Abstract

We present a fully differential measurement on above-threshold ionization of diatomic (CO) and linear triatomic (CO2) molecules in strong femtosecond laser fields (25fs, 795nm) at a laser intensity of 8×1013W/cm2. The photoelectron longitudinal momentum distribution of CO in the laser polarization direction shows a broader distribution near zero momentum in the laser polarization plane with a shoulder around 0.38 a.u., whereas it shows a clear maximum for CO2. The relative photoelectron yields near zero longitudinal momentum are less dependent on the laser intensity. The difference may result from the molecular structure. Even though molecular targets have different binding energy and outer orbitals, the near-threshold photoelectrons have similar angular distribution, and the dominant angular momentum of the near-threshold photoelectron is L=4 (ng Rydberg state) for both targets.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K., “Raman free-free transitions following six-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127–1130 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. V. Keldysh, “Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave,” Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307–1314 (1965).
  3. A. H. Zewail, “Femtochemistry: atomic-scale dynamics of the chemical bond,” J. Phys. Chem. 104, 5660–5694(2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. L’Huillier and Ph. Balcou, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with a 1ps1053nm laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774–777 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. N. Fittinghoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, “Observation of non-sequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642–2645(1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multi-photon ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599–1603 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. S. Tschuch, M. Dürr, A. Rudenko, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, M. Siegel, and U. Morgner, “Towards non-sequential double ionization of Ne and Ar using a femtosecond laser oscillator,” Opt. Express 15, 18103–18110 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y. Liu, Difa Ye, Jie Liu, A. Rudenko, S. Tschuch, M. Dürr, M. Siegel, U. Morgner, Q. Gong, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Multiphoton double ionization of Ar and Ne close to threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 173002 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, C. D. Schröter, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Resonant structures in the low-energy electron continuum for single ionization of atoms in the tunnelling regime,” J. Phys. B 37, L407–L413(2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. M. Maharjan, A. S. Alnaser, I. Litvinyuk, P. Ranitovic, and C. L. Cocke, “Wavelength dependence of momentum-space images of low-energy electrons generated by short intense laser pulses at high intensities,” J. Phys. B 39, 1955–1964 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Liu and Q. Gong, “The long-term evolution of D2+ nuclear wave-packet with interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulse,” Opt. Express 17, 23629–23636 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432, 867–871(2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, A. D. Bandrauk, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Sub-laser-cycle electron pulses for probing molecular dynamics,” Nature 417, 917–922(2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Probing molecular dynamics with attosecond resolution using correlated wave packet pairs,” Nature 421, 826–829 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, “Routes to control of H2 Coulomb explosion in few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, A. Dorn, R. Dörner, L. P. H. Schmidt, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Recoil-ion and electron momentum spectroscopy: reaction-microscopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 1463–1545 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Z. Wu, C. Wu, X. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Deng, and Q. Gong, “Multiple ionization of oxygen studied by coincident measurement,” Opt. Express 18, 10395–10403 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. J. Chen and C. H. Nam, “Ion momentum distributions for He single and double ionization in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 053415 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  22. K. I. Dimitrou, D. G. Arbó, S. Yoshida, E. Persson, and J. Burgdörfer, “Origin of the double-peak structure in the momentum distribution of ionization of hydrogen atoms driven by strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 061401 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Z. J. Chen, T. Morishita, A. Le, M. Wickenhauser, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, “Analysis of two-dimensional photoelectron momentum spectra and the effect of the long-range Coulomb potential in single ionization of atoms by intense lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 053405 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  24. D. G. Arbó, S. Yoshida, E. Persson, K. I. Dimitriou, and J. Burgdörfer, “Interference oscillations in the angular distribution of laser-ionized electrons near ionization threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 143003 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. F. H. M. Faisal and G. Schlegel, “Signatures of photon effect in the tunnel regime,” J. Phys. B 38, L223–L231 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  26. R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, H. Milchberg, S. Darack, D. Schumacher, and M. E. Geusic, “Above-threshold ionization with subpicosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1092–1095 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

Y. Liu, Difa Ye, Jie Liu, A. Rudenko, S. Tschuch, M. Dürr, M. Siegel, U. Morgner, Q. Gong, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Multiphoton double ionization of Ar and Ne close to threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 173002 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wu, C. Wu, X. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Deng, and Q. Gong, “Multiple ionization of oxygen studied by coincident measurement,” Opt. Express 18, 10395–10403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2007

2006

Z. J. Chen, T. Morishita, A. Le, M. Wickenhauser, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, “Analysis of two-dimensional photoelectron momentum spectra and the effect of the long-range Coulomb potential in single ionization of atoms by intense lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 053405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Arbó, S. Yoshida, E. Persson, K. I. Dimitriou, and J. Burgdörfer, “Interference oscillations in the angular distribution of laser-ionized electrons near ionization threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 143003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Maharjan, A. S. Alnaser, I. Litvinyuk, P. Ranitovic, and C. L. Cocke, “Wavelength dependence of momentum-space images of low-energy electrons generated by short intense laser pulses at high intensities,” J. Phys. B 39, 1955–1964 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

F. H. M. Faisal and G. Schlegel, “Signatures of photon effect in the tunnel regime,” J. Phys. B 38, L223–L231 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432, 867–871(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, “Routes to control of H2 Coulomb explosion in few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. I. Dimitrou, D. G. Arbó, S. Yoshida, E. Persson, and J. Burgdörfer, “Origin of the double-peak structure in the momentum distribution of ionization of hydrogen atoms driven by strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 061401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, C. D. Schröter, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Resonant structures in the low-energy electron continuum for single ionization of atoms in the tunnelling regime,” J. Phys. B 37, L407–L413(2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Probing molecular dynamics with attosecond resolution using correlated wave packet pairs,” Nature 421, 826–829 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, A. Dorn, R. Dörner, L. P. H. Schmidt, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Recoil-ion and electron momentum spectroscopy: reaction-microscopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 1463–1545 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, A. D. Bandrauk, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Sub-laser-cycle electron pulses for probing molecular dynamics,” Nature 417, 917–922(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chen and C. H. Nam, “Ion momentum distributions for He single and double ionization in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 053415 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Zewail, “Femtochemistry: atomic-scale dynamics of the chemical bond,” J. Phys. Chem. 104, 5660–5694(2000).
[CrossRef]

1994

G. G. Paulus, W. Becker, W. Nicklich, and H. Walther, “Rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization: a classical model,” J. Phys. B 27, L703–L708 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

A. L’Huillier and Ph. Balcou, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with a 1ps1053nm laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774–777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multi-photon ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599–1603 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

D. N. Fittinghoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, “Observation of non-sequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642–2645(1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, H. Milchberg, S. Darack, D. Schumacher, and M. E. Geusic, “Above-threshold ionization with subpicosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1092–1095 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K., “Raman free-free transitions following six-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127–1130 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1965

L. V. Keldysh, “Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave,” Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307–1314 (1965).

Agostini, P.

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K., “Raman free-free transitions following six-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127–1130 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Alnaser, A. S.

C. M. Maharjan, A. S. Alnaser, I. Litvinyuk, P. Ranitovic, and C. L. Cocke, “Wavelength dependence of momentum-space images of low-energy electrons generated by short intense laser pulses at high intensities,” J. Phys. B 39, 1955–1964 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, “Routes to control of H2 Coulomb explosion in few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arbó, D. G.

D. G. Arbó, S. Yoshida, E. Persson, K. I. Dimitriou, and J. Burgdörfer, “Interference oscillations in the angular distribution of laser-ionized electrons near ionization threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 143003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. I. Dimitrou, D. G. Arbó, S. Yoshida, E. Persson, and J. Burgdörfer, “Origin of the double-peak structure in the momentum distribution of ionization of hydrogen atoms driven by strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 061401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Balcou, Ph.

A. L’Huillier and Ph. Balcou, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with a 1ps1053nm laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774–777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bandrauk, A. D.

H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, A. D. Bandrauk, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Sub-laser-cycle electron pulses for probing molecular dynamics,” Nature 417, 917–922(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, W.

G. G. Paulus, W. Becker, W. Nicklich, and H. Walther, “Rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization: a classical model,” J. Phys. B 27, L703–L708 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bolton, P. R.

D. N. Fittinghoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, “Observation of non-sequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642–2645(1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bucksbaum, P. H.

R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, H. Milchberg, S. Darack, D. Schumacher, and M. E. Geusic, “Above-threshold ionization with subpicosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1092–1095 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burgdörfer, J.

D. G. Arbó, S. Yoshida, E. Persson, K. I. Dimitriou, and J. Burgdörfer, “Interference oscillations in the angular distribution of laser-ionized electrons near ionization threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 143003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. I. Dimitrou, D. G. Arbó, S. Yoshida, E. Persson, and J. Burgdörfer, “Origin of the double-peak structure in the momentum distribution of ionization of hydrogen atoms driven by strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 061401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, B.

D. N. Fittinghoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, “Observation of non-sequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642–2645(1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, Z.

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, “Routes to control of H2 Coulomb explosion in few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

J. Chen and C. H. Nam, “Ion momentum distributions for He single and double ionization in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 053415 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z. J.

Z. J. Chen, T. Morishita, A. Le, M. Wickenhauser, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, “Analysis of two-dimensional photoelectron momentum spectra and the effect of the long-range Coulomb potential in single ionization of atoms by intense lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 053405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cocke, C. L.

C. M. Maharjan, A. S. Alnaser, I. Litvinyuk, P. Ranitovic, and C. L. Cocke, “Wavelength dependence of momentum-space images of low-energy electrons generated by short intense laser pulses at high intensities,” J. Phys. B 39, 1955–1964 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, “Routes to control of H2 Coulomb explosion in few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432, 867–871(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Probing molecular dynamics with attosecond resolution using correlated wave packet pairs,” Nature 421, 826–829 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, A. D. Bandrauk, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Sub-laser-cycle electron pulses for probing molecular dynamics,” Nature 417, 917–922(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multi-photon ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Darack, S.

R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, H. Milchberg, S. Darack, D. Schumacher, and M. E. Geusic, “Above-threshold ionization with subpicosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1092–1095 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Jesus, V. L. B.

A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, C. D. Schröter, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Resonant structures in the low-energy electron continuum for single ionization of atoms in the tunnelling regime,” J. Phys. B 37, L407–L413(2004).
[CrossRef]

Deng, Y.

DiMauro, L. F.

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599–1603 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dimitriou, K. I.

D. G. Arbó, S. Yoshida, E. Persson, K. I. Dimitriou, and J. Burgdörfer, “Interference oscillations in the angular distribution of laser-ionized electrons near ionization threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 143003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dimitrou, K. I.

K. I. Dimitrou, D. G. Arbó, S. Yoshida, E. Persson, and J. Burgdörfer, “Origin of the double-peak structure in the momentum distribution of ionization of hydrogen atoms driven by strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 061401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dorn, A.

J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, A. Dorn, R. Dörner, L. P. H. Schmidt, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Recoil-ion and electron momentum spectroscopy: reaction-microscopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 1463–1545 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dörner, R.

J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, A. Dorn, R. Dörner, L. P. H. Schmidt, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Recoil-ion and electron momentum spectroscopy: reaction-microscopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 1463–1545 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dürr, M.

Y. Liu, Difa Ye, Jie Liu, A. Rudenko, S. Tschuch, M. Dürr, M. Siegel, U. Morgner, Q. Gong, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Multiphoton double ionization of Ar and Ne close to threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 173002 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Tschuch, M. Dürr, A. Rudenko, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, M. Siegel, and U. Morgner, “Towards non-sequential double ionization of Ne and Ar using a femtosecond laser oscillator,” Opt. Express 15, 18103–18110 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fabre, F.

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K., “Raman free-free transitions following six-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127–1130 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Faisal, F. H. M.

F. H. M. Faisal and G. Schlegel, “Signatures of photon effect in the tunnel regime,” J. Phys. B 38, L223–L231 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feuerstein, B.

A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, C. D. Schröter, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Resonant structures in the low-energy electron continuum for single ionization of atoms in the tunnelling regime,” J. Phys. B 37, L407–L413(2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fittinghoff, D. N.

D. N. Fittinghoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, “Observation of non-sequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642–2645(1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freeman, R. R.

R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, H. Milchberg, S. Darack, D. Schumacher, and M. E. Geusic, “Above-threshold ionization with subpicosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1092–1095 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geusic, M. E.

R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, H. Milchberg, S. Darack, D. Schumacher, and M. E. Geusic, “Above-threshold ionization with subpicosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1092–1095 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gong, Q.

Hasbani, R.

H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Probing molecular dynamics with attosecond resolution using correlated wave packet pairs,” Nature 421, 826–829 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, A. D. Bandrauk, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Sub-laser-cycle electron pulses for probing molecular dynamics,” Nature 417, 917–922(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffmann, K.

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itatani, J.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432, 867–871(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ivanov, M. Y.

H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Probing molecular dynamics with attosecond resolution using correlated wave packet pairs,” Nature 421, 826–829 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, A. D. Bandrauk, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Sub-laser-cycle electron pulses for probing molecular dynamics,” Nature 417, 917–922(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K., N.

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K., “Raman free-free transitions following six-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127–1130 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Keldysh, L. V.

L. V. Keldysh, “Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave,” Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307–1314 (1965).

Kieffer, J. C.

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Z. J. Chen, T. Morishita, A. Le, M. Wickenhauser, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, “Analysis of two-dimensional photoelectron momentum spectra and the effect of the long-range Coulomb potential in single ionization of atoms by intense lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 053405 (2006).
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Liu, Y.

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C. M. Maharjan, A. S. Alnaser, I. Litvinyuk, P. Ranitovic, and C. L. Cocke, “Wavelength dependence of momentum-space images of low-energy electrons generated by short intense laser pulses at high intensities,” J. Phys. B 39, 1955–1964 (2006).
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Y. Liu, Difa Ye, Jie Liu, A. Rudenko, S. Tschuch, M. Dürr, M. Siegel, U. Morgner, Q. Gong, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Multiphoton double ionization of Ar and Ne close to threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 173002 (2010).
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Y. S. Tschuch, M. Dürr, A. Rudenko, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, M. Siegel, and U. Morgner, “Towards non-sequential double ionization of Ne and Ar using a femtosecond laser oscillator,” Opt. Express 15, 18103–18110 (2007).
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Z. J. Chen, T. Morishita, A. Le, M. Wickenhauser, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, “Analysis of two-dimensional photoelectron momentum spectra and the effect of the long-range Coulomb potential in single ionization of atoms by intense lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 053405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moshammer, R.

Y. Liu, Difa Ye, Jie Liu, A. Rudenko, S. Tschuch, M. Dürr, M. Siegel, U. Morgner, Q. Gong, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Multiphoton double ionization of Ar and Ne close to threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 173002 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Tschuch, M. Dürr, A. Rudenko, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, M. Siegel, and U. Morgner, “Towards non-sequential double ionization of Ne and Ar using a femtosecond laser oscillator,” Opt. Express 15, 18103–18110 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, C. D. Schröter, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Resonant structures in the low-energy electron continuum for single ionization of atoms in the tunnelling regime,” J. Phys. B 37, L407–L413(2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, A. Dorn, R. Dörner, L. P. H. Schmidt, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Recoil-ion and electron momentum spectroscopy: reaction-microscopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 1463–1545 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
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J. Chen and C. H. Nam, “Ion momentum distributions for He single and double ionization in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 053415 (2002).
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G. G. Paulus, W. Becker, W. Nicklich, and H. Walther, “Rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization: a classical model,” J. Phys. B 27, L703–L708 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432, 867–871(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Probing molecular dynamics with attosecond resolution using correlated wave packet pairs,” Nature 421, 826–829 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, A. D. Bandrauk, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Sub-laser-cycle electron pulses for probing molecular dynamics,” Nature 417, 917–922(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osipov, T.

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, “Routes to control of H2 Coulomb explosion in few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulus, G. G.

G. G. Paulus, W. Becker, W. Nicklich, and H. Walther, “Rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization: a classical model,” J. Phys. B 27, L703–L708 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pépin, H.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432, 867–871(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Persson, E.

D. G. Arbó, S. Yoshida, E. Persson, K. I. Dimitriou, and J. Burgdörfer, “Interference oscillations in the angular distribution of laser-ionized electrons near ionization threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 143003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. I. Dimitrou, D. G. Arbó, S. Yoshida, E. Persson, and J. Burgdörfer, “Origin of the double-peak structure in the momentum distribution of ionization of hydrogen atoms driven by strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 061401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Petite, G.

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K., “Raman free-free transitions following six-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127–1130 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ranitovic, P.

C. M. Maharjan, A. S. Alnaser, I. Litvinyuk, P. Ranitovic, and C. L. Cocke, “Wavelength dependence of momentum-space images of low-energy electrons generated by short intense laser pulses at high intensities,” J. Phys. B 39, 1955–1964 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, “Routes to control of H2 Coulomb explosion in few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rottke, H.

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rudenko, A.

Y. Liu, Difa Ye, Jie Liu, A. Rudenko, S. Tschuch, M. Dürr, M. Siegel, U. Morgner, Q. Gong, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Multiphoton double ionization of Ar and Ne close to threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 173002 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Tschuch, M. Dürr, A. Rudenko, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, M. Siegel, and U. Morgner, “Towards non-sequential double ionization of Ne and Ar using a femtosecond laser oscillator,” Opt. Express 15, 18103–18110 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, C. D. Schröter, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Resonant structures in the low-energy electron continuum for single ionization of atoms in the tunnelling regime,” J. Phys. B 37, L407–L413(2004).
[CrossRef]

Sandner, W.

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schafer, K. J.

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599–1603 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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F. H. M. Faisal and G. Schlegel, “Signatures of photon effect in the tunnel regime,” J. Phys. B 38, L223–L231 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, A. Dorn, R. Dörner, L. P. H. Schmidt, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Recoil-ion and electron momentum spectroscopy: reaction-microscopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 1463–1545 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt-Böcking, H.

J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, A. Dorn, R. Dörner, L. P. H. Schmidt, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Recoil-ion and electron momentum spectroscopy: reaction-microscopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 1463–1545 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, W.

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schröter, C. D.

A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, C. D. Schröter, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Resonant structures in the low-energy electron continuum for single ionization of atoms in the tunnelling regime,” J. Phys. B 37, L407–L413(2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schumacher, D.

R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, H. Milchberg, S. Darack, D. Schumacher, and M. E. Geusic, “Above-threshold ionization with subpicosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1092–1095 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shan, B.

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, “Routes to control of H2 Coulomb explosion in few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegel, M.

Y. Liu, Difa Ye, Jie Liu, A. Rudenko, S. Tschuch, M. Dürr, M. Siegel, U. Morgner, Q. Gong, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Multiphoton double ionization of Ar and Ne close to threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 173002 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Tschuch, M. Dürr, A. Rudenko, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, M. Siegel, and U. Morgner, “Towards non-sequential double ionization of Ne and Ar using a femtosecond laser oscillator,” Opt. Express 15, 18103–18110 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tong, X. M.

Z. J. Chen, T. Morishita, A. Le, M. Wickenhauser, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, “Analysis of two-dimensional photoelectron momentum spectra and the effect of the long-range Coulomb potential in single ionization of atoms by intense lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 053405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, “Routes to control of H2 Coulomb explosion in few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trump, C.

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tschuch, S.

Y. Liu, Difa Ye, Jie Liu, A. Rudenko, S. Tschuch, M. Dürr, M. Siegel, U. Morgner, Q. Gong, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Multiphoton double ionization of Ar and Ne close to threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 173002 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tschuch, Y. S.

Ullrich, J.

Y. Liu, Difa Ye, Jie Liu, A. Rudenko, S. Tschuch, M. Dürr, M. Siegel, U. Morgner, Q. Gong, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Multiphoton double ionization of Ar and Ne close to threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 173002 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Tschuch, M. Dürr, A. Rudenko, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, M. Siegel, and U. Morgner, “Towards non-sequential double ionization of Ne and Ar using a femtosecond laser oscillator,” Opt. Express 15, 18103–18110 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, C. D. Schröter, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Resonant structures in the low-energy electron continuum for single ionization of atoms in the tunnelling regime,” J. Phys. B 37, L407–L413(2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, A. Dorn, R. Dörner, L. P. H. Schmidt, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Recoil-ion and electron momentum spectroscopy: reaction-microscopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 1463–1545 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ulrich, B.

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, “Routes to control of H2 Coulomb explosion in few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, D. M.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432, 867–871(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Probing molecular dynamics with attosecond resolution using correlated wave packet pairs,” Nature 421, 826–829 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, A. D. Bandrauk, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Sub-laser-cycle electron pulses for probing molecular dynamics,” Nature 417, 917–922(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voss, S.

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, “Routes to control of H2 Coulomb explosion in few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walther, H.

G. G. Paulus, W. Becker, W. Nicklich, and H. Walther, “Rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization: a classical model,” J. Phys. B 27, L703–L708 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wickenhauser, M.

Z. J. Chen, T. Morishita, A. Le, M. Wickenhauser, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, “Analysis of two-dimensional photoelectron momentum spectra and the effect of the long-range Coulomb potential in single ionization of atoms by intense lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 053405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wittmann, M.

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, C.

Wu, Z.

Yang, B.

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599–1603 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, Difa

Y. Liu, Difa Ye, Jie Liu, A. Rudenko, S. Tschuch, M. Dürr, M. Siegel, U. Morgner, Q. Gong, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Multiphoton double ionization of Ar and Ne close to threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 173002 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshida, S.

D. G. Arbó, S. Yoshida, E. Persson, K. I. Dimitriou, and J. Burgdörfer, “Interference oscillations in the angular distribution of laser-ionized electrons near ionization threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 143003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. I. Dimitrou, D. G. Arbó, S. Yoshida, E. Persson, and J. Burgdörfer, “Origin of the double-peak structure in the momentum distribution of ionization of hydrogen atoms driven by strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 061401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zeidler, D.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432, 867–871(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zewail, A. H.

A. H. Zewail, “Femtochemistry: atomic-scale dynamics of the chemical bond,” J. Phys. Chem. 104, 5660–5694(2000).
[CrossRef]

Zrost, K.

A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, C. D. Schröter, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Resonant structures in the low-energy electron continuum for single ionization of atoms in the tunnelling regime,” J. Phys. B 37, L407–L413(2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B

A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, C. D. Schröter, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Resonant structures in the low-energy electron continuum for single ionization of atoms in the tunnelling regime,” J. Phys. B 37, L407–L413(2004).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Maharjan, A. S. Alnaser, I. Litvinyuk, P. Ranitovic, and C. L. Cocke, “Wavelength dependence of momentum-space images of low-energy electrons generated by short intense laser pulses at high intensities,” J. Phys. B 39, 1955–1964 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, W. Becker, W. Nicklich, and H. Walther, “Rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization: a classical model,” J. Phys. B 27, L703–L708 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. H. M. Faisal and G. Schlegel, “Signatures of photon effect in the tunnel regime,” J. Phys. B 38, L223–L231 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem.

A. H. Zewail, “Femtochemistry: atomic-scale dynamics of the chemical bond,” J. Phys. Chem. 104, 5660–5694(2000).
[CrossRef]

Nature

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432, 867–871(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, A. D. Bandrauk, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Sub-laser-cycle electron pulses for probing molecular dynamics,” Nature 417, 917–922(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Probing molecular dynamics with attosecond resolution using correlated wave packet pairs,” Nature 421, 826–829 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. A

J. Chen and C. H. Nam, “Ion momentum distributions for He single and double ionization in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 053415 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. I. Dimitrou, D. G. Arbó, S. Yoshida, E. Persson, and J. Burgdörfer, “Origin of the double-peak structure in the momentum distribution of ionization of hydrogen atoms driven by strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 061401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. J. Chen, T. Morishita, A. Le, M. Wickenhauser, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, “Analysis of two-dimensional photoelectron momentum spectra and the effect of the long-range Coulomb potential in single ionization of atoms by intense lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 053405 (2006).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Longitudinal momentum distributions of the photoelectron at the intensity of 8 × 10 13 W / cm 2 . The arrows indicate the position of the “shoulder.”

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Two-dimensional momentum distributions of the photoelectron at the intensity of 8 × 10 13 W / cm 2 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Angular distribution of the zero-order ATI of CO and CO 2 .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Angle-integrated photoelectron energy distributions at the intensity of 8 × 10 13 W / cm 2 . Insets, energy distributions in logarithmic scale. Arrows indicate the position of 2 U p .

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