Abstract

We present a fully fiber-coupled terahertz time domain spectrometer based on a single ultrafast laser with an adjustable pulse repetition frequency that does not employ an external delay line. Our approach represents a major improvement over other schemes that either employ external movable delay lines or alternatively asynchronous optical sampling schemes that also do not need an external delay stage, but employ two lasers instead. The scanning range of our spectrometer covers the full temporal delay between two adjacent pulses of 4ns. This allows for a fully fiber-coupled system, enabling unprecedented robustness and ease of use.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. U. Jepsen, R. H. Jacobsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Generation and detection of terahertz pulses from biased semiconductor antennas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2424–2436 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2010 (3)

2009 (2)

G. Klatt, R. Gebs, C. Janke, T. Dekorsy, and A. Bartels, “Rapid-scanning terahertz precision spectrometer with more than 6 THz spectral coverage,” Opt. Express 17, 22847–22854 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Wilk, N. Vieweg, O. Kopschinski, T. Hasek, and M. Koch, “THz spectroscopy of liquid crystals from the CB family,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahz. Waves 30, 1139–1147 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

T. Yasui, E. Saneyoshi, and T. Araki, “Asynchronous optical sampling terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for ultrahigh spectral resolution and rapid data acquisition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

J. Xu, Z. Lu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Compact involute optical delay line,” Electron. Lett. 40, 1218–1219 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye, “Absolute measurement of a long, arbitrary distance to less than an optical fringe,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1153–1155(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

1996 (1)

1992 (1)

J. E. Pedersen and S. R. Keiding, “THz time-domain spectroscopy of nonpolar liquids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2518–2522 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1987 (1)

Araki, T.

T. Yasui, E. Saneyoshi, and T. Araki, “Asynchronous optical sampling terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for ultrahigh spectral resolution and rapid data acquisition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bartels, A.

Böttcher, J.

Dekorsy, T.

Dietz, R. J. B.

Elzinga, P. A.

Fattinger, C.

Gebs, R.

Grischkowsky, D.

Hasek, T.

R. Wilk, N. Vieweg, O. Kopschinski, T. Hasek, and M. Koch, “THz spectroscopy of liquid crystals from the CB family,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahz. Waves 30, 1139–1147 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Krumbholz, M. Schwerdtfeger, T. Hasek, B. Scherger, and M. Koch, “A fiberstretcher operating as an optical delay line in a fiber-coupled THz spectrometer,” in 33rd International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves, 2008 (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–2.
[CrossRef]

Hensel, H. J.

Hochrein, T.

T. Hochrein, R. Wilk, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, N. Krumbholz, and M. Koch, “Optical sampling by laser cavity tuning,” Opt. Express 18, 1613–1617 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Wilk, T. Hochrein, M. Koch, M. Mei, and R. Holzwarth, “OSCAT: novel technique for time-resolved experiments without moveable optical delay lines,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahz. Waves (2010).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, R.

R. Wilk, T. Hochrein, M. Koch, M. Mei, and R. Holzwarth, “OSCAT: novel technique for time-resolved experiments without moveable optical delay lines,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahz. Waves (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Hochrein, R. Wilk, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, N. Krumbholz, and M. Koch, “Optical sampling by laser cavity tuning,” Opt. Express 18, 1613–1617 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobsen, R. H.

Janke, C.

Jepsen, P. U.

Jiang, Y.

Keiding, S.

Keiding, S. R.

P. U. Jepsen, R. H. Jacobsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Generation and detection of terahertz pulses from biased semiconductor antennas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2424–2436 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Pedersen and S. R. Keiding, “THz time-domain spectroscopy of nonpolar liquids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2518–2522 (1992).
[CrossRef]

King, G. B.

Klatt, G.

Kneisler, R. J.

Koch, M.

T. Hochrein, R. Wilk, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, N. Krumbholz, and M. Koch, “Optical sampling by laser cavity tuning,” Opt. Express 18, 1613–1617 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Wilk, T. Hochrein, M. Koch, M. Mei, and R. Holzwarth, “OSCAT: novel technique for time-resolved experiments without moveable optical delay lines,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahz. Waves (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Wilk, N. Vieweg, O. Kopschinski, T. Hasek, and M. Koch, “THz spectroscopy of liquid crystals from the CB family,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahz. Waves 30, 1139–1147 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Krumbholz, M. Schwerdtfeger, T. Hasek, B. Scherger, and M. Koch, “A fiberstretcher operating as an optical delay line in a fiber-coupled THz spectrometer,” in 33rd International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves, 2008 (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–2.
[CrossRef]

Kopschinski, O.

R. Wilk, N. Vieweg, O. Kopschinski, T. Hasek, and M. Koch, “THz spectroscopy of liquid crystals from the CB family,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahz. Waves 30, 1139–1147 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krumbholz, N.

T. Hochrein, R. Wilk, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, N. Krumbholz, and M. Koch, “Optical sampling by laser cavity tuning,” Opt. Express 18, 1613–1617 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Krumbholz, M. Schwerdtfeger, T. Hasek, B. Scherger, and M. Koch, “A fiberstretcher operating as an optical delay line in a fiber-coupled THz spectrometer,” in 33rd International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves, 2008 (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–2.
[CrossRef]

Künzel, H.

Laurendeau, N. M.

Lu, Z.

J. Xu, Z. Lu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Compact involute optical delay line,” Electron. Lett. 40, 1218–1219 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lytle, F. E.

Matsumoto, H.

Mei, M.

T. Hochrein, R. Wilk, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, N. Krumbholz, and M. Koch, “Optical sampling by laser cavity tuning,” Opt. Express 18, 1613–1617 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Wilk, T. Hochrein, M. Koch, M. Mei, and R. Holzwarth, “OSCAT: novel technique for time-resolved experiments without moveable optical delay lines,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahz. Waves (2010).
[CrossRef]

Minoshima, K.

Pedersen, J. E.

J. E. Pedersen and S. R. Keiding, “THz time-domain spectroscopy of nonpolar liquids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2518–2522 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Roehle, H.

Saneyoshi, E.

T. Yasui, E. Saneyoshi, and T. Araki, “Asynchronous optical sampling terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for ultrahigh spectral resolution and rapid data acquisition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sartorius, B.

Schell, M.

Scherger, B.

N. Krumbholz, M. Schwerdtfeger, T. Hasek, B. Scherger, and M. Koch, “A fiberstretcher operating as an optical delay line in a fiber-coupled THz spectrometer,” in 33rd International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves, 2008 (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–2.
[CrossRef]

Schwerdtfeger, M.

N. Krumbholz, M. Schwerdtfeger, T. Hasek, B. Scherger, and M. Koch, “A fiberstretcher operating as an optical delay line in a fiber-coupled THz spectrometer,” in 33rd International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves, 2008 (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–2.
[CrossRef]

Stanze, D.

van Exter, M.

Vieweg, N.

R. Wilk, N. Vieweg, O. Kopschinski, T. Hasek, and M. Koch, “THz spectroscopy of liquid crystals from the CB family,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahz. Waves 30, 1139–1147 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wilk, R.

T. Hochrein, R. Wilk, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, N. Krumbholz, and M. Koch, “Optical sampling by laser cavity tuning,” Opt. Express 18, 1613–1617 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Wilk, T. Hochrein, M. Koch, M. Mei, and R. Holzwarth, “OSCAT: novel technique for time-resolved experiments without moveable optical delay lines,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahz. Waves (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Wilk, N. Vieweg, O. Kopschinski, T. Hasek, and M. Koch, “THz spectroscopy of liquid crystals from the CB family,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahz. Waves 30, 1139–1147 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

J. Xu, Z. Lu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Compact involute optical delay line,” Electron. Lett. 40, 1218–1219 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamaoka, Y.

Yasui, T.

T. Yasui, E. Saneyoshi, and T. Araki, “Asynchronous optical sampling terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for ultrahigh spectral resolution and rapid data acquisition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

Zhang, X.-C.

J. Xu, Z. Lu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Compact involute optical delay line,” Electron. Lett. 40, 1218–1219 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Yasui, E. Saneyoshi, and T. Araki, “Asynchronous optical sampling terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for ultrahigh spectral resolution and rapid data acquisition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. Xu, Z. Lu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Compact involute optical delay line,” Electron. Lett. 40, 1218–1219 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. E. Pedersen and S. R. Keiding, “THz time-domain spectroscopy of nonpolar liquids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2518–2522 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Infrared Millim. Terahz. Waves (2)

R. Wilk, N. Vieweg, O. Kopschinski, T. Hasek, and M. Koch, “THz spectroscopy of liquid crystals from the CB family,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahz. Waves 30, 1139–1147 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Wilk, T. Hochrein, M. Koch, M. Mei, and R. Holzwarth, “OSCAT: novel technique for time-resolved experiments without moveable optical delay lines,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahz. Waves (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (1)

N. Krumbholz, M. Schwerdtfeger, T. Hasek, B. Scherger, and M. Koch, “A fiberstretcher operating as an optical delay line in a fiber-coupled THz spectrometer,” in 33rd International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves, 2008 (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–2.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principle of operation of optical scanning by cavity tuning. Solid and dashed curves show pulse train for f rep and f rep + Δ f , respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Autocorrelation signal after passing through an 80 m -long fiber link.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Pulse width and (b) output power stability of the M-Fiber laser over entire 2.5 MHz tuning range.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup. Rx, LT-InGaAs detector antenna; Tx, LT-inGaAs emitter antennae.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Measured THz pulse and (b) corresponding spectrum.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured refractive index of 550 μm -thick high-resistivity Si wafer.

Equations (2)

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Δ τ = a ( 1 f rep 1 f rep + Δ f ) .
l d = Δ τ · c 0 · ( f rep + Δ f ) Δ f · n .

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