Abstract

Photosensitive polymers are of practical importance, and mass transport within such materials plays a critical role in their behavior. Building on the work in Part I [J. Opt. Soc. Am. B doc. ID 136413 (posted 5 January 2011, in press)], the diffusion constants of a number of materials (i.e., acrylamide, polyacrylamide, water, propanol, and acetone) within a photosensitive layer are measured. A combination of optical and physical chemistry techniques is applied under different conditions. Determining the rates of diffusion is beneficial as it: (i) indicates material stability over time and (ii) supports material characterization, modeling, and performance optimization.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2011 (1)

2010 (3)

S. Liu, M. R. Gleeson, J. Guo, and J. T. Sheridan, “High intensity response of photopolymer materials for holographic grating formation,” Macromolecules 43, 9462–9472 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Close, M. R. Gleeson, and J. T. Sheridan, “Using short exposures to approximate diffusion rates,” Proc. SPIE 7717, 77171O (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Guo, S. Liu, M. R. Gleeson, and J. T. Sheridan, “Theoretical analysis and experimental validation of photosensitizer diffusion in a photopolymer material,” Proc. SPIE 7717, 77170Y(2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2008 (4)

T. Babeva, I. Naydenova, S. Martin, and V. Toal, “Method for characterization of diffusion properties of photopolymerisable systems,” Opt. Express 16, 8487–8497 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gallego, A. Marquez, D. Mendez, C. Neipp, M. Ortuno, A. Belendez, E. Fernandez, and I. Pascual, “Direct analysis of monomer diffusion times in polyvinyl/acrylamide materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 073306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Gallego, A. Marquez, D. Mendez, C. Neipp, M. Ortuno, A. Belendez, E. Fernandez, and I. Pascual, “Direct analysis of monomer diffusion times in polyvinyl/acrylamide materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 073306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gleeson, D. Sabol, S. Liu, C. E. Close, J. V. Kelly, and J. T. Sheridan, “Improvement of the spatial frequency response of photopolymers by modifying polymer chain length,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 396–406 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

P. Kumar, F. W. Starr, S. V. Buldyrev, and H. E. Stanley, “Effect of water-wall interaction potential on the properties of nanoconfined water,” Phys. Rev. E 75, 011202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Sheridan, M. R. Gleeson, C. E. Close, and J. V. Kelly, “Optical response of photopolymer materials for holographic data storage applications,” J. Nanosci. Nanotech. 7, 232–242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Sullivan, M. W. Grabowski, and R. R. McLeod, “Three-dimensional direct-write lithography into photopolymer,” Appl. Opt. 46, 295–301 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Gleeson, J. V. Kelly, D. Sabol, C. E. Close, S. Lui, and J. T. Sheridan, “Modelling the photochemical effects present during holographic grating formation in photopolymer materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 023108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

J. Zhang, K. Kasala, A. Rewari, and K. Saravanamuttu, “Self-trapping of spatially and temporally incoherent white light in a photochemical medium,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 406–407(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. V. Kelly, M. R. Gleeson, C. E. Close, F. T. O’Neill, and J. T. Sheridan, “Temporal response and first order volume changes during grating formation in photopolymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 113105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (6)

S. Blaya, L. Carretero, P. Acebal, R. F. Madrigal, A. Murciano, M. Ulibarrena, and A. Fimia, “Analysis of the diffusion processes in dry photopolymerizable holographic recording materials,” Proc. SPIE 5827, 128–139 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Kelly, M. R. Gleeson, C. E. Close, F. T. O’Neill, J. T. Sheridan, S. Gallego, and C. Niepp, “Temporal analysis of grating formation in photopolymer using the nonlocal polymerisation-driven diffusion model,” Opt. Express 13, 6990–7004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Blaya, L. Carretero, P. Acebal, R. F. Madrigal, A. Murciano, M. Ulibarrena, and A. Fimia, “Analysis of the diffusion processes in dry photopolymerizable holographic recording materials,” Proc. SPIE 5827, 128–139 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. T. O’Neill, A. J. Carr, S. M. Daniels, M. R. Gleeson, J. V. Kelly, J. R. Lawrence, and J. T. Sheridan, “Refractive elements produced in photopolymer layers,” J. Mater. Sci. 40, 4129–4132(2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Blaya, L. Carretero, P. Acebal, R. F. Madrigal, A. Murciano, M. Ulibarrena, and A. Fimia, “Analysis of the diffusion processes in dry photopolymerizable holographic recording materials,” Proc. SPIE 5827, 128–139 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Shukla, A. K. Bajpai, and E. A. Kilkarni, “Preparation, characterisation, and water-sorption study of polyvinyl alcohol based hydrogels with grafted hydrophilic and hydrophobic segments,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 95, 1129–1142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (3)

S. Blaya, L. Carretero, R. F. Madrigal, M. Ulibarrena, P. Acebal, and A. Fimia, “Photopolymerization model for holographic gratings formation in photopolymers,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 639–662 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Fevola, R. D. Hester, and C. L. McCormick, “Molecular weight control of poly (acrylamide) with sodium formate as a chain-transfer agent: characterization via size exclusion chromatography/multi-angle laser light scattering and determination of chain-transfer constant,” J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 41, 560–568 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Pogliani, “Model with dual indices and complete graphs. The heterogeneous description of the dipole moments and polarizabilites,” New J. Chem. 27, 919–927 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

F. T. O’Neill, J. R. Lawrence, and J. T. Sheridan, “Improvement of holographic recording material using aerosol sealant,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 20–25 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

J. Ashley, M. P. Bernal, G. W. Burr, H. Coufal, H. Guenther, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, B. Marcus, R. M. MacFarlane, R. M. Shelby, and G. T. Sincerbox, “Holographic data storage technology,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 44, 341–368 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. M. El-Anwar, O. M. El-Nabaway, S. A. El-Hennwii, and A. H. Salama, “Dielectric properties of polyacrylamide and its utilization as a hydrogel,” Chaos Solitons Fractals 11, 1303–1311(2000).
[CrossRef]

A. P. D’Silva, G. Harrison, A. R. Horrocks, and D. Rhodes, “Investigation into cotton fibre morphology part III: Effect of alcohol treatment on water absorption,” J. Text. Inst. 91, 123–131(2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

P. W. Khirade, A. Chaudhari, J. B. Shinde, S. N. Helambe, and S. C. Mehrotra, “Temperature dependant dielectric relaxation of 2-ethoxyethanol, ethanol, and 1-propanol in dimethylformamide solution using the time domain technique,” J. Solution Chem. 28, 1031–1043 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Bucknall, S. A. Butler, and J. S. Higgins, “Real-time measurement of polymer diffusion coefficients using neutron reflection,” Macromolecules 32, 5453–5456 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Masaro and X. X. Zhu, “Physical models of diffusion for polymer solutions, gels and solids,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 24, 731–775(1999).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Veniaminov and H. Sillescu, “Polymer and dye probe diffusion in poly(methyl methacrylate) below the glass transition studied by forced Rayleigh scattering,” Macromolecules 32, 1828–1837 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

L. Aubrecht, M. Miller, and I. Koudela, “Recording of holographic diffraction gratings in photopolymers: theoretical modelling and real-time monitoring of grating growth,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1465–1477 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

B. Cuq, N. Gontard, J. Cuq, and S. Guilbert, “Selected functional properties of fish myofibrillar protein-based films as affected by hydrophilic plasticizers,” J. Agric. Food Chem. 45, 622–626(1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

G. Zhao and P. Mouroulis, “Diffusion model of hologram formation in dry photopolymer materials,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 1929–1939(1994).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Westin, A. Axelsson, and G. Zacchi, “Diffusion measurement in gels,” J. Control. Release 30, 189–199 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1989 (1)

J. S. Papanu, D. W. Hess, A. T. Bell, and D. S. Soane, “In situ ellipsometry to monitor swelling and dissolution of thin polymer films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 136, 1195–1200 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

F. H. Allen, O. Kennard, D. G. Watson, L. Brammer, A. G. Orpen, and R. Taylor, “Table of bond lengths determined by X-ray and neutron diffraction. Part 1. Bond lengths in organic compounds,” J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. 2 2, S1–S19 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

R. S. Becker and K. Freedman, “A comprehensive investigation of the mechanism and photophysics of isomerisation of a protonated and unprotonated Schiff base of 11-cis-retinal,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 107, 1477–1485 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

O. Chiantore, L. Costa, and M. Guaita, “Glass temperatures of acrylamide polymers,” Macromol. Rapid Commun. 3, 303–309(1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (2)

W. M. Lee, “Selection of barrier materials from molecular structure,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 20, 65–69 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. Uematsu and E. U. Franck, “Static dielectric constant of water and steam,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 9, 1291–1306(1980).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

S. A. Clough, Y. Beers, G. P. Klein, and L. S. Rothman, “Dipole moment of water from Stark measurements of H2O, HDO and D2O,” J. Chem. Phys. 59, 2254–2259 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).

1965 (1)

R. E. Rebbert and P. Ausloos, “Quenching of the triplet state of acetone and biacetyl by various unsaturated hydrocarbons,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 87, 5569–5572 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

W. Kuhn and G. Balmer, “Crosslinking of single linear macromolecules,” J. Polym. Sci. 57, 311–319 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Acebal, P.

S. Blaya, L. Carretero, P. Acebal, R. F. Madrigal, A. Murciano, M. Ulibarrena, and A. Fimia, “Analysis of the diffusion processes in dry photopolymerizable holographic recording materials,” Proc. SPIE 5827, 128–139 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Blaya, L. Carretero, P. Acebal, R. F. Madrigal, A. Murciano, M. Ulibarrena, and A. Fimia, “Analysis of the diffusion processes in dry photopolymerizable holographic recording materials,” Proc. SPIE 5827, 128–139 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Blaya, L. Carretero, P. Acebal, R. F. Madrigal, A. Murciano, M. Ulibarrena, and A. Fimia, “Analysis of the diffusion processes in dry photopolymerizable holographic recording materials,” Proc. SPIE 5827, 128–139 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Blaya, L. Carretero, R. F. Madrigal, M. Ulibarrena, P. Acebal, and A. Fimia, “Photopolymerization model for holographic gratings formation in photopolymers,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 639–662 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Allen, F. H.

F. H. Allen, O. Kennard, D. G. Watson, L. Brammer, A. G. Orpen, and R. Taylor, “Table of bond lengths determined by X-ray and neutron diffraction. Part 1. Bond lengths in organic compounds,” J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. 2 2, S1–S19 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ashley, J.

J. Ashley, M. P. Bernal, G. W. Burr, H. Coufal, H. Guenther, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, B. Marcus, R. M. MacFarlane, R. M. Shelby, and G. T. Sincerbox, “Holographic data storage technology,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 44, 341–368 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Aubrecht, L.

L. Aubrecht, M. Miller, and I. Koudela, “Recording of holographic diffraction gratings in photopolymers: theoretical modelling and real-time monitoring of grating growth,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1465–1477 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ausloos, P.

R. E. Rebbert and P. Ausloos, “Quenching of the triplet state of acetone and biacetyl by various unsaturated hydrocarbons,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 87, 5569–5572 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Axelsson, A.

B. A. Westin, A. Axelsson, and G. Zacchi, “Diffusion measurement in gels,” J. Control. Release 30, 189–199 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Babeva, T.

Bajpai, A. K.

S. Shukla, A. K. Bajpai, and E. A. Kilkarni, “Preparation, characterisation, and water-sorption study of polyvinyl alcohol based hydrogels with grafted hydrophilic and hydrophobic segments,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 95, 1129–1142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Balmer, G.

W. Kuhn and G. Balmer, “Crosslinking of single linear macromolecules,” J. Polym. Sci. 57, 311–319 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Becker, R. S.

R. S. Becker and K. Freedman, “A comprehensive investigation of the mechanism and photophysics of isomerisation of a protonated and unprotonated Schiff base of 11-cis-retinal,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 107, 1477–1485 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Beers, Y.

S. A. Clough, Y. Beers, G. P. Klein, and L. S. Rothman, “Dipole moment of water from Stark measurements of H2O, HDO and D2O,” J. Chem. Phys. 59, 2254–2259 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Belendez, A.

S. Gallego, A. Marquez, D. Mendez, C. Neipp, M. Ortuno, A. Belendez, E. Fernandez, and I. Pascual, “Direct analysis of monomer diffusion times in polyvinyl/acrylamide materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 073306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Gallego, A. Marquez, D. Mendez, C. Neipp, M. Ortuno, A. Belendez, E. Fernandez, and I. Pascual, “Direct analysis of monomer diffusion times in polyvinyl/acrylamide materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 073306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bell, A. T.

J. S. Papanu, D. W. Hess, A. T. Bell, and D. S. Soane, “In situ ellipsometry to monitor swelling and dissolution of thin polymer films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 136, 1195–1200 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bernal, M. P.

J. Ashley, M. P. Bernal, G. W. Burr, H. Coufal, H. Guenther, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, B. Marcus, R. M. MacFarlane, R. M. Shelby, and G. T. Sincerbox, “Holographic data storage technology,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 44, 341–368 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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S. Blaya, L. Carretero, P. Acebal, R. F. Madrigal, A. Murciano, M. Ulibarrena, and A. Fimia, “Analysis of the diffusion processes in dry photopolymerizable holographic recording materials,” Proc. SPIE 5827, 128–139 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Blaya, L. Carretero, P. Acebal, R. F. Madrigal, A. Murciano, M. Ulibarrena, and A. Fimia, “Analysis of the diffusion processes in dry photopolymerizable holographic recording materials,” Proc. SPIE 5827, 128–139 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Blaya, L. Carretero, P. Acebal, R. F. Madrigal, A. Murciano, M. Ulibarrena, and A. Fimia, “Analysis of the diffusion processes in dry photopolymerizable holographic recording materials,” Proc. SPIE 5827, 128–139 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Blaya, L. Carretero, R. F. Madrigal, M. Ulibarrena, P. Acebal, and A. Fimia, “Photopolymerization model for holographic gratings formation in photopolymers,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 639–662 (2003).
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F. H. Allen, O. Kennard, D. G. Watson, L. Brammer, A. G. Orpen, and R. Taylor, “Table of bond lengths determined by X-ray and neutron diffraction. Part 1. Bond lengths in organic compounds,” J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. 2 2, S1–S19 (1987).
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D. G. Bucknall, S. A. Butler, and J. S. Higgins, “Real-time measurement of polymer diffusion coefficients using neutron reflection,” Macromolecules 32, 5453–5456 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Buldyrev, S. V.

P. Kumar, F. W. Starr, S. V. Buldyrev, and H. E. Stanley, “Effect of water-wall interaction potential on the properties of nanoconfined water,” Phys. Rev. E 75, 011202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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J. Ashley, M. P. Bernal, G. W. Burr, H. Coufal, H. Guenther, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, B. Marcus, R. M. MacFarlane, R. M. Shelby, and G. T. Sincerbox, “Holographic data storage technology,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 44, 341–368 (2000).
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D. G. Bucknall, S. A. Butler, and J. S. Higgins, “Real-time measurement of polymer diffusion coefficients using neutron reflection,” Macromolecules 32, 5453–5456 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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F. T. O’Neill, A. J. Carr, S. M. Daniels, M. R. Gleeson, J. V. Kelly, J. R. Lawrence, and J. T. Sheridan, “Refractive elements produced in photopolymer layers,” J. Mater. Sci. 40, 4129–4132(2005).
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S. Blaya, L. Carretero, P. Acebal, R. F. Madrigal, A. Murciano, M. Ulibarrena, and A. Fimia, “Analysis of the diffusion processes in dry photopolymerizable holographic recording materials,” Proc. SPIE 5827, 128–139 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Blaya, L. Carretero, P. Acebal, R. F. Madrigal, A. Murciano, M. Ulibarrena, and A. Fimia, “Analysis of the diffusion processes in dry photopolymerizable holographic recording materials,” Proc. SPIE 5827, 128–139 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Blaya, L. Carretero, P. Acebal, R. F. Madrigal, A. Murciano, M. Ulibarrena, and A. Fimia, “Analysis of the diffusion processes in dry photopolymerizable holographic recording materials,” Proc. SPIE 5827, 128–139 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Blaya, L. Carretero, R. F. Madrigal, M. Ulibarrena, P. Acebal, and A. Fimia, “Photopolymerization model for holographic gratings formation in photopolymers,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 639–662 (2003).
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Castro, J.

R. K. Kostuk, J. Castro, and D. Zhang, “Holographic low concentration ratio solar concentrators,” in Frontiers in Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper FMB3.

Chaudhari, A.

P. W. Khirade, A. Chaudhari, J. B. Shinde, S. N. Helambe, and S. C. Mehrotra, “Temperature dependant dielectric relaxation of 2-ethoxyethanol, ethanol, and 1-propanol in dimethylformamide solution using the time domain technique,” J. Solution Chem. 28, 1031–1043 (1999).
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O. Chiantore, L. Costa, and M. Guaita, “Glass temperatures of acrylamide polymers,” Macromol. Rapid Commun. 3, 303–309(1982).
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C. E. Close, M. R. Gleeson, and J. T. Sheridan, “Monomer diffusion rates in photopolymer material. Part I. Low spatial frequency holographic gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 658–666 (2011).
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C. E. Close, M. R. Gleeson, and J. T. Sheridan, “Using short exposures to approximate diffusion rates,” Proc. SPIE 7717, 77171O (2010).
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M. R. Gleeson, D. Sabol, S. Liu, C. E. Close, J. V. Kelly, and J. T. Sheridan, “Improvement of the spatial frequency response of photopolymers by modifying polymer chain length,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 396–406 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gleeson, J. V. Kelly, D. Sabol, C. E. Close, S. Lui, and J. T. Sheridan, “Modelling the photochemical effects present during holographic grating formation in photopolymer materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 023108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Sheridan, M. R. Gleeson, C. E. Close, and J. V. Kelly, “Optical response of photopolymer materials for holographic data storage applications,” J. Nanosci. Nanotech. 7, 232–242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Kelly, M. R. Gleeson, C. E. Close, F. T. O’Neill, and J. T. Sheridan, “Temporal response and first order volume changes during grating formation in photopolymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 113105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Kelly, M. R. Gleeson, C. E. Close, F. T. O’Neill, J. T. Sheridan, S. Gallego, and C. Niepp, “Temporal analysis of grating formation in photopolymer using the nonlocal polymerisation-driven diffusion model,” Opt. Express 13, 6990–7004 (2005).
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S. A. Clough, Y. Beers, G. P. Klein, and L. S. Rothman, “Dipole moment of water from Stark measurements of H2O, HDO and D2O,” J. Chem. Phys. 59, 2254–2259 (1973).
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O. Chiantore, L. Costa, and M. Guaita, “Glass temperatures of acrylamide polymers,” Macromol. Rapid Commun. 3, 303–309(1982).
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J. Ashley, M. P. Bernal, G. W. Burr, H. Coufal, H. Guenther, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, B. Marcus, R. M. MacFarlane, R. M. Shelby, and G. T. Sincerbox, “Holographic data storage technology,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 44, 341–368 (2000).
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B. Cuq, N. Gontard, J. Cuq, and S. Guilbert, “Selected functional properties of fish myofibrillar protein-based films as affected by hydrophilic plasticizers,” J. Agric. Food Chem. 45, 622–626(1997).
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A. P. D’Silva, G. Harrison, A. R. Horrocks, and D. Rhodes, “Investigation into cotton fibre morphology part III: Effect of alcohol treatment on water absorption,” J. Text. Inst. 91, 123–131(2000).
[CrossRef]

Daniels, S. M.

F. T. O’Neill, A. J. Carr, S. M. Daniels, M. R. Gleeson, J. V. Kelly, J. R. Lawrence, and J. T. Sheridan, “Refractive elements produced in photopolymer layers,” J. Mater. Sci. 40, 4129–4132(2005).
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I. M. El-Anwar, O. M. El-Nabaway, S. A. El-Hennwii, and A. H. Salama, “Dielectric properties of polyacrylamide and its utilization as a hydrogel,” Chaos Solitons Fractals 11, 1303–1311(2000).
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I. M. El-Anwar, O. M. El-Nabaway, S. A. El-Hennwii, and A. H. Salama, “Dielectric properties of polyacrylamide and its utilization as a hydrogel,” Chaos Solitons Fractals 11, 1303–1311(2000).
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S. Gallego, A. Marquez, S. Marini, E. Fernandez, M. Ortuno, and I. Parcual, “In dark analysis of PVA/AA materials at very low spatial frequencies: phase modulation evolution and diffusion estimation,” Opt. Express 17, 18279–19291 (2009).
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S. Gallego, A. Marquez, D. Mendez, C. Neipp, M. Ortuno, A. Belendez, E. Fernandez, and I. Pascual, “Direct analysis of monomer diffusion times in polyvinyl/acrylamide materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 073306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Gallego, A. Marquez, D. Mendez, C. Neipp, M. Ortuno, A. Belendez, E. Fernandez, and I. Pascual, “Direct analysis of monomer diffusion times in polyvinyl/acrylamide materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 073306 (2008).
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M. J. Fevola, R. D. Hester, and C. L. McCormick, “Molecular weight control of poly (acrylamide) with sodium formate as a chain-transfer agent: characterization via size exclusion chromatography/multi-angle laser light scattering and determination of chain-transfer constant,” J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 41, 560–568 (2003).
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S. Blaya, L. Carretero, P. Acebal, R. F. Madrigal, A. Murciano, M. Ulibarrena, and A. Fimia, “Analysis of the diffusion processes in dry photopolymerizable holographic recording materials,” Proc. SPIE 5827, 128–139 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Blaya, L. Carretero, P. Acebal, R. F. Madrigal, A. Murciano, M. Ulibarrena, and A. Fimia, “Analysis of the diffusion processes in dry photopolymerizable holographic recording materials,” Proc. SPIE 5827, 128–139 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Blaya, L. Carretero, P. Acebal, R. F. Madrigal, A. Murciano, M. Ulibarrena, and A. Fimia, “Analysis of the diffusion processes in dry photopolymerizable holographic recording materials,” Proc. SPIE 5827, 128–139 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Blaya, L. Carretero, R. F. Madrigal, M. Ulibarrena, P. Acebal, and A. Fimia, “Photopolymerization model for holographic gratings formation in photopolymers,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 639–662 (2003).
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R. S. Becker and K. Freedman, “A comprehensive investigation of the mechanism and photophysics of isomerisation of a protonated and unprotonated Schiff base of 11-cis-retinal,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 107, 1477–1485 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Gallego, S.

S. Gallego, A. Marquez, S. Marini, E. Fernandez, M. Ortuno, and I. Parcual, “In dark analysis of PVA/AA materials at very low spatial frequencies: phase modulation evolution and diffusion estimation,” Opt. Express 17, 18279–19291 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gallego, A. Marquez, D. Mendez, C. Neipp, M. Ortuno, A. Belendez, E. Fernandez, and I. Pascual, “Direct analysis of monomer diffusion times in polyvinyl/acrylamide materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 073306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Gallego, A. Marquez, D. Mendez, C. Neipp, M. Ortuno, A. Belendez, E. Fernandez, and I. Pascual, “Direct analysis of monomer diffusion times in polyvinyl/acrylamide materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 073306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Kelly, M. R. Gleeson, C. E. Close, F. T. O’Neill, J. T. Sheridan, S. Gallego, and C. Niepp, “Temporal analysis of grating formation in photopolymer using the nonlocal polymerisation-driven diffusion model,” Opt. Express 13, 6990–7004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gleeson, M. R.

C. E. Close, M. R. Gleeson, and J. T. Sheridan, “Monomer diffusion rates in photopolymer material. Part I. Low spatial frequency holographic gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 658–666 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Guo, S. Liu, M. R. Gleeson, and J. T. Sheridan, “Theoretical analysis and experimental validation of photosensitizer diffusion in a photopolymer material,” Proc. SPIE 7717, 77170Y(2010).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Close, M. R. Gleeson, and J. T. Sheridan, “Using short exposures to approximate diffusion rates,” Proc. SPIE 7717, 77171O (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Liu, M. R. Gleeson, J. Guo, and J. T. Sheridan, “High intensity response of photopolymer materials for holographic grating formation,” Macromolecules 43, 9462–9472 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Liu, M. R. Gleeson, and J. T. Sheridan, “Analysis of the photoabsorptive behaviour of two different photosensitisers in a photopolymer material,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 528–536(2009).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gleeson, D. Sabol, S. Liu, C. E. Close, J. V. Kelly, and J. T. Sheridan, “Improvement of the spatial frequency response of photopolymers by modifying polymer chain length,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 396–406 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gleeson, J. V. Kelly, D. Sabol, C. E. Close, S. Lui, and J. T. Sheridan, “Modelling the photochemical effects present during holographic grating formation in photopolymer materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 023108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Sheridan, M. R. Gleeson, C. E. Close, and J. V. Kelly, “Optical response of photopolymer materials for holographic data storage applications,” J. Nanosci. Nanotech. 7, 232–242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Kelly, M. R. Gleeson, C. E. Close, F. T. O’Neill, and J. T. Sheridan, “Temporal response and first order volume changes during grating formation in photopolymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 113105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. T. O’Neill, A. J. Carr, S. M. Daniels, M. R. Gleeson, J. V. Kelly, J. R. Lawrence, and J. T. Sheridan, “Refractive elements produced in photopolymer layers,” J. Mater. Sci. 40, 4129–4132(2005).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Kelly, M. R. Gleeson, C. E. Close, F. T. O’Neill, J. T. Sheridan, S. Gallego, and C. Niepp, “Temporal analysis of grating formation in photopolymer using the nonlocal polymerisation-driven diffusion model,” Opt. Express 13, 6990–7004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gontard, N.

B. Cuq, N. Gontard, J. Cuq, and S. Guilbert, “Selected functional properties of fish myofibrillar protein-based films as affected by hydrophilic plasticizers,” J. Agric. Food Chem. 45, 622–626(1997).
[CrossRef]

Grabowski, M. W.

Guaita, M.

O. Chiantore, L. Costa, and M. Guaita, “Glass temperatures of acrylamide polymers,” Macromol. Rapid Commun. 3, 303–309(1982).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, H.

J. Ashley, M. P. Bernal, G. W. Burr, H. Coufal, H. Guenther, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, B. Marcus, R. M. MacFarlane, R. M. Shelby, and G. T. Sincerbox, “Holographic data storage technology,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 44, 341–368 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Guilbert, S.

B. Cuq, N. Gontard, J. Cuq, and S. Guilbert, “Selected functional properties of fish myofibrillar protein-based films as affected by hydrophilic plasticizers,” J. Agric. Food Chem. 45, 622–626(1997).
[CrossRef]

Guo, J.

S. Liu, M. R. Gleeson, J. Guo, and J. T. Sheridan, “High intensity response of photopolymer materials for holographic grating formation,” Macromolecules 43, 9462–9472 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Guo, S. Liu, M. R. Gleeson, and J. T. Sheridan, “Theoretical analysis and experimental validation of photosensitizer diffusion in a photopolymer material,” Proc. SPIE 7717, 77170Y(2010).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, G.

A. P. D’Silva, G. Harrison, A. R. Horrocks, and D. Rhodes, “Investigation into cotton fibre morphology part III: Effect of alcohol treatment on water absorption,” J. Text. Inst. 91, 123–131(2000).
[CrossRef]

Helambe, S. N.

P. W. Khirade, A. Chaudhari, J. B. Shinde, S. N. Helambe, and S. C. Mehrotra, “Temperature dependant dielectric relaxation of 2-ethoxyethanol, ethanol, and 1-propanol in dimethylformamide solution using the time domain technique,” J. Solution Chem. 28, 1031–1043 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hess, D. W.

J. S. Papanu, D. W. Hess, A. T. Bell, and D. S. Soane, “In situ ellipsometry to monitor swelling and dissolution of thin polymer films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 136, 1195–1200 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hester, R. D.

M. J. Fevola, R. D. Hester, and C. L. McCormick, “Molecular weight control of poly (acrylamide) with sodium formate as a chain-transfer agent: characterization via size exclusion chromatography/multi-angle laser light scattering and determination of chain-transfer constant,” J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 41, 560–568 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Higgins, J. S.

D. G. Bucknall, S. A. Butler, and J. S. Higgins, “Real-time measurement of polymer diffusion coefficients using neutron reflection,” Macromolecules 32, 5453–5456 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hoffnagle, J. A.

J. Ashley, M. P. Bernal, G. W. Burr, H. Coufal, H. Guenther, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, B. Marcus, R. M. MacFarlane, R. M. Shelby, and G. T. Sincerbox, “Holographic data storage technology,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 44, 341–368 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Horrocks, A. R.

A. P. D’Silva, G. Harrison, A. R. Horrocks, and D. Rhodes, “Investigation into cotton fibre morphology part III: Effect of alcohol treatment on water absorption,” J. Text. Inst. 91, 123–131(2000).
[CrossRef]

Howard, R.

Jallapuram, R.

Jefferson, C. M.

J. Ashley, M. P. Bernal, G. W. Burr, H. Coufal, H. Guenther, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, B. Marcus, R. M. MacFarlane, R. M. Shelby, and G. T. Sincerbox, “Holographic data storage technology,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 44, 341–368 (2000).
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M. R. Gleeson, D. Sabol, S. Liu, C. E. Close, J. V. Kelly, and J. T. Sheridan, “Improvement of the spatial frequency response of photopolymers by modifying polymer chain length,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 396–406 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gleeson, J. V. Kelly, D. Sabol, C. E. Close, S. Lui, and J. T. Sheridan, “Modelling the photochemical effects present during holographic grating formation in photopolymer materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 023108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Sheridan, M. R. Gleeson, C. E. Close, and J. V. Kelly, “Optical response of photopolymer materials for holographic data storage applications,” J. Nanosci. Nanotech. 7, 232–242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Kelly, M. R. Gleeson, C. E. Close, F. T. O’Neill, and J. T. Sheridan, “Temporal response and first order volume changes during grating formation in photopolymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 113105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. T. O’Neill, A. J. Carr, S. M. Daniels, M. R. Gleeson, J. V. Kelly, J. R. Lawrence, and J. T. Sheridan, “Refractive elements produced in photopolymer layers,” J. Mater. Sci. 40, 4129–4132(2005).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Kelly, M. R. Gleeson, C. E. Close, F. T. O’Neill, J. T. Sheridan, S. Gallego, and C. Niepp, “Temporal analysis of grating formation in photopolymer using the nonlocal polymerisation-driven diffusion model,” Opt. Express 13, 6990–7004 (2005).
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Kennard, O.

F. H. Allen, O. Kennard, D. G. Watson, L. Brammer, A. G. Orpen, and R. Taylor, “Table of bond lengths determined by X-ray and neutron diffraction. Part 1. Bond lengths in organic compounds,” J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. 2 2, S1–S19 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Khirade, P. W.

P. W. Khirade, A. Chaudhari, J. B. Shinde, S. N. Helambe, and S. C. Mehrotra, “Temperature dependant dielectric relaxation of 2-ethoxyethanol, ethanol, and 1-propanol in dimethylformamide solution using the time domain technique,” J. Solution Chem. 28, 1031–1043 (1999).
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S. Shukla, A. K. Bajpai, and E. A. Kilkarni, “Preparation, characterisation, and water-sorption study of polyvinyl alcohol based hydrogels with grafted hydrophilic and hydrophobic segments,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 95, 1129–1142 (2005).
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S. A. Clough, Y. Beers, G. P. Klein, and L. S. Rothman, “Dipole moment of water from Stark measurements of H2O, HDO and D2O,” J. Chem. Phys. 59, 2254–2259 (1973).
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R. K. Kostuk, J. Castro, and D. Zhang, “Holographic low concentration ratio solar concentrators,” in Frontiers in Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper FMB3.

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F. T. O’Neill, A. J. Carr, S. M. Daniels, M. R. Gleeson, J. V. Kelly, J. R. Lawrence, and J. T. Sheridan, “Refractive elements produced in photopolymer layers,” J. Mater. Sci. 40, 4129–4132(2005).
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J. Guo, S. Liu, M. R. Gleeson, and J. T. Sheridan, “Theoretical analysis and experimental validation of photosensitizer diffusion in a photopolymer material,” Proc. SPIE 7717, 77170Y(2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Liu, M. R. Gleeson, J. Guo, and J. T. Sheridan, “High intensity response of photopolymer materials for holographic grating formation,” Macromolecules 43, 9462–9472 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Liu, M. R. Gleeson, and J. T. Sheridan, “Analysis of the photoabsorptive behaviour of two different photosensitisers in a photopolymer material,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 528–536(2009).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gleeson, D. Sabol, S. Liu, C. E. Close, J. V. Kelly, and J. T. Sheridan, “Improvement of the spatial frequency response of photopolymers by modifying polymer chain length,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 396–406 (2008).
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M. R. Gleeson, J. V. Kelly, D. Sabol, C. E. Close, S. Lui, and J. T. Sheridan, “Modelling the photochemical effects present during holographic grating formation in photopolymer materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 023108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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J. Ashley, M. P. Bernal, G. W. Burr, H. Coufal, H. Guenther, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, B. Marcus, R. M. MacFarlane, R. M. Shelby, and G. T. Sincerbox, “Holographic data storage technology,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 44, 341–368 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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S. Blaya, L. Carretero, P. Acebal, R. F. Madrigal, A. Murciano, M. Ulibarrena, and A. Fimia, “Analysis of the diffusion processes in dry photopolymerizable holographic recording materials,” Proc. SPIE 5827, 128–139 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Blaya, L. Carretero, P. Acebal, R. F. Madrigal, A. Murciano, M. Ulibarrena, and A. Fimia, “Analysis of the diffusion processes in dry photopolymerizable holographic recording materials,” Proc. SPIE 5827, 128–139 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Blaya, L. Carretero, P. Acebal, R. F. Madrigal, A. Murciano, M. Ulibarrena, and A. Fimia, “Analysis of the diffusion processes in dry photopolymerizable holographic recording materials,” Proc. SPIE 5827, 128–139 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Blaya, L. Carretero, R. F. Madrigal, M. Ulibarrena, P. Acebal, and A. Fimia, “Photopolymerization model for holographic gratings formation in photopolymers,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 639–662 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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J. Ashley, M. P. Bernal, G. W. Burr, H. Coufal, H. Guenther, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, B. Marcus, R. M. MacFarlane, R. M. Shelby, and G. T. Sincerbox, “Holographic data storage technology,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 44, 341–368 (2000).
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S. Gallego, A. Marquez, S. Marini, E. Fernandez, M. Ortuno, and I. Parcual, “In dark analysis of PVA/AA materials at very low spatial frequencies: phase modulation evolution and diffusion estimation,” Opt. Express 17, 18279–19291 (2009).
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S. Gallego, A. Marquez, D. Mendez, C. Neipp, M. Ortuno, A. Belendez, E. Fernandez, and I. Pascual, “Direct analysis of monomer diffusion times in polyvinyl/acrylamide materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 073306 (2008).
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S. Gallego, A. Marquez, D. Mendez, C. Neipp, M. Ortuno, A. Belendez, E. Fernandez, and I. Pascual, “Direct analysis of monomer diffusion times in polyvinyl/acrylamide materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 073306 (2008).
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S. Gallego, A. Marquez, D. Mendez, C. Neipp, M. Ortuno, A. Belendez, E. Fernandez, and I. Pascual, “Direct analysis of monomer diffusion times in polyvinyl/acrylamide materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 073306 (2008).
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S. Gallego, A. Marquez, D. Mendez, C. Neipp, M. Ortuno, A. Belendez, E. Fernandez, and I. Pascual, “Direct analysis of monomer diffusion times in polyvinyl/acrylamide materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 073306 (2008).
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L. Aubrecht, M. Miller, and I. Koudela, “Recording of holographic diffraction gratings in photopolymers: theoretical modelling and real-time monitoring of grating growth,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1465–1477 (1998).
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G. Zhao and P. Mouroulis, “Diffusion model of hologram formation in dry photopolymer materials,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 1929–1939(1994).
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S. Blaya, L. Carretero, P. Acebal, R. F. Madrigal, A. Murciano, M. Ulibarrena, and A. Fimia, “Analysis of the diffusion processes in dry photopolymerizable holographic recording materials,” Proc. SPIE 5827, 128–139 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Blaya, L. Carretero, P. Acebal, R. F. Madrigal, A. Murciano, M. Ulibarrena, and A. Fimia, “Analysis of the diffusion processes in dry photopolymerizable holographic recording materials,” Proc. SPIE 5827, 128–139 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Blaya, L. Carretero, P. Acebal, R. F. Madrigal, A. Murciano, M. Ulibarrena, and A. Fimia, “Analysis of the diffusion processes in dry photopolymerizable holographic recording materials,” Proc. SPIE 5827, 128–139 (2005).
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Neipp, C.

S. Gallego, A. Marquez, D. Mendez, C. Neipp, M. Ortuno, A. Belendez, E. Fernandez, and I. Pascual, “Direct analysis of monomer diffusion times in polyvinyl/acrylamide materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 073306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Gallego, A. Marquez, D. Mendez, C. Neipp, M. Ortuno, A. Belendez, E. Fernandez, and I. Pascual, “Direct analysis of monomer diffusion times in polyvinyl/acrylamide materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 073306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Nordinand, G. P.

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J. V. Kelly, M. R. Gleeson, C. E. Close, F. T. O’Neill, and J. T. Sheridan, “Temporal response and first order volume changes during grating formation in photopolymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 113105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. T. O’Neill, A. J. Carr, S. M. Daniels, M. R. Gleeson, J. V. Kelly, J. R. Lawrence, and J. T. Sheridan, “Refractive elements produced in photopolymer layers,” J. Mater. Sci. 40, 4129–4132(2005).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Kelly, M. R. Gleeson, C. E. Close, F. T. O’Neill, J. T. Sheridan, S. Gallego, and C. Niepp, “Temporal analysis of grating formation in photopolymer using the nonlocal polymerisation-driven diffusion model,” Opt. Express 13, 6990–7004 (2005).
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F. H. Allen, O. Kennard, D. G. Watson, L. Brammer, A. G. Orpen, and R. Taylor, “Table of bond lengths determined by X-ray and neutron diffraction. Part 1. Bond lengths in organic compounds,” J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. 2 2, S1–S19 (1987).
[CrossRef]

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S. Gallego, A. Marquez, S. Marini, E. Fernandez, M. Ortuno, and I. Parcual, “In dark analysis of PVA/AA materials at very low spatial frequencies: phase modulation evolution and diffusion estimation,” Opt. Express 17, 18279–19291 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gallego, A. Marquez, D. Mendez, C. Neipp, M. Ortuno, A. Belendez, E. Fernandez, and I. Pascual, “Direct analysis of monomer diffusion times in polyvinyl/acrylamide materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 073306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Gallego, A. Marquez, D. Mendez, C. Neipp, M. Ortuno, A. Belendez, E. Fernandez, and I. Pascual, “Direct analysis of monomer diffusion times in polyvinyl/acrylamide materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 073306 (2008).
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S. Gallego, A. Marquez, D. Mendez, C. Neipp, M. Ortuno, A. Belendez, E. Fernandez, and I. Pascual, “Direct analysis of monomer diffusion times in polyvinyl/acrylamide materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 073306 (2008).
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S. Gallego, A. Marquez, D. Mendez, C. Neipp, M. Ortuno, A. Belendez, E. Fernandez, and I. Pascual, “Direct analysis of monomer diffusion times in polyvinyl/acrylamide materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 073306 (2008).
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C. E. Close, M. R. Gleeson, and J. T. Sheridan, “Monomer diffusion rates in photopolymer material. Part I. Low spatial frequency holographic gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 658–666 (2011).
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J. T. Sheridan, M. R. Gleeson, C. E. Close, and J. V. Kelly, “Optical response of photopolymer materials for holographic data storage applications,” J. Nanosci. Nanotech. 7, 232–242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Kelly, M. R. Gleeson, C. E. Close, F. T. O’Neill, and J. T. Sheridan, “Temporal response and first order volume changes during grating formation in photopolymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 113105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. T. O’Neill, A. J. Carr, S. M. Daniels, M. R. Gleeson, J. V. Kelly, J. R. Lawrence, and J. T. Sheridan, “Refractive elements produced in photopolymer layers,” J. Mater. Sci. 40, 4129–4132(2005).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Kelly, M. R. Gleeson, C. E. Close, F. T. O’Neill, J. T. Sheridan, S. Gallego, and C. Niepp, “Temporal analysis of grating formation in photopolymer using the nonlocal polymerisation-driven diffusion model,” Opt. Express 13, 6990–7004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. W. Khirade, A. Chaudhari, J. B. Shinde, S. N. Helambe, and S. C. Mehrotra, “Temperature dependant dielectric relaxation of 2-ethoxyethanol, ethanol, and 1-propanol in dimethylformamide solution using the time domain technique,” J. Solution Chem. 28, 1031–1043 (1999).
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S. Gallego, A. Marquez, D. Mendez, C. Neipp, M. Ortuno, A. Belendez, E. Fernandez, and I. Pascual, “Direct analysis of monomer diffusion times in polyvinyl/acrylamide materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 073306 (2008).
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S. Gallego, A. Marquez, D. Mendez, C. Neipp, M. Ortuno, A. Belendez, E. Fernandez, and I. Pascual, “Direct analysis of monomer diffusion times in polyvinyl/acrylamide materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 073306 (2008).
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M. R. Gleeson, J. V. Kelly, D. Sabol, C. E. Close, S. Lui, and J. T. Sheridan, “Modelling the photochemical effects present during holographic grating formation in photopolymer materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 023108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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J. Appl. Polym. Sci. (1)

S. Shukla, A. K. Bajpai, and E. A. Kilkarni, “Preparation, characterisation, and water-sorption study of polyvinyl alcohol based hydrogels with grafted hydrophilic and hydrophobic segments,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 95, 1129–1142 (2005).
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J. Chem. Phys. (1)

S. A. Clough, Y. Beers, G. P. Klein, and L. S. Rothman, “Dipole moment of water from Stark measurements of H2O, HDO and D2O,” J. Chem. Phys. 59, 2254–2259 (1973).
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J. Mater. Sci. (1)

F. T. O’Neill, A. J. Carr, S. M. Daniels, M. R. Gleeson, J. V. Kelly, J. R. Lawrence, and J. T. Sheridan, “Refractive elements produced in photopolymer layers,” J. Mater. Sci. 40, 4129–4132(2005).
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L. Aubrecht, M. Miller, and I. Koudela, “Recording of holographic diffraction gratings in photopolymers: theoretical modelling and real-time monitoring of grating growth,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1465–1477 (1998).
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J. T. Sheridan, M. R. Gleeson, C. E. Close, and J. V. Kelly, “Optical response of photopolymer materials for holographic data storage applications,” J. Nanosci. Nanotech. 7, 232–242 (2007).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Evolution of grating diffraction efficiency illustrating the decay of the grating strength postexposure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Grating decay over time for varying crosslinker quantities.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Short-exposure curves showing diffraction efficiency and corresponding grating decay curves (inset) for a range of exposure times when no crosslinking agent is present.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Curve showing diffusion rates for different exposure durations.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Weight change due to water plotted against the square root of time.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Weight change due to water gain/loss as a function of time.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Weight change over time for (a) water out and (b) water in. Experimental (dots) and theoretical results (curves).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Weight change over time for diffusion of (a) propanol and (b) acetone out of a layer. Experimental (dots) and theoretical results (curves).

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Initial and Boundary Conditions

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Table 2 Structure and Properties of Diffusing Chemicals

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Table 3 Synopsis of Experimental Results for Diffusion Coefficients

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

M t = k t n ,
C t = D 2 C x 2 .
2 C ¯ x 2 1 D [ ( C e p t ) 0 + p 0 C e p t d t ] = 0 ,
C C 0 C 1 C 0 = 1 4 π n = 0 ( 1 ) n 2 n + 1 exp { D ( 2 n + 1 ) 2 π 2 t 4 l 2 } cos ( 2 n + 1 ) π x 2 l ,
M t M = 1 n = 0 8 ( 2 n + 1 ) 2 π 2 exp { D ( 2 n + 1 ) 2 π 2 t 4 l 2 } ,
M t = 0 l ( C C 0 ) d x .

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