Abstract

This paper reviews the recent progress in the development of ultrafast broadband terahertz waveform measurement utilizing ultraviolet photoemission from laser-induced gases. We present the theoretical study and experimental investigation on ultrafast dynamics of terahertz-enhanced photoemission in various gas species. By using two-color laser field to coherently control the electron drift velocity and subsequent terahertz-enhanced photoemission, we develop an “all-optical” broadband terahertz waveform measurement method, which, by encoding terahertz pulse information into plasma photoemission, is capable of remote operation due to the minimized water vapor attenuation and unlimited optical signal collection. Broadband terahertz waveform measurement at a distance of 10m is demonstrated.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1, 26–33 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 50, 910–928 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159(2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. v. Exter, and C. Fattinger, “Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2006–2015 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Transient photoconductivity in GaAs as measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 15764 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. J. Strachan, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, K. C. Gordon, J. A. Zeitler, M. Pepper, and T. Rades, “Using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy to quantify pharmaceutical polymorphism and crystallinity,” J. Pharm. Sci. 94, 837–846 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe, “Security applications of terahertz technology,” Proc. SPIE 44–52 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. van Exter, C. Fattinger, and D. Grischkowsky, “High-brightness terahertz beams characterized with an ultrafast detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 337–339 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523–3525 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, “Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate,” Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052–R3054 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Nahata, D. H. Auston, T. F. Heinz, and C. Wu, “Coherent detection of freely propagating terahertz radiation by electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 150–152 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire terahertz gap,”' Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Liu and X. C. Zhang, “Terahertz-radiation-enhanced emission of fluorescence from gas plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 235002 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Liu, J. Dai, S. L. Chin, and X. C. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave remote sensing using coherent manipulation of fluorescence from asymmetrically ionized gases,” Nat. Photon. 4, 627–631 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Talebpour and C.-Y. Chien, and S. L. Chin, “Population trapping in rare gases,” J. Phys. B 29, 5725–5733 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. L. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360, 171–175 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Liu and X.-C. Zhang, “Plasma characterization using terahertz–wave–enhanced fluorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041505 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10 μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, “Femtosecond pulse propagation in argon: A pressure dependence study,” Phys. Rev. E 58, 4903–4910 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Dai, N. Karpowicz, and X. C. Zhang, “Coherent polarization control of terahertz waves generated from two-color laser-induced gas plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 023001 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express 15, 4577–4584 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).

2010 (2)

J. Liu, J. Dai, S. L. Chin, and X. C. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave remote sensing using coherent manipulation of fluorescence from asymmetrically ionized gases,” Nat. Photon. 4, 627–631 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu and X.-C. Zhang, “Plasma characterization using terahertz–wave–enhanced fluorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

J. Dai, N. Karpowicz, and X. C. Zhang, “Coherent polarization control of terahertz waves generated from two-color laser-induced gas plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 023001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu and X. C. Zhang, “Terahertz-radiation-enhanced emission of fluorescence from gas plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 235002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360, 171–175 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire terahertz gap,”' Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10 μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express 15, 4577–4584 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

C. J. Strachan, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, K. C. Gordon, J. A. Zeitler, M. Pepper, and T. Rades, “Using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy to quantify pharmaceutical polymorphism and crystallinity,” J. Pharm. Sci. 94, 837–846 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe, “Security applications of terahertz technology,” Proc. SPIE 44–52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1, 26–33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 50, 910–928 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Transient photoconductivity in GaAs as measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 15764 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, “Femtosecond pulse propagation in argon: A pressure dependence study,” Phys. Rev. E 58, 4903–4910 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

A. Talebpour and C.-Y. Chien, and S. L. Chin, “Population trapping in rare gases,” J. Phys. B 29, 5725–5733 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, “Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate,” Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052–R3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Nahata, D. H. Auston, T. F. Heinz, and C. Wu, “Coherent detection of freely propagating terahertz radiation by electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 150–152 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523–3525 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1989 (1)

M. van Exter, C. Fattinger, and D. Grischkowsky, “High-brightness terahertz beams characterized with an ultrafast detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 337–339 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).

Ammosov, M. V.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).

Auston, D. H.

A. Nahata, D. H. Auston, T. F. Heinz, and C. Wu, “Coherent detection of freely propagating terahertz radiation by electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 150–152 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Azarm, A.

H. L. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360, 171–175 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beard, M. C.

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Transient photoconductivity in GaAs as measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 15764 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Beere, H. E.

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beltram, F.

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernhardt, J.

H. L. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360, 171–175 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire terahertz gap,”' Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chien, C.-Y.

A. Talebpour and C.-Y. Chien, and S. L. Chin, “Population trapping in rare gases,” J. Phys. B 29, 5725–5733 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

J. Liu, J. Dai, S. L. Chin, and X. C. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave remote sensing using coherent manipulation of fluorescence from asymmetrically ionized gases,” Nat. Photon. 4, 627–631 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360, 171–175 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Talebpour and C.-Y. Chien, and S. L. Chin, “Population trapping in rare gases,” J. Phys. B 29, 5725–5733 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cluff, J. A.

M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe, “Security applications of terahertz technology,” Proc. SPIE 44–52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cole, B. E.

M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe, “Security applications of terahertz technology,” Proc. SPIE 44–52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dai, J.

J. Liu, J. Dai, S. L. Chin, and X. C. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave remote sensing using coherent manipulation of fluorescence from asymmetrically ionized gases,” Nat. Photon. 4, 627–631 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Dai, N. Karpowicz, and X. C. Zhang, “Coherent polarization control of terahertz waves generated from two-color laser-induced gas plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 023001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire terahertz gap,”' Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Davies, A. G.

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delone, N. B.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).

Exter, M. v.

Fattinger, C.

D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. v. Exter, and C. Fattinger, “Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2006–2015 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. van Exter, C. Fattinger, and D. Grischkowsky, “High-brightness terahertz beams characterized with an ultrafast detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 337–339 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, B.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1, 26–33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fitzgerald, A. J.

M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe, “Security applications of terahertz technology,” Proc. SPIE 44–52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fletcher, C.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire terahertz gap,”' Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Glownia, J. H.

Gordon, K. C.

C. J. Strachan, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, K. C. Gordon, J. A. Zeitler, M. Pepper, and T. Rades, “Using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy to quantify pharmaceutical polymorphism and crystallinity,” J. Pharm. Sci. 94, 837–846 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grischkowsky, D.

D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. v. Exter, and C. Fattinger, “Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2006–2015 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. van Exter, C. Fattinger, and D. Grischkowsky, “High-brightness terahertz beams characterized with an ultrafast detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 337–339 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hebling, J.

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10 μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Heinz, T. F.

A. Nahata, D. H. Auston, T. F. Heinz, and C. Wu, “Coherent detection of freely propagating terahertz radiation by electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 150–152 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Helm, H.

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, “Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate,” Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052–R3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, M. C.

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10 μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Iotti, R. C.

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jepsen, P. U.

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, “Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate,” Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052–R3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, K.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire terahertz gap,”' Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kamali, Y.

H. L. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360, 171–175 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Karpowicz, N.

J. Dai, N. Karpowicz, and X. C. Zhang, “Coherent polarization control of terahertz waves generated from two-color laser-induced gas plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 023001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire terahertz gap,”' Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S.

Keiding, S. R.

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, “Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate,” Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052–R3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kemp, M. C.

M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe, “Security applications of terahertz technology,” Proc. SPIE 44–52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. Y.

Kohler, R.

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krainov, V. P.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).

Lesimple, A.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire terahertz gap,”' Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E. H.

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

J. Liu and X.-C. Zhang, “Plasma characterization using terahertz–wave–enhanced fluorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, J. Dai, S. L. Chin, and X. C. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave remote sensing using coherent manipulation of fluorescence from asymmetrically ionized gases,” Nat. Photon. 4, 627–631 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu and X. C. Zhang, “Terahertz-radiation-enhanced emission of fluorescence from gas plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 235002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, X.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire terahertz gap,”' Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mamer, O.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire terahertz gap,”' Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mlejnek, M.

M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, “Femtosecond pulse propagation in argon: A pressure dependence study,” Phys. Rev. E 58, 4903–4910 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moloney, J. V.

M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, “Femtosecond pulse propagation in argon: A pressure dependence study,” Phys. Rev. E 58, 4903–4910 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nahata, A.

A. Nahata, D. H. Auston, T. F. Heinz, and C. Wu, “Coherent detection of freely propagating terahertz radiation by electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 150–152 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, K. A.

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10 μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Newnham, D. A.

C. J. Strachan, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, K. C. Gordon, J. A. Zeitler, M. Pepper, and T. Rades, “Using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy to quantify pharmaceutical polymorphism and crystallinity,” J. Pharm. Sci. 94, 837–846 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pepper, M.

C. J. Strachan, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, K. C. Gordon, J. A. Zeitler, M. Pepper, and T. Rades, “Using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy to quantify pharmaceutical polymorphism and crystallinity,” J. Pharm. Sci. 94, 837–846 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Price-Gallagher, M.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire terahertz gap,”' Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rades, T.

C. J. Strachan, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, K. C. Gordon, J. A. Zeitler, M. Pepper, and T. Rades, “Using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy to quantify pharmaceutical polymorphism and crystallinity,” J. Pharm. Sci. 94, 837–846 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ritchie, D. A.

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodriguez, G.

Rossi, F.

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schall, M.

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, “Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate,” Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052–R3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schmuttenmaer, C. A.

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Transient photoconductivity in GaAs as measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 15764 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schyja, V.

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, “Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate,” Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052–R3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, P. H.

P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 50, 910–928 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Strachan, C. J.

C. J. Strachan, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, K. C. Gordon, J. A. Zeitler, M. Pepper, and T. Rades, “Using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy to quantify pharmaceutical polymorphism and crystallinity,” J. Pharm. Sci. 94, 837–846 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taday, P. F.

C. J. Strachan, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, K. C. Gordon, J. A. Zeitler, M. Pepper, and T. Rades, “Using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy to quantify pharmaceutical polymorphism and crystallinity,” J. Pharm. Sci. 94, 837–846 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe, “Security applications of terahertz technology,” Proc. SPIE 44–52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Talebpour, A.

A. Talebpour and C.-Y. Chien, and S. L. Chin, “Population trapping in rare gases,” J. Phys. B 29, 5725–5733 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

Tredicucci, A.

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tribe, W. R.

M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe, “Security applications of terahertz technology,” Proc. SPIE 44–52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Turner, G. M.

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Transient photoconductivity in GaAs as measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 15764 (2000).
[CrossRef]

van Exter, M.

M. van Exter, C. Fattinger, and D. Grischkowsky, “High-brightness terahertz beams characterized with an ultrafast detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 337–339 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Winnewisser, C.

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, “Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate,” Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052–R3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wright, E. M.

M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, “Femtosecond pulse propagation in argon: A pressure dependence study,” Phys. Rev. E 58, 4903–4910 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.

A. Nahata, D. H. Auston, T. F. Heinz, and C. Wu, “Coherent detection of freely propagating terahertz radiation by electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 150–152 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523–3525 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H. L.

H. L. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360, 171–175 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, M.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire terahertz gap,”' Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, K.-L.

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10 μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zeitler, J. A.

C. J. Strachan, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, K. C. Gordon, J. A. Zeitler, M. Pepper, and T. Rades, “Using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy to quantify pharmaceutical polymorphism and crystallinity,” J. Pharm. Sci. 94, 837–846 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, C.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire terahertz gap,”' Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire terahertz gap,”' Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. C.

J. Liu, J. Dai, S. L. Chin, and X. C. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave remote sensing using coherent manipulation of fluorescence from asymmetrically ionized gases,” Nat. Photon. 4, 627–631 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu and X. C. Zhang, “Terahertz-radiation-enhanced emission of fluorescence from gas plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 235002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Dai, N. Karpowicz, and X. C. Zhang, “Coherent polarization control of terahertz waves generated from two-color laser-induced gas plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 023001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.-C.

J. Liu and X.-C. Zhang, “Plasma characterization using terahertz–wave–enhanced fluorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire terahertz gap,”' Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1, 26–33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523–3525 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, H.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire terahertz gap,”' Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

M. van Exter, C. Fattinger, and D. Grischkowsky, “High-brightness terahertz beams characterized with an ultrafast detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 337–339 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523–3525 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Nahata, D. H. Auston, T. F. Heinz, and C. Wu, “Coherent detection of freely propagating terahertz radiation by electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 150–152 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire terahertz gap,”' Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu and X.-C. Zhang, “Plasma characterization using terahertz–wave–enhanced fluorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10 μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. (1)

H. L. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360, 171–175 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 50, 910–928 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Pharm. Sci. (1)

C. J. Strachan, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, K. C. Gordon, J. A. Zeitler, M. Pepper, and T. Rades, “Using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy to quantify pharmaceutical polymorphism and crystallinity,” J. Pharm. Sci. 94, 837–846 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. B (1)

A. Talebpour and C.-Y. Chien, and S. L. Chin, “Population trapping in rare gases,” J. Phys. B 29, 5725–5733 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1, 26–33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (1)

J. Liu, J. Dai, S. L. Chin, and X. C. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave remote sensing using coherent manipulation of fluorescence from asymmetrically ionized gases,” Nat. Photon. 4, 627–631 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Transient photoconductivity in GaAs as measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 15764 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (2)

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, “Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate,” Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052–R3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, “Femtosecond pulse propagation in argon: A pressure dependence study,” Phys. Rev. E 58, 4903–4910 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

J. Dai, N. Karpowicz, and X. C. Zhang, “Coherent polarization control of terahertz waves generated from two-color laser-induced gas plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 023001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu and X. C. Zhang, “Terahertz-radiation-enhanced emission of fluorescence from gas plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 235002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe, “Security applications of terahertz technology,” Proc. SPIE 44–52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) A nitrogen molecule in high-lying state experiences several collisions with the kinetic electrons and becomes ionized. (b) Energy state of the nitrogen molecule being excited and finally ionized by electron collisions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Illustration of the frequent collisions with molecules within the THz pulse duration for a single electron. The small and big circles represent the electrons and molecules, respectively. The arrows are the directions of the electron movement. Black dashed line represents the timing when the collision events occur.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Nitrogen photoemission spectra in the THz field. (b) THz field dependence of the photoemission enhancement at 357 nm . Inset, the isotropic photoemission pattern.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The temporal correlation between THz–wave–enhanced photoemission (black), THz field (red), THz intensity (magenta), and derivative of enhanced photoemission (blue) when no filter was used. (b) The same temporal correlation when filter #1 was used. (c) The same temporal correlation when filter #2 was used. The absolute timing of the derivative of enhanced photoemission is shifted intentionally for better comparison of all three cases.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Measured THz-enhanced photoemission at different THz fields at 10   torr . (b) Measured THz field dependence of the peak of the enhanced photoemission at 10   torr .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Illustration of the relative phase between two-color laser fields. (b) Measured phase dependence of background photoemission and plasma–photocurrent–induced THz emission are compared with the calculated phase dependence of ion yield and THz emission. The red arrow represents the electron drifting.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Measured and (b) calculated time-resolved THz-enhanced photoemission at relative phase of π / 2 , 0, and π / 2 when E THz E Opt . (c) Measured time-resolved THz-enhanced photoemission at relative phase of π / 2 , 0, and π / 2 when E THz E Opt .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

THz waveforms measured by photoemission when E THz E Opt and by EO, respectively.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Field dependence of photoemission at difference phases at t A . Inset, quadratic fit of I ( π / 2 ) at t A . (b) Field dependence of photoemission at difference phases at t B . Inset, linear fit of the difference between I ( π / 2 ) and I ( π / 2 ) ) at t B . (c) Field dependence of photoemission at difference phases at t C . Inset, linear fit of the difference between I ( π / 2 ) and I ( π / 2 ) at t C .

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Transmitted THz waveform through 4A-DNT sample pellet in comparison to the reference waveform. Both waveforms are measured by THz-enhanced photoemission (TEP). (b) The corresponding absorption spectra obtained by using TEP and EO. Inset, the chemical structure of 4A-DNT.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

The measured THz field dependence of the enhanced photoemission signal and quadratical fit in log scale.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

The time domain THz waveforms measured by photoemission at different distances, as compared to the waveform measured by EO sampling. Inset, the THz spectrum at 10 m .

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ I ( i = 1 Δ E i ( τ , t d ) | E THz i = 1 Δ E i ( τ , t d ) | E THz = 0 ) ,
Δ E i ( τ , t d ) = + ( m v 2 ( 0 ) / 2 + m v Δ v 1 ) k ( 1 k ) i 1 ρ ( v ( 0 ) ) d v ( 0 ) + k m j = 1 i Δ v j 2 ( 1 k ) i j ,
Δ E i ( τ , t d ) = + m v 2 ( 0 ) k ( 1 k ) i 1 ρ ( v ( 0 ) ) d v ( 0 ) / 2 + k m j = 1 i Δ v j 2 ( 1 k ) i j .
lim τ τ THz Δ I e 2 2 m ( t d E THz ( t ) d t ) 2 A 2 ( t d ) .
lim τ τ THz Δ I e 2 τ 2 m t d + E THz 2 ( t ) d t .
Δ I ( Δ ϕ ω , 2 ω ) [ + ( m e v 2 ( 0 ) + 2 m e v ( 0 ) Δ v 1 ) ρ ( v ( 0 ) , Δ ϕ ω , 2 ω ) d v ( 0 ) / 2 + m e i = 1 Δ v i 2 ] ,
Δ I ( π / 2 ) Δ I ( π / 2 ) E THz .

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