. L. Martin, and A. R. Bishop, “Photoexcited breathers in conjugated polyenes: an excited-state molecular dynamics study,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 2185–2190 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (5)

D. Polli, L. Lüer, and G. Cerullo, “High-time-resolution pump-probe system with broadband detection for the study of time-domain vibrational dynamics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 103108(2007).
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[CrossRef]

A. Yu, X. Ye, D. Ionascu, W. Cao, and P. M. Champion, “Two-color pump-probe laser spectroscopy instrument with picosecond time-resolved electronic delay and extended scan range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 114301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Science (1)

S. Takeuchi, S. Ruhman, T. Tsuneda, M. Chiba, T. Taketsugu, and T. Tahara, “Spectroscopic tracking of structural evolution in ultrafast stilbene photoisomerization,” Science 322, 1073–1077 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley-Interscience, 1984).

S. Mukamel, Principles of Nonlinear Optical Spectroscopy(Oxford University Press, 1995).

The double-laser systems were composed of a femtosecond regenerative amplifier system (Legend-USP, Coherent, Inc.) and a picosecond regenerative amplifier system (Legend-P, Coherent, Inc.). The timing firing the Q switch and SDG was tuned by the digital delay generator (DG535, Stanford Research). The timing signal was detected by the FPD-510-FV (Menlo Systems, Inc.) The feedback stage (FS-1020X, Sigma Tech, Inc.) was used to tune the pump’s optical delay. The modulation for the probe pulse was created by the chopper (Model 3501, New Focus, Inc.) and shutter (SH05, Thorlabs, Inc.). The MLA system was composed of fibers (FiberTech Optica, Inc.), a polychromator (SpectraPro2300i, Acton Research, Inc.), APDs (S5343, Hamamatsu Photonics, Inc.), preamplifier (7210/90, Signal Recovery, Inc.), and an MLA (7210, Signal Recovery, Inc.). The resistor tunable low-pass filter kit was used to reduce the unwanted higher frequency components of the signal (SR-4FL2, NF Corporation, Inc.).

G. H. Brown, Photochromism (Wiley-Interscience, 1971).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the low-pass filter kit: R1, 56 ; R2, 200 ; R3, 13 ; C1, 4.7 μF ; C1, 0.1 μF ; C3, 10 μF ; IC1, SR-4FL2; IC2, MC14551BD; IC3, ADG619. Con1; selection switch for the cutoff frequency (0.6 or 3 kHz ); Con2, selection switch for the application of the low-pass filter to the input signal. The graph (right) shows the frequency response of the filter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Stationary (black curve) and triplet–triplet (T–T) absorption spectra of chrysene (red curve). Laser spectral profiles for the UV (violet line) and NOPA pulse (blue curve). The T–T absorption spectra were measured by NOPA pulse irradiation 100 ns after the UV pulse.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) 2D plot of Δ Δ A ( ω , t ) of chrysene in the triplet state. The contour means the intensity from 0.0005 (blue) to 0.0005 (red). (b) Integrated real-time traces of Δ Δ A ( ω , t ) for the wavelength range of 540 to 580 nm . (c)  Δ Δ A ( ω , t ) as a function of wavelength at a delay time of 300 fs .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Stationary absorption spectra before (black curve) and after (red curve) UV irradiation of 6-nitro-BIPS. The NOPA pulse profile is also shown (blue curve).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

2D plot of Δ Δ A ( ω , t ) of 6-nitro-BIPS after UV irradiation. Contour means the intensity from 0.15 (blue) to 0.05 (red).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Fast FT spectra of Δ Δ A ( ω , t ) of 6-nitro-BIPS after UV irradiation.

Equations (2)

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Δ Δ T = { ( UV   pump   ON NOPA   pump   ON ) ( UV   pump   ON NOPA   pump   OFF ) } { ( UV   pump   OFF NOPA   pump   ON ) ( UV   pump   OFF NOPA   pump   OFF ) } .
f 2 τ 1 = 1 ,

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