Abstract

We report the observation of coherent UV light pulses by the coherent scattering of IR pulses from atomic rubidium vapor. Rubidium atoms were first excited by a 100fs pulse from the 5S ground state to the 5D state via a two-photon transition. The atoms were then pumped by an IR pulse resonant to the 5D–12P transition. The presence of the IR pulse triggered the instantaneous emission of a UV light pulse on the 12P–5S transition. The pulse had a time duration of tens of picoseconds, which was measured by a picosecond-resolution streak camera. The temporal shape of the generated light is explained by a simplified atom–field interaction theory.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, 2003).
  2. R. B. Miles and S. E. Harris, “Optical third-harmonic generation in alkali metal vapors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 470–484 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. A. Kiyashko, A. K. Popov, V. P. Timofeev, and G. V. Yurov, “Resonant upconversion of λ=1.06 μm radiation in rubidium vapors,” Appl. Phys. B 30, 157–159 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. K. Popov, “Upconversion of IR radiation into the visible and UV ranges,” Infrared Phys. 25, 21–27 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. S. E. Eikema, J. Walz, and T. W. Hänsch, “Continuous wave coherent Lyman-α radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3828–3831 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. S. E. Eikema, J. Walz, and T. W. Hänsch, “Continuous coherent Lyman-α excitation of atomic hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5679–5682 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. S. Zibrov, M. D. Lukin, L. Hollberg, and M. O. Scully, “Efficient frequency up-conversion in resonant coherent media,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 051801 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Meijer, J. D. White, B. Smeets, M. Jeppesen, and R. E. Scholten, “Blue five-level frequency-upconversion system in rubidium,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1002–1004 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. M. Akulshin, R. J. McLean, A. I. Sidorov, and P. Hannaford, “Collinear and collimated blue light generated by four-wave mixing in Rb vapour,” Opt. Express 17, 22861–22870 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Vernier, S. Franke-Arnold, E. Riis, and A. S. Arnold, “Enhanced frequency up-conversion in Rb vapor,” Opt. Express 18, 17020–17026 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. V. Sulham, G. A. Pitz, and G. P. Perram, “Blue and infrared stimulated emission from alkali vapors pumped through two-photon absorption,” Appl. Phys. B 101, 57–63 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Okada, K. Ikeda, and M. Matsuoka, “Cooperative cascade emission,” Opt. Commun. 26, 189–192 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. H. Dicke, “Coherence in spontaneous radiation processes,” Phys. Rev. 93, 99–110 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  14. N. Skribanowitz, I. P. Herman, J. C. MacGillivray, and M. S. Feld, “Observation of Dicke superradiance in optically pumped HF gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 309–312 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Marek, “Observation of superradiance in Rb vapour,” J. Phys. B 12, L229–L234 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. Paradis, B. Barrett, A. Kumarakrishnan, R. Zhang, and G. Raithel, “Observation of superfluorescent emissions from laser-cooled atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 043419 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. I. Lvovsky, S. R. Hartmann, and F. Moshary, “Omnidirectional superfluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4420–4423 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. O. Ariunbold, M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, H. Li, Y. V. Rostovtsev, G. R. Welch, and M. O. Scully, “Observation of picosecond superfluorescent pulses in rubidium vapor pumped by 100-femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043421(2010).
    [CrossRef]
  19. V. A. Sautenkov, T. S. Varzhapetyan, H. Li, D. Sarkisyan, and M. O. Scully, “Selective reflection of a laser beam from a dilute rubidium vapor,” J. Russ. Laser Res. 31, 270–275 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. H. Brownell, X. Lu, and S. R. Hartmann, “Yoked superfluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3265–3268 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. C. E. Theodociou, “Lifetimes of alkali-metal-atom Rydberg states,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 2881–2909 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. O. Scully and M. S. Zubairy, Quantum Optics (Cambridge University, 1997).
  23. K. Ikeda, J. Okada, and M. Matsuoka, “Theory of cooperative cascade emission. I. Linear stochastic theory,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 48, 1636–1645 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  24. F. Haake, J. W. Haus, H. King, G. Schröder, and R. Glauber, “Delay-time statistics of superfluorescent pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 23, 1322–1333 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  25. D. C. Burnham and R. Y. Chiao, “Coherent resonance fluorescence excited by short light pulses,” Phys. Rev. 188, 667–675(1969).
    [CrossRef]
  26. F. P. Mattar, H. M. Gibbs, S. L. McCall, and M. S. Feld, “Transverse effects in superfluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1123–1126 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  27. D. J. Heinzen, J. E. Thomas, and M. S. Feld, “Coherent ringing in superfluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 677–680 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. M. O. Scully, Y. Rostovtsev, A. Svidzinsky, and J.-T. Chang, “XUV coherent Raman superradiance,” J. Mod. Opt. 55, 3219–3236(2008).
    [CrossRef]

2010

A. Vernier, S. Franke-Arnold, E. Riis, and A. S. Arnold, “Enhanced frequency up-conversion in Rb vapor,” Opt. Express 18, 17020–17026 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. V. Sulham, G. A. Pitz, and G. P. Perram, “Blue and infrared stimulated emission from alkali vapors pumped through two-photon absorption,” Appl. Phys. B 101, 57–63 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. O. Ariunbold, M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, H. Li, Y. V. Rostovtsev, G. R. Welch, and M. O. Scully, “Observation of picosecond superfluorescent pulses in rubidium vapor pumped by 100-femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043421(2010).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Sautenkov, T. S. Varzhapetyan, H. Li, D. Sarkisyan, and M. O. Scully, “Selective reflection of a laser beam from a dilute rubidium vapor,” J. Russ. Laser Res. 31, 270–275 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

E. Paradis, B. Barrett, A. Kumarakrishnan, R. Zhang, and G. Raithel, “Observation of superfluorescent emissions from laser-cooled atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 043419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. O. Scully, Y. Rostovtsev, A. Svidzinsky, and J.-T. Chang, “XUV coherent Raman superradiance,” J. Mod. Opt. 55, 3219–3236(2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

2002

A. S. Zibrov, M. D. Lukin, L. Hollberg, and M. O. Scully, “Efficient frequency up-conversion in resonant coherent media,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 051801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

K. S. E. Eikema, J. Walz, and T. W. Hänsch, “Continuous coherent Lyman-α excitation of atomic hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5679–5682 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

K. S. E. Eikema, J. Walz, and T. W. Hänsch, “Continuous wave coherent Lyman-α radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3828–3831 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Lvovsky, S. R. Hartmann, and F. Moshary, “Omnidirectional superfluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4420–4423 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995

J. H. Brownell, X. Lu, and S. R. Hartmann, “Yoked superfluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3265–3268 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

D. J. Heinzen, J. E. Thomas, and M. S. Feld, “Coherent ringing in superfluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 677–680 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Popov, “Upconversion of IR radiation into the visible and UV ranges,” Infrared Phys. 25, 21–27 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

C. E. Theodociou, “Lifetimes of alkali-metal-atom Rydberg states,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 2881–2909 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

V. A. Kiyashko, A. K. Popov, V. P. Timofeev, and G. V. Yurov, “Resonant upconversion of λ=1.06 μm radiation in rubidium vapors,” Appl. Phys. B 30, 157–159 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981

F. P. Mattar, H. M. Gibbs, S. L. McCall, and M. S. Feld, “Transverse effects in superfluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1123–1126 (1981).
[CrossRef]

F. Haake, J. W. Haus, H. King, G. Schröder, and R. Glauber, “Delay-time statistics of superfluorescent pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 23, 1322–1333 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980

K. Ikeda, J. Okada, and M. Matsuoka, “Theory of cooperative cascade emission. I. Linear stochastic theory,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 48, 1636–1645 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979

J. Marek, “Observation of superradiance in Rb vapour,” J. Phys. B 12, L229–L234 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978

J. Okada, K. Ikeda, and M. Matsuoka, “Cooperative cascade emission,” Opt. Commun. 26, 189–192 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1973

N. Skribanowitz, I. P. Herman, J. C. MacGillivray, and M. S. Feld, “Observation of Dicke superradiance in optically pumped HF gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 309–312 (1973).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Miles and S. E. Harris, “Optical third-harmonic generation in alkali metal vapors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 470–484 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1969

D. C. Burnham and R. Y. Chiao, “Coherent resonance fluorescence excited by short light pulses,” Phys. Rev. 188, 667–675(1969).
[CrossRef]

1954

R. H. Dicke, “Coherence in spontaneous radiation processes,” Phys. Rev. 93, 99–110 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Akulshin, A. M.

Ariunbold, G. O.

G. O. Ariunbold, M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, H. Li, Y. V. Rostovtsev, G. R. Welch, and M. O. Scully, “Observation of picosecond superfluorescent pulses in rubidium vapor pumped by 100-femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043421(2010).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, A. S.

Barrett, B.

E. Paradis, B. Barrett, A. Kumarakrishnan, R. Zhang, and G. Raithel, “Observation of superfluorescent emissions from laser-cooled atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 043419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, 2003).

Brownell, J. H.

J. H. Brownell, X. Lu, and S. R. Hartmann, “Yoked superfluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3265–3268 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burnham, D. C.

D. C. Burnham and R. Y. Chiao, “Coherent resonance fluorescence excited by short light pulses,” Phys. Rev. 188, 667–675(1969).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J.-T.

M. O. Scully, Y. Rostovtsev, A. Svidzinsky, and J.-T. Chang, “XUV coherent Raman superradiance,” J. Mod. Opt. 55, 3219–3236(2008).
[CrossRef]

Chiao, R. Y.

D. C. Burnham and R. Y. Chiao, “Coherent resonance fluorescence excited by short light pulses,” Phys. Rev. 188, 667–675(1969).
[CrossRef]

Dicke, R. H.

R. H. Dicke, “Coherence in spontaneous radiation processes,” Phys. Rev. 93, 99–110 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Eikema, K. S. E.

K. S. E. Eikema, J. Walz, and T. W. Hänsch, “Continuous coherent Lyman-α excitation of atomic hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5679–5682 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. E. Eikema, J. Walz, and T. W. Hänsch, “Continuous wave coherent Lyman-α radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3828–3831 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Feld, M. S.

D. J. Heinzen, J. E. Thomas, and M. S. Feld, “Coherent ringing in superfluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 677–680 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. P. Mattar, H. M. Gibbs, S. L. McCall, and M. S. Feld, “Transverse effects in superfluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1123–1126 (1981).
[CrossRef]

N. Skribanowitz, I. P. Herman, J. C. MacGillivray, and M. S. Feld, “Observation of Dicke superradiance in optically pumped HF gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 309–312 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Franke-Arnold, S.

Gibbs, H. M.

F. P. Mattar, H. M. Gibbs, S. L. McCall, and M. S. Feld, “Transverse effects in superfluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1123–1126 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Glauber, R.

F. Haake, J. W. Haus, H. King, G. Schröder, and R. Glauber, “Delay-time statistics of superfluorescent pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 23, 1322–1333 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Haake, F.

F. Haake, J. W. Haus, H. King, G. Schröder, and R. Glauber, “Delay-time statistics of superfluorescent pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 23, 1322–1333 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Hannaford, P.

Hänsch, T. W.

K. S. E. Eikema, J. Walz, and T. W. Hänsch, “Continuous coherent Lyman-α excitation of atomic hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5679–5682 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. E. Eikema, J. Walz, and T. W. Hänsch, “Continuous wave coherent Lyman-α radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3828–3831 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Harris, S. E.

R. B. Miles and S. E. Harris, “Optical third-harmonic generation in alkali metal vapors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 470–484 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Hartmann, S. R.

A. I. Lvovsky, S. R. Hartmann, and F. Moshary, “Omnidirectional superfluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4420–4423 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Brownell, X. Lu, and S. R. Hartmann, “Yoked superfluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3265–3268 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haus, J. W.

F. Haake, J. W. Haus, H. King, G. Schröder, and R. Glauber, “Delay-time statistics of superfluorescent pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 23, 1322–1333 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Heinzen, D. J.

D. J. Heinzen, J. E. Thomas, and M. S. Feld, “Coherent ringing in superfluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 677–680 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herman, I. P.

N. Skribanowitz, I. P. Herman, J. C. MacGillivray, and M. S. Feld, “Observation of Dicke superradiance in optically pumped HF gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 309–312 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

A. S. Zibrov, M. D. Lukin, L. Hollberg, and M. O. Scully, “Efficient frequency up-conversion in resonant coherent media,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 051801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, K.

K. Ikeda, J. Okada, and M. Matsuoka, “Theory of cooperative cascade emission. I. Linear stochastic theory,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 48, 1636–1645 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Okada, K. Ikeda, and M. Matsuoka, “Cooperative cascade emission,” Opt. Commun. 26, 189–192 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Jeppesen, M.

Kash, M. M.

G. O. Ariunbold, M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, H. Li, Y. V. Rostovtsev, G. R. Welch, and M. O. Scully, “Observation of picosecond superfluorescent pulses in rubidium vapor pumped by 100-femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043421(2010).
[CrossRef]

King, H.

F. Haake, J. W. Haus, H. King, G. Schröder, and R. Glauber, “Delay-time statistics of superfluorescent pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 23, 1322–1333 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kiyashko, V. A.

V. A. Kiyashko, A. K. Popov, V. P. Timofeev, and G. V. Yurov, “Resonant upconversion of λ=1.06 μm radiation in rubidium vapors,” Appl. Phys. B 30, 157–159 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kumarakrishnan, A.

E. Paradis, B. Barrett, A. Kumarakrishnan, R. Zhang, and G. Raithel, “Observation of superfluorescent emissions from laser-cooled atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 043419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

G. O. Ariunbold, M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, H. Li, Y. V. Rostovtsev, G. R. Welch, and M. O. Scully, “Observation of picosecond superfluorescent pulses in rubidium vapor pumped by 100-femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043421(2010).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Sautenkov, T. S. Varzhapetyan, H. Li, D. Sarkisyan, and M. O. Scully, “Selective reflection of a laser beam from a dilute rubidium vapor,” J. Russ. Laser Res. 31, 270–275 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lu, X.

J. H. Brownell, X. Lu, and S. R. Hartmann, “Yoked superfluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3265–3268 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lukin, M. D.

A. S. Zibrov, M. D. Lukin, L. Hollberg, and M. O. Scully, “Efficient frequency up-conversion in resonant coherent media,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 051801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lvovsky, A. I.

A. I. Lvovsky, S. R. Hartmann, and F. Moshary, “Omnidirectional superfluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4420–4423 (1999).
[CrossRef]

MacGillivray, J. C.

N. Skribanowitz, I. P. Herman, J. C. MacGillivray, and M. S. Feld, “Observation of Dicke superradiance in optically pumped HF gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 309–312 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Marek, J.

J. Marek, “Observation of superradiance in Rb vapour,” J. Phys. B 12, L229–L234 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Matsuoka, M.

K. Ikeda, J. Okada, and M. Matsuoka, “Theory of cooperative cascade emission. I. Linear stochastic theory,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 48, 1636–1645 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Okada, K. Ikeda, and M. Matsuoka, “Cooperative cascade emission,” Opt. Commun. 26, 189–192 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Mattar, F. P.

F. P. Mattar, H. M. Gibbs, S. L. McCall, and M. S. Feld, “Transverse effects in superfluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1123–1126 (1981).
[CrossRef]

McCall, S. L.

F. P. Mattar, H. M. Gibbs, S. L. McCall, and M. S. Feld, “Transverse effects in superfluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1123–1126 (1981).
[CrossRef]

McLean, R. J.

Meijer, T.

Miles, R. B.

R. B. Miles and S. E. Harris, “Optical third-harmonic generation in alkali metal vapors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 470–484 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Moshary, F.

A. I. Lvovsky, S. R. Hartmann, and F. Moshary, “Omnidirectional superfluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4420–4423 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Okada, J.

K. Ikeda, J. Okada, and M. Matsuoka, “Theory of cooperative cascade emission. I. Linear stochastic theory,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 48, 1636–1645 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Okada, K. Ikeda, and M. Matsuoka, “Cooperative cascade emission,” Opt. Commun. 26, 189–192 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Paradis, E.

E. Paradis, B. Barrett, A. Kumarakrishnan, R. Zhang, and G. Raithel, “Observation of superfluorescent emissions from laser-cooled atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 043419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Perram, G. P.

C. V. Sulham, G. A. Pitz, and G. P. Perram, “Blue and infrared stimulated emission from alkali vapors pumped through two-photon absorption,” Appl. Phys. B 101, 57–63 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pitz, G. A.

C. V. Sulham, G. A. Pitz, and G. P. Perram, “Blue and infrared stimulated emission from alkali vapors pumped through two-photon absorption,” Appl. Phys. B 101, 57–63 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Popov, A. K.

A. K. Popov, “Upconversion of IR radiation into the visible and UV ranges,” Infrared Phys. 25, 21–27 (1985).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Kiyashko, A. K. Popov, V. P. Timofeev, and G. V. Yurov, “Resonant upconversion of λ=1.06 μm radiation in rubidium vapors,” Appl. Phys. B 30, 157–159 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Raithel, G.

E. Paradis, B. Barrett, A. Kumarakrishnan, R. Zhang, and G. Raithel, “Observation of superfluorescent emissions from laser-cooled atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 043419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Riis, E.

Rostovtsev, Y.

M. O. Scully, Y. Rostovtsev, A. Svidzinsky, and J.-T. Chang, “XUV coherent Raman superradiance,” J. Mod. Opt. 55, 3219–3236(2008).
[CrossRef]

Rostovtsev, Y. V.

G. O. Ariunbold, M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, H. Li, Y. V. Rostovtsev, G. R. Welch, and M. O. Scully, “Observation of picosecond superfluorescent pulses in rubidium vapor pumped by 100-femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043421(2010).
[CrossRef]

Sarkisyan, D.

V. A. Sautenkov, T. S. Varzhapetyan, H. Li, D. Sarkisyan, and M. O. Scully, “Selective reflection of a laser beam from a dilute rubidium vapor,” J. Russ. Laser Res. 31, 270–275 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sautenkov, V. A.

V. A. Sautenkov, T. S. Varzhapetyan, H. Li, D. Sarkisyan, and M. O. Scully, “Selective reflection of a laser beam from a dilute rubidium vapor,” J. Russ. Laser Res. 31, 270–275 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. O. Ariunbold, M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, H. Li, Y. V. Rostovtsev, G. R. Welch, and M. O. Scully, “Observation of picosecond superfluorescent pulses in rubidium vapor pumped by 100-femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043421(2010).
[CrossRef]

Scholten, R. E.

Schröder, G.

F. Haake, J. W. Haus, H. King, G. Schröder, and R. Glauber, “Delay-time statistics of superfluorescent pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 23, 1322–1333 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Scully, M. O.

V. A. Sautenkov, T. S. Varzhapetyan, H. Li, D. Sarkisyan, and M. O. Scully, “Selective reflection of a laser beam from a dilute rubidium vapor,” J. Russ. Laser Res. 31, 270–275 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. O. Ariunbold, M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, H. Li, Y. V. Rostovtsev, G. R. Welch, and M. O. Scully, “Observation of picosecond superfluorescent pulses in rubidium vapor pumped by 100-femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043421(2010).
[CrossRef]

M. O. Scully, Y. Rostovtsev, A. Svidzinsky, and J.-T. Chang, “XUV coherent Raman superradiance,” J. Mod. Opt. 55, 3219–3236(2008).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Zibrov, M. D. Lukin, L. Hollberg, and M. O. Scully, “Efficient frequency up-conversion in resonant coherent media,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 051801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. O. Scully and M. S. Zubairy, Quantum Optics (Cambridge University, 1997).

Sidorov, A. I.

Skribanowitz, N.

N. Skribanowitz, I. P. Herman, J. C. MacGillivray, and M. S. Feld, “Observation of Dicke superradiance in optically pumped HF gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 309–312 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Smeets, B.

Sulham, C. V.

C. V. Sulham, G. A. Pitz, and G. P. Perram, “Blue and infrared stimulated emission from alkali vapors pumped through two-photon absorption,” Appl. Phys. B 101, 57–63 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Svidzinsky, A.

M. O. Scully, Y. Rostovtsev, A. Svidzinsky, and J.-T. Chang, “XUV coherent Raman superradiance,” J. Mod. Opt. 55, 3219–3236(2008).
[CrossRef]

Theodociou, C. E.

C. E. Theodociou, “Lifetimes of alkali-metal-atom Rydberg states,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 2881–2909 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, J. E.

D. J. Heinzen, J. E. Thomas, and M. S. Feld, “Coherent ringing in superfluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 677–680 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Timofeev, V. P.

V. A. Kiyashko, A. K. Popov, V. P. Timofeev, and G. V. Yurov, “Resonant upconversion of λ=1.06 μm radiation in rubidium vapors,” Appl. Phys. B 30, 157–159 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Varzhapetyan, T. S.

V. A. Sautenkov, T. S. Varzhapetyan, H. Li, D. Sarkisyan, and M. O. Scully, “Selective reflection of a laser beam from a dilute rubidium vapor,” J. Russ. Laser Res. 31, 270–275 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vernier, A.

Walz, J.

K. S. E. Eikema, J. Walz, and T. W. Hänsch, “Continuous coherent Lyman-α excitation of atomic hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5679–5682 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. E. Eikema, J. Walz, and T. W. Hänsch, “Continuous wave coherent Lyman-α radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3828–3831 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Welch, G. R.

G. O. Ariunbold, M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, H. Li, Y. V. Rostovtsev, G. R. Welch, and M. O. Scully, “Observation of picosecond superfluorescent pulses in rubidium vapor pumped by 100-femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043421(2010).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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A. S. Zibrov, M. D. Lukin, L. Hollberg, and M. O. Scully, “Efficient frequency up-conversion in resonant coherent media,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 051801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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M. O. Scully and M. S. Zubairy, Quantum Optics (Cambridge University, 1997).

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

G. O. Ariunbold, M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, H. Li, Y. V. Rostovtsev, G. R. Welch, and M. O. Scully, “Observation of picosecond superfluorescent pulses in rubidium vapor pumped by 100-femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043421(2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Paradis, B. Barrett, A. Kumarakrishnan, R. Zhang, and G. Raithel, “Observation of superfluorescent emissions from laser-cooled atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 043419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Zibrov, M. D. Lukin, L. Hollberg, and M. O. Scully, “Efficient frequency up-conversion in resonant coherent media,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 051801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

K. S. E. Eikema, J. Walz, and T. W. Hänsch, “Continuous wave coherent Lyman-α radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3828–3831 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. S. E. Eikema, J. Walz, and T. W. Hänsch, “Continuous coherent Lyman-α excitation of atomic hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5679–5682 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Other

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R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, 2003).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energy-level diagram and excitation scheme. Two red photons at 778 nm drive the transition from 5S to 5D and give the yoked superfluorescence consisting of far infrared light (5D to 6P) at 5 μm and violet light (6P to 5S) at 420 nm . One IR photon at 1485 nm drives the transition from 5D to 12P and gives the ultraviolet light at 308 nm (12P to 5S).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental schematic. OPA, optical parametric amplifier; Red, 778 nm input laser beam; IR, 1485 nm input laser beam; T, translation stage for delaying IR laser pulses; λ / 2 , half-wave plate; BS, beam splitter; M, mirror; L, lens; F, colored glass filter; SC, streak camera; S, spectrometer; Ref, timing reference beam; Rb, rubidium vapor cell.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

UV light signal versus time delay. A positive delay means that the IR input laser pulse entered the cell after the red input laser pulse. The triangles show representative points of an exponential fit to the data beyond the maximum of the curve. A strong UV signal, consisting entirely of light at 308 nm , was produced at a time delay of 1.45 ps (dashed vertical line). This particular time delay was used in all of the measurements presented in this paper.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temporal behavior of UV light for several red input laser powers. The solid curve shows the UV light signal. The IR input laser power was fixed at 1.2 mW . The dotted curve shows the fifth harmonic of the IR input laser pulse. These signals were aligned using the timing reference pulses, which are not shown in these graphs. Note that the rise and maximum of the UV light signal are coincident with the fifth harmonic signal and are independent of the input red laser power.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Temporal behavior of the UV light for several IR input laser powers. The solid curve shows the UV light signal. The red input laser power was fixed at 1.2 mW . The dotted curve shows the fifth harmonic of the IR input laser pulse. These signals were aligned using the timing reference pulses, which are not shown in these graphs. As in Fig. 4, note that the rise and maximum of the UV light signal are coincident with the fifth harmonic signal.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Peak intensities of the 308 nm pulses as functions of input red laser power at IR powers of 5 mW (squares) and 1.2 mW (circles).

Equations (2)

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Ω a c z = i η a c ρ a c Ω a b z = i η a b ρ a b ρ a b t i ( Ω a b ρ b b ( 0 ) + Ω a c ρ c b ( 0 ) ) ρ a c t i ( Ω a c ρ c c ( 0 ) + Ω a b ρ b c ( 0 ) ) ,
Ω a c ( z , t ) ρ b c ( 0 ) η a c J 0 ( 2 λ 1 z t ) - ρ b c ( 0 ) η a b C Ω a b ( z , t ) ρ b b ( 0 ) η a b J 0 ( 2 λ 1 z t ) + ρ c c ( 0 ) η a b C ,

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